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African civilizations before Colonialism

Printed From: History Community ~ All Empires
Category: General History
Forum Name: General World History
Forum Discription: All aspects of world history, especially topics that span across many regions or periods
URL: http://www.allempires.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=36418
Printed Date: 23-Oct-2017 at 07:23
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Topic: African civilizations before Colonialism
Posted By: Dino
Subject: African civilizations before Colonialism
Date Posted: 10-Jun-2016 at 08:08
Different civilizations will be listed throughout this thread.

The maps below show the civilizations that arose in Sub Saharan Africa after the migration of Africans from the Nile Valley in Kemet and Nubia during the 6th century B.C.E. as a result of the Persian invasion and the subsequent World War along the Mediterranean that followed. http://egyptsearchreloaded.proboards.com/thread/1547/valley-origins-dispersal-niger-speakers - More information  on the topic of Kemet and Nubia. 









Benin another African city that made Europeans "explorers" (they pretended to be our friends at the time) jealous.



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The exact same http://cache3.asset-cache.net/gc/a0120-000003-woman-wearing-neck-rings-gettyimages.jpg?v=1&c=IWSAsset&k=2&d=u%2BD8YzP612zSYYdCO8CnCGsw3fcOS3X2315nu%2Feg1wZmq4cGPr3gHv4maQLNFazR - neck rings ornaments found in southeast Asia. This is further proof that our people were never geographically limited to Sub Saharan Africa. 

The Sekrehs ( http://oi58.tinypic.com/1z3oylt.jpg - bird and serpent crown ) shown on the top of this ancient Benin roof indicated royalty. This was a sacred symbol that goes back to the history along the Nile Valley (Nubia and Kemet) prior to our migration into Sub Saharan Africa. See example of




This is the story of a lost medieval city you’ve probably never heard about. Benin City, originally known as Edo, was once the capital of a pre-colonial African empire located in what is now southern Nigeria. The Benin empire was one of the oldest and most highly developed states in west Africa, dating back to the 11th century. The Guinness Book of Records (1974 edition) described the walls of Benin City and its surrounding kingdom as the world’s largest earthworks carried out prior to the mechanical era. According to estimates by the New Scientist’s Fred Pearce, Benin City’s walls were at one point “four times longer than the Great Wall of China, and consumed a hundred times more material than the Great Pyramid of Cheops”. Situated on a plain, Benin City was enclosed by massive walls in the south and deep ditches in the north. Beyond the city walls, numerous further walls were erected that separated the surroundings of the capital into around 500 distinct villages. Pearce writes that these walls “extended for some 16,000 km in all, in a mosaic of more than 500 interconnected settlement boundaries. They covered 6,500 sq km and were all dug by the Edo people They took an estimated 150 million hours of digging to construct, and are perhaps the largest single archaeological phenomenon on the planet”. Barely any trace of these walls exist today.



"Benin City was also one of the first cities to have a semblance of street lighting...In 1691, the Portuguese ship captain Lourenco Pinto observed: “Great Benin, where the king resides, is larger than Lisbon; all the streets run straight and as far as the eye can see. The houses are large, especially that of the king, which is richly decorated and has fine columns. The city is wealthy and industrious. It is so well governed that theft is unknown and the people live in such security that they have no doors to their houses.”

In contrast, London at the same time is described by Bruce Holsinger, professor of English at the University of Virginia, as being a city of “thievery, prostitution, murder, bribery and a thriving black market made the medieval city ripe for exploitation by those with a skill for the quick blade or picking a pocket”.....

African Fractals

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Benin City’s planning and design was done according to careful rules of symmetry, proportionality and repetition now known as fractal design. The mathematician Ron Eglash, author of African Fractals – which examines the patterns underpinning architecture, art and design in many parts of Africa – were purposely laid out to form perfect fractals, with similar shapes repeated in the rooms of each house, and the house itself, and the clusters of houses in the village in mathematically predictable patterns. Westerners did not understand the mathematics significance of fractals until the 1970's.



As he puts it: “When Europeans first came to Africa, they considered the architecture very disorganised and thus primitive. It never occurred to them that the Africans might have been using a form of mathematics that they hadn’t even discovered yet."

At the centre of the city stood the king’s court, from which extended 30 very straight, broad streets, each about 120-ft wide. These main streets, which ran at right angles to each other, had underground drainage made of a sunken impluvium with an outlet to carry away storm water. Many narrower side and intersecting streets extended off them. In the middle of the streets were turf on which animals fed. “Houses are built alongside the streets in good order, the one close to the other,” writes the 17th-century Dutch visitor Olfert Dapper.

Dapper adds that wealthy residents kept these walls “as shiny and smooth by washing and rubbing as any wall in Holland can be made with chalk, and they are like mirrors. The upper storeys are made of the same sort of clay. Moreover, every house is provided with a well for the supply of fresh water”.

"A series of walls marked the incremental growth of the sacred city from 850 AD until its decline in the 16th century...Connah estimated that its construction, if spread out over five dry seasons, would have required a workforce of 1,000 laborers working ten hours a day seven days a week. Ewuare also added great thoroughfares and erected nine fortified gateways.

Excavations also uncovered a rural network of earthen walls 4 to 8 thousand miles long that would have taken an estimated 150 million man hours to build and must have taken hundreds of years to build




What impressed the first visiting Europeans most was the wealth, artistic beauty and magnificence of the city. Immediately European nations saw the opportunity to develop trade with the wealthy kingdom, importing ivory, palm oil and pepper – and exporting guns. At the beginning of the 16th century, word quickly spread around Europe about the beautiful African city, and new visitors flocked in from all parts of Europe, with ever glowing testimonies, recorded in numerous voyage notes and illustrations.





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