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Uyghurs in Central Asian Steppe

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JiNanRen View Drop Down
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  Quote JiNanRen Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Uyghurs in Central Asian Steppe
    Posted: 01-Sep-2005 at 23:31
I was under the impression that the IEs aka tocharians far outnumbered the Turks or proto-uyghurs before the migration.


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  Quote barbar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Sep-2005 at 00:02

 Friend YELKEN:

Uyghur means Uy-Oghur. 

Uy=Alliance, unite, come together to follow.

Oghur=Oghuz-- White path (right path), the people who are on the right path.  

Oghurs had ten tribes.

Hungarians were called Onoghur, Why? It's common belief they are the decendents of Huns (not all of them of course).

Bulghars had two tribes due to the two sons, Utigur and Qutighur.

Ut=win (In Uyghur)

Qut=luck, happiness (In Uyghur)

You can get the clue about who we are.

Uyghurs are the Oghur people come together and followed the Great Han and helped him to get the power, according to the Oghuzhan legend). Oghuzhan is considered to be one of the great Hun empire rulers. 

 

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  Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Sep-2005 at 03:15

Barbar,

Thank you very much for your analysis in detail. We have some opinions in commen, and some in conflict. I hope the attendences here can help me to find a satisfying answer, that's why I posted this thread here. You may know more about this history than me. I'm sorry if some of my words have hurt you. I didn't aim at, I was just going to know more about in this field.

 

Originally posted by barbar

Originally posted by YELKEN

 If they were Uyghurs, like the modern Uyghurs now, why did they clain themselves as Turks after their big  move to  Central Asia from Mongolian Steppe? Why did Mahmoud Kashigari claim themselves as Trks, not Uyghurs? It's certain that, he wrote about a country which was named Uyghur in his book 'Divanu Loghatit Trk? and it was close to Trk's border.
 
The language that Mahmod Kashigari wrote his book is "Haqaniye Turk Tili", scholarly proved to be Uyghur as the texts in Turpan. Why did he avoided calling themselves Uyghur? After converting to Islam, the Buddist Uyghurs in the east become the biggest enemy of Qarahanid. Uyghur equalled "Kafir", "Buddist", that's why after the People from Kucha and Turpan to Jimsar discarded the term Uyghur after they converted to Islam, too. They simply called themselves Musulman, or Turpanliq, Qeshqerliq etc.
 
 
 

You have explanied your own idea about the name of Uyghur above. Then how do you think about the appearing of the name of Uzbek? How did the Uzbeks and Uyghurs become speprate nations from one root? The Uzbeks definitely have a same origion with Uyghurs. I'd like to hear your viewpoints on this.

 

 

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  Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Sep-2005 at 03:18

Jinanren,

Are you glad because barbar talked the move of the Uyghur into Tarim basin? You all Chinese have a very strong passion to claim the Eastern Turkistan as your terriotry from very early history, even before the ear of human being. Do you think so? Of course you do! You Chinese historians never rely on historical documents, but on your emotion, on your policy...

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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Sep-2005 at 03:49
Dear Yelken,
   Hi there. How's it going? I just read your post telling us:'How did the Uzbeks and Uyghurs become speprate nations from one root'. Well, Uzbeks are a mixture of Turkic and Mongolian tribes unified under the name of their Mongol leader Ozbek Qan while Uyghurs are one of the oldest and, in my opinion, the most civilized tribe of Turkic nation as you pass through the history. That's about it for the time being. Take good care and take it easy.


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Iltirish
Sajaja bramani totari ta, raitata raitata, radu ridu raitata, rota.
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  Quote JiNanRen Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Sep-2005 at 08:51
Originally posted by YELKEN

Jinanren,

Are you glad because barbar talked the move of the Uyghur into Tarim basin? You all Chinese have a very strong passion to claim the Eastern Turkistan as your terriotry from very early history, even before the ear of human being. Do you think so? Of course you do! You Chinese historians never rely on historical documents, but on your emotion, on your policy...

 

I don't rely on emotion when i talk about E. Turkestan, nor do i support the occupation or E. Turkestan.  I just want to learn more about the Ancient Uyghurs and their relationship with Tocharians, Chinese, etc.etc. i did not even intend on bringing up politics. 

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  Quote JiNanRen Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Sep-2005 at 08:53
the true history of E. Turkestan is clouded by Pan-turanist and Chinese nationalist propaganda.  I just want learn more about history that is not biased.
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  Quote AydoluAtsiz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Sep-2005 at 10:31

Although the topic is about uygurs here is an article i know of about the origins of uzbeks since Yelken asked. i hope it helps.

Z. V. Togan: The Origins of the Kazaks and the zbeks

by

H. B. Paksoy


[First published in
Central Asian Survey Vol. 11, No. 3. 1992]

[Reprinted in
H. B. Paksoy, Ed. CENTRAL ASIA READER: The Rediscovery of
History (New York/London: M. E. Sharpe, 1994) 201 Pp. +
Index. ISBN 1-56324-201-X (Hardcover); ISBN 1-56324-
202-8 (pbk.) LC CIP DK857.C45 1993 958-dc20]



Editor's Introduction

A professor of history for over half a century, Zeki Velidi
Togan (1890-1970), a Bashkurt Turk, studied and taught in
institutions of higher learning on three continents, including
the United States.1 His first book, Trk ve Tatar Tarihi (Turk
and Tatar History), was published in Kazan in 1911. The renowned
scholars N. Ashmarin and N. Katanov (1862-1922),2 both of Kazan
University, and V.V. Bartold (1869-1930) of St. Petersburg
University, invited Togan to study with them.
In 1913, Togan was asked by the Archeology and Ethnography
Society of Kazan University to undertake a research trip to
Turkistan. After successful completion of that endeavor, the
Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences,3 jointly with International
Central Asia Research Society, sponsored Togan for a more
extensive expedition. Portions of Togan's findings began to be
published in scholarly journals prior to the First World War. His
lifetime output approaches four hundred individual items in at
least five languages. He also had facility in several others.
Like the Ukrainian scholar Mikhail Hrushevsky (1866-1934) and
the Czech Thomas Masaryk (1850-1937), Togan was not only a
scholar devoted to writing about the history of his nation, but
also worked to secure its intellectual, cultural, civil, and
political independence. He became a leader of the Turkistan
National Liberation Movement in Central Asia (1916-1930s), called
the Basmachi Movement by the Russians. A revealing anecdote is
offered by A. Inan, a close colleague of Togan both as a
historian and as a leading member of the Turkistan National
Liberation movement. The event takes place in June 1922 in the
vicinity of Samarkand:

When a Bolshevik military unit, detailed to liquidate us, opened
fire, we took refuge in a nearby cemetery. As we began defending
ourselves, I noticed that Togan had taken out his ever-present
notebook and was busily scribbling. The circumstances were so
critical that some of those among our ranks even thought that he
was hurriedly recording his last will and testament. He kept
writing, seemingly oblivious to the flying bullets aimed at him,
and the accompanying sounds of war. I shouted at him from behind
the tombstone that was protecting me, and asked why he was not
fighting. Without looking up, continuing to write, he shouted
back: ``You continue firing. The inscriptions on these headstones
are very interesting.''4

Togan's investigation of the origin of the Kazaks and the zbeks
is adapted from his Trkili Trkistan, a project he worked on
during the 1920s, a period when he was establishing extensive
contacts with the Central Asian population from Ferghana to the
shores of the Caspian on behalf of the Turkistan national
liberation movement. After he left Central Asia, and earned his
doctorate in Europe, he continued his research using published
sources. Though completed in 1928, the work was not published
until 1947, in Istanbul.
Togan's analysis and documentation in the excerpt printed here
may contribute to the clarification of the issues involved in
efforts to rediscover the ``ethnogenesis'' of the ``Uzbeks,''
``Kazakhs,''5 and other Central Asians. It should be recalled
that these designations are primarily geographical, tribal, or
confederation names, not ethnonyms. Often they were taken from
geographic reference points by travelers and then were mistakenly
or deliberately turned into ethnic or political classifications.
Early in the eighth century, Central Asians themselves provided
an account of their identity, history, and political order.6
Later efforts to identify and disseminate information concerning
the genealogy of Central Asians can be traced to a wave of native
Central Asian leadership that was suppressed in the Stalinist
liquidations. Examples from the period survive in abundance, in
Central Asian dialects, published in three alphabets in various
Central Asian cities.

Notes

1. In addition to Togan's Hatiralar (Memoirs) (Istanbul, 1969),
this account makes use of bibliographic material appearing in
Fen-Edebiyat Fakltesi Arastirma Dergisi, Atatrk niversitesi,
Erzurum (Sayi 13, 1985) and information provided by Togan's
colleagues, students, and family friends.

2. Despite their names, neither was Russian, but both had been
baptized. Togan calls Katanov a Sagay-Turk from the Altai region,
and Ashmarin a Chuvash-Turk.

3. For a description of the formation of the Academy, see R.N.
Frye, ``Oriental Studies in Russia,'' in Russia and Asia: Essays
on the Influence of Russia on the Asian Peoples, ed. Wayne
Vucinich (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972).

4. Over the years I have been told of this incident
independently by several students and friends of both Inan and
Togan. Later in life it seems to have occasioned numerous droll
exchanges between Inan and Togan; every time Inan mentioned the
incident, Togan relished recounting the story of Inan's having
been ``wounded'' in the same battle. The two men endured arduous
times together, both in Asia and Europe, and later in their
careers became colleagues at Istanbul University, where,
reportedly, each sent his students to the seminars of the other.
On one occasion toward the end of their lives, when Inan became
seriously ill, Togan asked his doctoral students to visit Inan at
the hospital and read him passages from Togan's Hatiralar (which
was still in manuscript), especially the portion about ``Inan's
wounding.'' Indeed, Togan records the fighting in his memoirs,
including Inan's ``wounding,'' but not his own ``note-taking.''
He simply states that he ``read the headstones written in the
Kufi script'' (Hatiralar, p. 414). Togan identifies the location
of the cemetery as Qala-i Ziyaeddin.

5. Note that Togan and other historians spell these words zbek
and Kazak, respectively. ``zbek'' is the only form encountered
in the material published in Tashkent during the 1928-39 period,
when a subset of the Latin alphabet was used. The term
``Cossack'' (Russian: Kazak), incidentally, is a corruption of
``Kazak'' (Russian: Kazakh), though there is little, if any,
ethnic relation between them. Similarly, the term ``Tatar,'' as
found in the Kltigin (of the Orkhon group) stelea of the eighth
century A.D., is a correct rendition. During the Mongol
irruption of the thirteenth century, Western authors inaccurately
used ``Tartarus'' (which actually refers to ``the infernal
regions of Roman and Greek mythology,'' hence, hell), yielding
the form ``Tartar.'' By that time ``Tartarus'' had already been
assimilated into Christian theology in Europe. Possibly St. Louis
of France was the first, in 1270, to apply this unrelated term
and spelling to the Chinggisid troops of Jochi.

6. These were recorded on scores of stelea, written in their
unique alphabet and language, and erected in the region of
Orkhon-Yenisey. See Talat Tekin, A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic.
Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, vol. 69
(Bloomington/The Hague: Mouton, 1968) (contents dating from the
eighth century).

THE ORIGINS OF THE KAZAKS AND THE ZBEKS

The Concepts of Tatar, Kipchak, Togmak, and zbek

Tatar, Kipchak, Togmak, and zbeks: The nomadic populace of the
entire Desht-i Kipchak [Kipchak steppe], from the Tarbagatay
mountains to the Syr Darya River, and from Khorezm to the Idil
[Volga] basin and Crimea, were termed ``Togmak'' during the era
of the Mongols, prior to the spread of Islam. Among the Khiva
zbeks, the term (in Eblgazi)a known as ``Togma''; Baskurts
``Tuvma;'' Nogay (according to the Cevdet Pasha history),b
``Tokma'' designated individuals without a known lineage, or
fugitives to be sold as slaves, being offenders of the law. The
negative connotation ascribed to this term, generally referencing
the Kipchaks and Altin Orda (Golden Horde) Tatars, must have
occurred after the spread of Islam. It is not known that the
Jochi Ulus utilized that appellation. It appears that this tribe,
known as ``Togmak,'' had been designated as ``zbek'' after
``zbek Khan'' (1312-1340). According to Bartold, the terms
``zbek'' and ``zbek Ulus'' have been utilized in Central Asia
to distinguish this tribe and its entire military population from
the ``Chaghatay''; until the dissolution of the Altin Orda during
the fifteenth century, and the dissemination of its uruk as
zbek, Kazak, and Nogay Ulus. Their identifying battle cry
was the word alach.
It is necessary to define some of the ethnic terms in use in the
Jochi Ulus: The zbeks of today, living in Transoxiana and
Khorezm, comprise the dominant group known under the general
rubric ``tatar'' in the Jochi Ulus. However, it is possible that
the term ``tatar'' was used in a wider context, applying not only
to the dominant group but perhaps also to the dominated. The term
Kipchak also has dual connotations, applying narrowly and
specifically to the Kipchak lineage as well as generally and
broadly to the entire populace of the Kipchak steppe, including
the zbeks. According to our findings, the term ``tatar'' earlier
applied within the Jochi Ulus only to the Turk and Mongol
elements issuing from the east, to the dominant component, and
``kipchak'' to the subject nomadic tribes of the steppe. The term
``Togmak'' became the general term of reference to all. After the
zbek Khan, the word ``zbek'' applied to all ``Tatar'' and
``Kipchak'' in their totality, replacing ``Togmak.'' However, the
Kipchak and the ``Tatar,'' arriving from the east during the age
of the Mongols, mixed with the elements of the older civilization
of the land, as opposed to the nomadic tribes, and started
forming, let us say, the ``Yataq Tatar'' or ``Yataq Kipchak.''*
Then, ``Tatar'' began to assume a wider meaning than ``zbek,''
and the term ``zbek'' became the appellation of the nomadic
aristocraciese of the zbek, Nogay, Kazak, and Baskurt
[confederations] that separated from the Tatar and the Kipchak
societies. Nevertheless, although the word ``Tatar'' had lost its
previous meaning, in the vernacular of the people it continued to
be utilized as ``Elin Tatari,'' meaning the ``Aristocracy of the
Land.'' Moreover, since the trade was in the hands of the Tatar
``Ortaq''f firms during the Mongol period (especially Mongol and
Uyghur), ``Tatar'' also meant ``merchant.'' During the fourteenth
and fifteenth centuries, when the dominant military-nomadic Tatar
and Kipchak amalgamation of the Jochi Ulus emerged as the zbeks,
those not belonging to the ruling tribes formed other strata as
follows:
1. ``As,'' of the old civilization of the Kipchak steppe,
in the vicinity of Astrakhan and Saray; ``Bulgar-Kazan''
Turks of the Middle Idil; Burtas and Mokshi (in Islamic and
Mongolian sources, ``Mks''); in the Crimea region, ``Tat'' and
the remnants of the old Khazars; Istek and Ibir-Sibir tribes in
western Siberia;
2. Kipchak and Bashkurt, who were settled. Those among them
in the region of the Urals are also known as ``Tepter'' (defter),
having been so recorded in registers;
3. Some portions of today's Kazak and Baskurt, who stayed
away from political life, living from earlier times as neighbors
of the Siberian tribes of ``Istek.''
Even today, it is possible to distinguish the dominant and
subject Turks within the Jochi Ulus: the dominant uruks remember
the dastans of historical personages and the traditions of the
steppe aristocracy, while the subject uruks remember only the
dastans of the shamanistic mythology and traditions of
``charva'' and are unaware of the political and historical
dastans.


The Language, Customs and Traditions of the Old Kipchak-zbek


The fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Arab authors (Ibn Battuta,
Ibn Fadl allah al-Umari, and Ibn Arabshah) have described well
the life, mores, and character of the zbeks and the Kipchaks of
the Kipchak steppe. According to Ibn Arabshah, the zbek Turks of
the Kipchak steppe are regarded as possessing the most lucid
language, their men and women are the most handsome, generally
displaying aristocratic bearing, not deigning to trickery or
lies, being the gentlefolk of all the Turks.h The language of
these zbeks, living from Yedisu to Crimea, can be observed in
the poetry fragments and other monuments coming down to us, is
generally the same; and its Kipchak characteristics have been
partially preserved in the speech of today's zbek, Kazak, and
Mangit-Nogay. Their way of life and customs, parallel to
``Trk-chigil'' and ``Trkmen-Oguz'' group,i is the same. Their
written histories, folk literature, and especially heroic epics
of the Kipchak steppe such as Chinggis, Jochi and his Sons,
Edige, Toktamis, Nureddin, chora Batir,j and Koblandi, their
verse stories, Cirenche chechen recitations, and others, are the
same everywhere. The melodies of the Baskurt and nomadic zbeks
are today recited among the Crimean and Constanza Nogays. The
Nogay dastans are recited word for word among the Karakalpak and
the Kazak of Khorezm. The old and the new Kipchak Turks did not
engage in ``black service'' occupations and considered
themselves as the master; they have not made the transition to
farming except under extreme necessity, regarding it an
occupation contrary to the spirit of the steppe aristocracy; and
even under severe economic crisis they did not allow their
daughters to marry sedentary grooms. In this regard, the Nogays
had shown the greatest exaggeration, and were cut down in their
tens of thousands and even hundreds of thousands during the
Kalmak [Mongol] and Russian occupations. Among them, the
historical personae and epic heroes such as Chinggis, Toktamis,
Edige, Er Tagin, Urak Mamay, and Adil Sultan personify the spirit
and the ideals of the steppe aristocracy. In the collective and
unified dastan literature of the zbek of the old Jochi Ulus,
comprising the current zbek, Kazak, Mangit-Nogay, and Baskurt,
the following elements of ethics, moral qualities, and
characteristics are discernible: exaltation of endeavor;
readiness to die in defense of honor; the principle of espousing
society and state above all; enduring difficulties with ease;
belief that efforts expended in overcoming obstacles facilitate
progress; willingness to undertake long and arduous journeys;
women's desire only for men in possession of these qualities; and
the elevated position of noble women and mothers in the society.
These are all proclaimed in the literature of the old Tatar and
Kipchak aristocratic strata, meaning zbek literature. Generally,
the good and the bad customs and habits of the old Turks are
evident even more overtly among the zbek-Kipchak:
imperturbability (levelheadedness); dislike of confusion;
moderation; courage; an affinity for being in charge; harshness
in battle but extreme calmness in peace; not killing but selling
of prisoners; purity of heart and honesty; their extreme
sincerity taken advantage of by the enemy; amplifying small
conflicts between individuals and uruks, causing them to drag out
over years and even generations; becoming materialistic under
severe economic conditions, which culminates in the selling of
family members or stealing and selling of others. All these are
the attributes of the zbek and the Kipchak, recorded by the Arab
travelers beginning with Ibn Battuta, since the time of the zbek
Han.

Division of the ``zbek'' Society into zbek, Kazak, and
Mangit-Nogay

The division of the zbeks into ``zbek,'' ``Kazak,'' and
``Mangit-Nogay'' took place not in the Idil basin but while they
were living in the Syr Darya basin. Sons of Jochi ``Batu'' and
``Berke'' Han had influence over the chagatay Ulus; most of
Transoxiana was subject to the Altin Orda. Khorezm and the lower
Syr Darya, beginning from the Otrar region, belonged to the Jochi
Ulus according to the division of the Mongols. In the military
organization of the Jochi Ulus, this area constituted the ``Sol
Kol'' tribes; in the administrative division, it formed the ``Gk
Orda.'' During 1358-61, when the affairs of the Altin Orda (also
known as Ak Orda) became muddled, the ``Kiyat'' beys, commanding
all the troops of the ``Sag Kol'' [Right Flank] tribes, brought
them to Crimea, and the ``Sol Kol'' [Left Flank] tribes to Syr
Darya. At the time, since the lineage of Batu had come to an end,
according to the yasa [Mongol customary law]k and the law of
inheritance, the ultimate rule was passed on to the descendants
of Shiban Han,* Jochi's fifth son. Many zbek uruks in today's
Turgay province, in the vicinity of ``Ak Gl'' [White Lake],
raised to the throne as Han Hizir, who was a descendant of the
Shiban. Nayman, Karluk, Uyghur, Kongrat, and Byrek uruks were in
favor. However, the rule of this descendant of Shiban was
confined to a portion of the ``Sol Kol'' confederations and the
``Tura'' stronghold of the Tobol basin in western Siberia. The
uruks of the Syr Darya of the Sol Kol raised ``Kara Nogay Han,''
a son of S Bas, descendant of ``Tokay Temr,'' who had not until
that day been involved in the affairs of government. It appears
that the ``Sol'' uruks of this region comprised Shirin, Barin
Kipchak, Argun, Alchin, Katay, Mangit, and Krlevt, collectively
known as ``Yedi San.''l The bases of these Sol Han were in the
cities of Yenikend, Cend, Barchinlig Kent, Sabran, Otrar, and the
core, Siginak. Evidently, some of those uruks were even then
involved in the affairs of the Transoxiana. Among the soldiery of
Temr,m the Kipchak and the Nayman played important roles. During
the era of Temr's sons, zbeks became rather powerful (1427),
under the leadership of ``Barak Han,'' a descendant of Tokay
Temr. When Barak was killed in 1429, descendants of Shiban Han
occupied Syr Darya basin. Accordingly, the real center of the
Jochi Ulus (Ak Orda) moved next to Transoxiana. At the same time,
Mangit, who were backing the descendants of Tokay Temr, acquired
great influence under the rule of ``Edige Beg,'' which means
``Temr Bek of the Altin Orda.'' Other uruk joined them, and all
together became known as ``Mangit,'' because of the appellation
of the dominant uruk, and on the other hand as ``Nogay''
(probably because they raised Kara Nogay Han). Hence I have
used the appellation Mangit-Nogay throughout this work. At the
beginning of the sixteenth century, ``Shiban-zbek'' Han and the
uruks subject to them arrive and settle in Transoxiana and
Khorezm. At that time, the western regions of today's Kazakistan,
as well as Baskurt and Tura lands, became subjected to Mangit-
Nogay in their entirety. In this manner, a strong Mangit-Nogay
society is constituted as opposed to the zbeks.
The aforementioned rulers, Kirey and Canibek, sons of Barak Han,
were subject to the famous Ebulkhayir of Shiban descent. In 1466
they left this Han and became ``kazak,'' sought asylum from the
descendants of chagatay to their east (the Hans ruling in the
environs of Kashgar and Yedisu), acquired the obedience of some
uruks to themselves, and with that aid once again obtained the
allegiance of uruks that owed fealty to them but were living in
the domains of the descendants of Shiban. Accordingly, next to
the ``Shiban zbek,'' a ``Kazak zbek'' society was established.
Thus, the zbek society comprised three powerful groups during
the second half of the fifteenth century. What earlier belonged
to the Gk Orda Han and the descendants of Tokay Temr became the
domains of Shiban Han. The possessions of the Shiban are taken
over by the Nogay princes. Kazaks, on the other hand, demanded
shares in both as well as in the chagatay domains. During the
mid-sixteenth century, the ``Mangit-Nogay'' princes were situated
in ``Arka'' and ``Ulu Tav,'' which constitutes the center of
today's Kazakistan; began meddling in the affairs of lands west
of Idil, even the shores of Azak; and slowly shifted westward.
The lands in contention, the lower Syr Darya basin and Arka
regions, became depopulated. As a result, these regions came
under the rule of Kazak Hans, who previouly had lived in Talas
and chu. During the second half of the seventeenth century, first
the ``Nogay'' and later, during the first half of the eighteenth
century, ``Kalmak'' matters became upset, and Kazak Hans became
the sole ruler of all steppes east of the Yayik [Ural] river.
Nogay withdrew toward Crimea and the northern Caucasus.
Kazak Hans, after separation from the Shiban zbeks, began
referring to their neighboring Kazaks as ``Kazak zbekleri.'' In
Haydar Mirza Douglat's history, they are also so termed.n

Kazaklar

The Word ``Kazak'' and the Concept of Being a ``Kazak''

The name ``Kazak'' was at first reserved for the rulers; later,
it also applied to tribes owing fealty to them and to the states
they wished to establish. Prior to that time the name ``Kazak''
did not even apply to a tribal confederation, let alone to the
state. Generally, the term ``Kazak'' was employed to designate
those who were left without a family (boydak) due to a rebellion
of political nature; sometimes those who withdrew from society,
to the mountains and wildernesses, to await more favorable times
before taking over governmental matters, without the benefit and
protection of the tribe; to adolescent boys who had been
separated to help them become accustomed to life; and to those
who left their lands to become ordinary brigands. Under the
influence of the Turk, the tradition of sending the sons out with
a weapon also became accepted among the Russians and recorded in
Islamic sources, and is referenced as ``Kazak'' in Turkish even
today as well as in the past. A political person becoming Kazak
leaves that designation after settling down in a land following
conquest, or joining another political personage to legitimize
himself. He remembers his ``Kazak'' past as days of his youth
when he learned to endeavor and endure difficulties (like Temr,
and among his sons Ebu Sait Mirza, Hseyin Baykara, Babr Mirza,
and, from among the zbeks, Shiban Han and his followers). Of
course, a man can be a Kazak only for a few years in his
lifetime. In that context, the concept of ``Kazak'' is in
opposition to statehood. Kasim Han and his son Hak Nazar,
descendants of Canibek and Giray, who had become kazak toward the
end of the fifteenth century, tended to view their own states in
that way, as temporary.
At the end of the sixteenth century (1599), the Kazak rulers
left the ``chu'' region under pressure from the northeastern
Kalmaks, and took refuge in the strongholds of Tashkent and
environs. Until 1723 and another Kalmak rout, they settled in
those regions and attempted to have the steppe tribes convert to
sedentary agriculture. In pursuit of that policy, ``Tug
Baglayip,'' which means announcing the official flag of the
state, established some sort of administrative apparatus and
attempted to establish a state ``devlet tzmek'' by grouping the
troops into ``Yz'' [hundred] and ``Bin'' [thousand]. The Orda
(headquarters) of the Han was divided into three, namely
``Uluyz,'' ``Ortayz,'' and ``Kichiyz.'' Among the zbek, the
terms ``Han'' and ``Kalgay'' were used to designate the ruler,
the first heir, and the second heir; among the Nogay, ``Bek,''
``Nuradin,'' ``Keykubad'' signified the same ranks. It is though
that the act of dividing the Han Orda into three (names
alternately used were ``Ulugorda,'' ``Ortaorda,'' and
``Kichikorda'') was inherited from a time when an experiment in
pursuit of establishing a governmental structure was conducted.
However, the pressure of the Kalmaks, and later, the Russians
(from Siberia), did not allow them to establish a permanent
government and live under that structure, encompassing the
elements of all the tribes. The tribes living in the territories
northeast of the steppes, having termed themselves ``Kazak,''
adopted the zbek and Nogay aristocracy's equivalent of an
``animal husbandry, tent-dwelling'' way of life. The weakness of
the Kazak statehood was of course affected by that.

The Growth of Kazaks

The portion of the steppe inhabited by the zbeks became the
domains of the Nogay, who became subject to the Kazak Hans.
During the sixteenth century (at the time of the Saydak and Yusuf
Mirza), the Mangit-Nogay on the eastern side of the Idil alone
numbered about two million. The formation of the Temr state in
the east and conquest of Istanbul and the annexation of Crimea in
the west forced the tribes of the Idil to choose between
``Bukhara'' (Transoxiana) and ``Rum'' [Asia Minor]; I shall
return to [this matter] in the history section below. This did
not allow the retention of the tribes in the lower Idil and Yayik
in order to structure a powerful state. When in 1558 the Russians
intruded into these domains, depriving the tribes of their herds
and forcing them to live under individuals such as Alchi Ismail,
who worked with the Russians, the tribes were dispersed.
Continued attacks of the Kalmak, and finally their settling
between Idil and Yayik during 1643, forced an important portion
of the Nogay, with the political and aristocratic strata at their
head, to move to Crimea, and from there to the Caucasus and
further west. But the overwhelming majority of the two million
Nogay living to the east of Idil remained there. A portion of
them migrated to Khorezm and the Syr Darya basin. In that regard,
new tribes arrived in Transoxiana from the Kipchak Steppe at the
time of the Abdlaziz (1645-1680) and Sphan Kulu (1680-1702),
the descendants of Astrakhan Hans now ruling in Bukhara,
strengthening the Kazak Hans. Likewise, the ``Kazak'' tribes
living in Turgay and Ural consist of those tribes earlier
included under Nogay. During the second half of the sixteenth and
the seventeenth century the evacuation by the Turk tribes of the
Idil basin was so serious, especially after the Kalmak migrations
to the west of Idil and to Jungaria, that the Idil-Yayik region
was virtually empty until the nineteenth century. The ``Kazak''
tribes arriving here in 1801 under the rule of Bkey Han of the
Kichiyz consisted entirely of ``Nogay'' tribes who had lived
there earlier.
During the third quarter of the eighteenth century, the
Kazak Hans were in control of the region from ``Idil'' and
``Yayik'' to Jungaria, receiving patents from the Russian (St.
Petersburg) and Chinese (Beijing) governments, regarding the
patents as those governments' special praises of the Kazak Hans.
The tribes, living over such a wide territory and apart from each
other on the steppes, did not distance themselves from each other
in language and customs. On the contrary, they have preserved the
unity of their dialect, customs, and traditions, despite their
illiteracy, because of their intermixing at the time of the
Kalmaks, and later during the competition of the Hans, migrating
from one region to the next, from east to west, and then again
from west to east. The emergence of their common heroic personae-
-through their struggles with the Kalmak on the steppes, through
large gatherings (for example, the wedding celebrations of the
Hans and the Beys, and ``as'' feasts, or ``Yog''
ceremonies), through the participation of representatives of
all ``Kazak'' tribes in the poetic contests held at such
occasions, and through the recited poems which propagated the
styles and common traits throughout the tribes--preserved the
traditions and customs. Today, from Jungaria to the Idil basin,
the dialect of the Kazaks is altogether the same. However, their
long life away from the influence of a central Han; their
nonparticipation in large political events, resulting in
isolation from international political life; and their
preoccupation with tribal politics in addition to living with the
spirit of ``Kazaklik,'' have not failed to influence these Turks.
Generally, in political and intellectual life the old
``Kazaklik'' is still regarded as a virtue. They are also wary of
other, neighboring Turks. This, of course, is the negative aspect
of Kazaklik. On the other hand, since the Kazaks are not under
the strong influence of an old culture, they are better and
speedily able to grasp the contemporary scientific methods and
ideas faster than the neighboring cultivated Turk tribes.
Kazak tribes and their divisions: ``Uluyz'' included eleven
uruks: Duvlat (its oymak are: Buptay, Cimir, Siyqim, Canis),
Adban, Suvan, chaprasti, Esti, Ochakti, Sari Uysun, Calayir,
Qangli, Chanchkili, and Sirgeli. According to old reckoning,
``Uluyz'' population totals 460,000. They live in the Yedisu and
Syr Darya provinces.
``Ortayz'' has five uruks: Girey, Nayman, Argin, Qipchaq, and
Qongrat. Girey has two oymaks: ``Uvak Girey'' (aris: Cantiqay,
Cadik, chiruchi, Iteli, Qaraqas, Mlg, chobar-Aygir, Merket, It-
Imgen, Cas-Taban, Sarbas, chi-Moyun) and ``Qara-Girey'' (aris:
Morun [soy Bayis Morun, Siban, Qurdcay, Tuma and Baysiyiq
Semiz Nayman, Bulatchi, Toqpaq] and Bay-Ciket [soy Cumuq
and Tugas]). Girey live in the Kara Irtis, Irtis, Obagan, Kisma
Isim, and Oy river basins. ``Nayman'' tribe has twelve oymaks:
Aqbora, Bulatchi, Ters Tamgali, Trtovul, Kkcarli, Ergenekti,
Semiz Baganali, Sadir, Matay, Sari Cumart, Qazay, Baltali. Nayman
were living in the direction of Ulutav, Balkas, and Tarbagatay.
According to old reckoning, they number 500,000. Of their
lineage, Baganali has three aris: Toqbulat (soy Ciriq, Ibiske,
Qizil Taz, Qara Bala, Sari Sargaldaq); Sustan (soy: Boydali, Bes
Bala); Aq Taz (soy Teney, Baliqchi, Qarmaqchi, Seyid [tire: Bay
Emet, churtay ara Ataliq, Mamay, Babas, Bulatchi Nayman, Cumuq,
Calman, Badana]). ``Argin'' tribe is divided into three large
oymak: Mumin (aris: Bigendik, chigendik [soy: Atigay, Bagis,
Qancagali, Tobuqti, Qaravul, Sari, chaqchaq Tuman, Amancul,
Kchey, Baqay, Czey, Aq Nazar, Tenet, Qarabas, Qalqaman, Bay
Emet, Qochkar, Cetim], Madyar, Tlek); Quvandiq (aris: Altay,
Qarpiq, Temes, Agis, Qalqaman, Aydabul); Syndk (aris: Qurucas,
Quzgan, Qusqal, Tki); in addition, there is an independent
``Qara Qisek'' aris (containing the soy Trtovul, Taraqti).
According to old reckoning, Argin number 89,000. Tey are living
in the Irtish, Isim, Tobol basin. ``Qongrat'' tribe is subdivided
into two large oymak: Kktin Ogli and Ktenci (aris: Cemtimler,
Mangitay, Qara Kse, Quyusqansiz, Teney, Toqbulat, Baylar-Cancar,
Busman). Qongrats are living in the Syr Darya basin. ``Qipchaq''
has four large oymak: Kk Mrn, Kldenen, Buchay, Qara Baliq.
Qipchaq possess numerous aris, soy, and tire. They principally
live in the ``Oy,'' ``Tobol,'' and ``Turgay'' basins.
``Kichi Yz'' is composed of three tribes: Alimoglu (in the
Kazak pronunciation, ``Elimolu''), Bayoglu (Kazak pronunciation,
``Bayoli''), Yedi Urug (Kazak pronunciation ``Ceti-ru''). The
aris of ``Alimoglu'' are Qarasaqal (soy: chunqara [tire:
Qangildi, Ktklech, Sekerbay, Batan, Car Boldi], Saribas [tire:
Baqti-Berdi, Bavbek, Nazim], Busurman [tire: Nogay, Gasikr,
Cekey], Trtqara [tire: Turum ara: chavdar, Aviqman, Qachan,
Toguz Seksen, Toqman ara: Saqal, Can-Keldi, Sekerbay, Ktklech,
Khan Geldi, Qasim ara: Ayit, Seksek, Madi, Baqcan, Appaq ara:
Qara-Kese, Ak-Bes, Batan]), Qara-Kisek, Kite, Trt-Qara,
chmekey, chekli, Qara-Kisek, Qazan-Taban, Istek, Bayis, Esen
Geldi, Cakev. Aris of ``Bayoglu'' are Aday (soy: Baliqchi, Aqman,
Tbs [tire: Zarubay, chunqay, Bavbek, Tabunay, chikem, Bebkey],
Mugal [tire: chavlay, cheky], chibeney [tire: Cumart, chelim],
Qonaq [tire: Urus, Toq-Sara], Qosay, Tkchey); Cappas (soy:
Kineki, Kirman, Sumruq, Andarchay, Qoldiqay, Qara-Kz, Qalqaman),
Alacha, Baybaqti (soy: Qanq [tire: Kli Sunduq, Bavbek, Aliz],
El-Teke, Bataq (tire: chabachi, Qolchiq, Sagay, Cavgati, Tuqabay,
Buganay, Kchmen, Itemke), Masqar (soy: Qutluch-Atam, Babanazar,
Masaq), Beris, (soy: Sibaq, Nogay, Qayli-Qach, Can-Mirza [tire:
Toqman, Bes-Qasqay] Isiq), Tazlar, Isen-Temir, chirkes (soy:
Ksn [tire: Samay, Umurzaq, tegen, Ulcabay], Cavqachiq, Qis-
Kistek, Kys, Ilmen), Tana, Qizil-Kurt (soy: El-chula, Subi),
Seyikhlar, Altun, (soy: Calabaq, Aydurgay, Sagay). The aris of
``Yedi Uruk'' are: Tabin, Tama, Kirderi (soy: Yabagu),
Cagalbayli, Kireyit, Tilev, Ramazan.
Of these tribes, ``Elimolu'' is living in the Ural province,
along the lower reaches of the Syr Darya, southeast of Aral Lake,
on the eastern side of Khorezm and in eastern Bukhara; ``Bayolu''
tribe is in Bkey Orda, in Ural province, Mangislak, and all of
st Yurt. ``Yedi Uruklar,'' on the other hand, are living in Ural
and Turgay provinces. According to old reckoning, the population
of ``Kichi Yz'' is shown to be 800,000.

zbekler

The zbek Tribes Arriving in Transoxiana

The zbek of the present day arrived with all the organizations
and institutions existing among the Shiban zbeks and Transoxiana
and Khorezm Jochi Ulus. In fact, the hierarchy (``orun'')
occupied in government by the tribes was the same. zbeks, while
succeeding the descendants of the Temr, replaced the existing
establishments with their own.
Also arriving were the elements close to the palace circles of
the ``Ich Eli'' of the Altin Orda, meaning quite civilized
components. Moreover, according to the terminology of chronicler
temis Haci,* the descendants of Shiban arriving in Transoxiana
comprised the ruling elements of the old ``zbek Eli'' (meaning
Golden Horde), ``famed Tura named Mangit Villages,'' meaning
western Siberian ``Tura'' province where the settled Mangit ulus
lived.p Turgay Province, with its center in today's ``Ak-Gl,''
``chalkar-Gl,'' belonged to the descendants of Shiban.
Previously, Abulhayir Han, who took away the ``Tura and Baskurt''
regions from the other branch of the Shiban descendants from west
Siberian Han Mahmudek, was governing these territories. Abulhayir
later obtained the lower reaches of Syr Darya and, in 1431,
Khorezm. Abulhayir pursued the policy of basing the governance of
the state upon the southern and northern agricultural and settled
regions of the Jochi Ulus. Hseyin Khorezmi, the great scholar of
the time, wrote a Turkish poem praising this ruler, entitled
``Kaside-i Burde,'' appended to one of his works. Another
scholar, named Mesut Kohistani, wrote a Persian language history
book depicting the life of this ruler. During the sixteenth
century a large portion of the zbeks made the transition to
village and agricultural life in the Zarafshan basin and in
Khorezm. They perhaps belong to the elements arriving from the
Syr Darya and ``Tura'' regions where they were already making the
transformation. Shiban Han was a ruler accustomed to traversing
the area between Syr Darya and Astrakhan. Shibanli Mehdi and
Hamza Sultan, who had arrived in Transoxiana before Shiban, were
the sons of Bahtiyar Sultan, the ruler of the settled regions,
strongholds, and castles of the ``Tura'' province. It is thought
that the zbek arriving with them did so at the time of later
Temrids.

Turning to the tribal organization: ``zbek'' are referred to
everywhere as ``doksan iki boy zbek'' [Ninety-two Tribe zbek].
Here boy means tribe. For the Baskurt, the term ``Twelve Tribe
Baskurt'' is used. Among the zbek, there is a ``genealogy''
naming their ninety two-tribes.
There are slight discrepancies between the new and the
sixteenth-seventeenth-century manuscript copies of the genealogy
(for example, the ``Akhund Kurbanali,'' ``Khanikov,'' and
``Sheykh Sleyman'' published versions). Undoubtedly, this
genealogy lists those tribes at the time of the Altin Orda,
meaning prior to the separation of the Mangit-Nogay and the
Kazak. They are as follows: Min, Yz, Qirq, ngechit, Calayir,
Saray, On, Qonrat, Alchin, Nayman, Argin, Qipchaq, chichak,
Qalmaq, Uyrat, Qarliq, Turgavut, Burlas, Buslaq, chemerchin,
Qatagan, Kilechi, Kineges, Byrek, Qiyat, Bozay, Qatay (Khitay),
Qanli, zce Buluci (?), Topchi (?), Upulachi, Culun, Cit, Cuyut,
Salcavut, Bayavut, Otarchi, Arlat, Kireyit, Unqut, Mangit,
Qangit, Oymavut, Qachat, Merkit, Borqut, Quralas, Qarlap, Ilaci,
Glegen (?), Qisliq, Oglan, Kdey, Trkmen, Drmen, Tabin, Tama,
Mechet, Kirderi, Ramadan, Mumun, Aday, Tuqsaba, Qirgiz, Uyruci,
Coyrat, Bozaci, Oysun, Corga, Batas, Qoysun, Suldiz, Tumay,
Tatar, Tilev, Qayan, Sirin, Krlevt, chilkes, Uygur,
Yabu(=Yabaqu), Agir(Agiran), Buzan, Buzaq, Myten, Macar,
Qocaliq, choran, chrcht, Barin(=Behrin), Mogul, Nks
[Nukus].
Thirty-three of these tribal names belong to the Mongol,
others to the renowned Trk tribes of the Jochi Ulus, the
remainder to those unknown to us today. The tribes such as Barlas
and Kavchin, who were living in Transoxiana prior to the arrival
of the zbeks, but joined them, are not named here. Of the stated
ninety-two tribes, approximately forty-five are part of the zbek
today. The aforementioned Mongol tribes are of course those
constituting the Mongol units sent to the Jochi Ulus. The
majority of those tribes carrying Mongolian names are now found
in the Transoxiana and Khorezm. It appears that the genealogy,
which has been handed down traditionally, indicates the belief of
its owners, the zbeks of Transoxiana and Khorezm, that they are
descendants of these tribes, and therefore represent the entire
forces constituting the foundations of the Altin Orda, and its
transmission of the related organization to Transoxiana. Today,
the subdivison of the tribes are as follows:
(1) Qongrat tribe: They have five oymak. The first is Qancagali,
consisting of following aris: Orus, Qara-Qursak, chlik, Quyan,
Quldavli, Miltek, Kr-Tugi, Gele, Top-Qara, Qara-Boz, Nogay,
Bilgelik, Dstelik. The second oymak, of nine aris: Aq-Tana,
Qara, churan, Trkmen, Qavuk, Bes-Bala, Qarakalpaq, Qacay, Khoca-
Bece. Third oymak, Qostamgali, again nine aris: Kl-Abi, Barmaq,
Kce-Khur, Kl-chuburgan, Qarakalpaq, Qostamgali, Seferbiz,
Dilberi, Cachaqli. Fourth, Qostamgali oymak, seven aris:
Tartugli, Agamayli, Isigali, Qazancili, ykli, Bkechli,
Qaygali. Fifth, Qir oymak, five aris: Gzili, Ksevli, Ters,
Baliqli, Quba. All of these branches of the Kongrat uruk are
found in the Amu Derya delta, in the provinces of Khuzar (Ghuzar)
of Bukhara, Sirabad, Qurgan-Tepe. They have, to a large extent,
retained the nomadic ways in Bukhara. Those in Khorezm are
settled;
(2) Nayman tribe. Three oymak: Qostamgali, Uvaqtamgali, Sadir.
They live in Khorezm and Samarkand;
(3) Kineges, made up of five oymak: Qayrasali, Taraqli,
Achamayli, chikhut, Abaqli. They live in Shehrisebz and Khiva;
(4) Mangit, made up of three oymak: Toq-Mangit, Aq-Mangit, Qara-
Mangit. They live in Khiva and Qarsi;
(5) Tuyaqli, living in Samarkand and Kette-Qurgan;
(6) Myten, living in Samarkand and Kette-Qurgan;
(7) Saray, living on the borders of Shehrisebz-Yekke-Bag;
(8) Barin, living in Ferghana province and Kette-Kurgan tmen;
(9) Khitay and (10) Qipchak: They constitute the most important
segments of Samarkand and Kette-Kurgan. They are very numerous in
Khiva and Ferghana;
(11) Min, living in Samarkand, Penchkent, Jizzakh, and in
Ferghana;
(12) ch Uruk: Misit, Tama, Yabu. They live in the vicinity of
Ziyaeddin of Bukhara;
(13) Burqut, living along the borders of chilek and Kermine;
(14) Arlat, living in Qara-Kl;
(15) Qangli, living at the border of Jizzakh tmen;
(16) Qirk, Yz, Min: living in Jizzakh tmen;
(17) Batas, living in the vicinity of Qarsi, Ghuzar;
(18) Qaraqalpak, made up of five oymak: Qara-Qoylu, Qara-Singir,
Oymavut, Istek, Achamayli, and living in the Amu Darya delta and
north of Samarkand, at ``Ak-Tepe.''
Those zbek who have best preserved the old dialects and
traditions are especially those living in the ``Jizzakh'' tmen
(Qirq, Qangli, Saliq, Trk, Trkmen, Nayman, Mangit, Qitay-Yz,
Solaqli, Tuyaqli, Alacha, Burqut, Sirkeli, Baymaqli, Calayir,
Qirgiz, Yz, Quyan-Tuyaqli, Parcha-Yz, Qarapcha, Quschi, Oraqli,
Toqcari, Qostamgali, Saray, Qancagali). However, these tribes are
numerically small. In eastern Bukhara, those tribes maintaining
nomadic life, in the vicinity of Dushanbe, are ``Laqay,'' ``Marqa
Kichi Yz,'' and, around Feyzabad, ``Qarliq.''
Concerning the zbek tribes in Afghanistan Turkistan, we are
only in possession of a table prepared by the Indian Mir
Izzetullah at the beginning of the nineteenth century.*
Accordingly, the zbek tribes there are as follows: At ``Serpl''
near ``Sibirgan,'' ``Achamayli'' oymak of the ``Min'' tribe; next
to them, at ``Sayyad,'' ``Achamayli'' and ``Qazayagi'' of the
``Min''; at Sencayrek, the ``Qipchak'' uruk; at Kunduz, all
``Qatagan''; in the vicinity of ``Balkh,'' ``Saray'' and
``Myten'' uruks. At ``Eskemis'' of Badakshan, ``Brge'' and
``Timis'' oymak of Qatagan. In ``Narin,'' chagatay'' uruk. Mir
Izetullah also provides information on the oymak of Myten and
Qatagan uruk: Myten is made up of seven oymak: Tilikhane,
Germsili, Qazayaqli, chagar, Sum, Aqsayiq, chchen. Qatagan uruk
has three oymak: Bes-Qaban, Salcavut, Trt-Ata. ``Bes-Qaban'' has
five aris: Laqqa (=Laqay), Yangi-Qatagan, Kesmever, Qayan, Manas.
Kesmever has four tire: Aq-Taglik, Endicani, Qalasi, Bomin.
``Manas'' has three tire: Temis, Sar-Bagis, Brge. ``Trt-Ata''
has four aris: Sariq-Qatagan, churaq, Bassiz, Mardad. ``churaq''
has two tire: Qiz Atizi, Slen. Mardad has three tire: chata,
Bozan, Cutuduq.
Among the zbek tribes, there are those adopting the
nickname of ``Bekzad.'' In the past, those had played an active
role in the governance of the land and the army, and performed
the enthroning ceremony of the hans. Among them, in Khiva
especially Qiyat-Qongrat, Uygur-Nayman, Qangli-Qipchak, Nks-
Mangit tribes; in Bukhara, at the time of descendants of Shiban,
``Quschu,'' ``Nayman,'' ``Qarluq,'' and ``Byrek'' tribes; at the
time of the Mangit (according to Radloff) Min, Arlat, Barin,
Batas uruks were well known. The ``Qatagan'' are also regarded
``Bekzad.'' Among the uruks: Tuyaqli, Myten, Khitay (Qatay),
Mangit; and the majority of Qongrats in Bukhara are among the
last arriving from Desht-i Kipchak. These were earlier members of
the ``Mangit-Nogay'' confederation, as well as
the ``Kazak,'' arriving later in Transoxiana.

Editor's Notes

a. Abulghazi Bahadir Khan (1603-1663), Secere-i Terakime (The
Lineage of the Turks), completed in 1659. The French translation
by Desmaisons is no longer satisfactory, for it lacks critical
apparatus; an English translation is long overdue.

b. Cevdet Pasha (1822-1895) was an Ottoman historian,
administrator, and educational and judicial reformer. See
Stanford J. and E.K. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and
Modern Turkey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), vol.
II.

c. In a footnote, below, Togan provides the nomenclature applied
to subdivisions from the tribal confederation down to the
smallest unit. An uruk is comprised of oymaks, which are made up
of aris, a composition of soy.

d. Uran: the word shouted in the heat of the battle, to allow
combatants to identify and gauge the whereabouts of their fellows
without taking their eyes off the common adversary. It is an
integral part of identity in Central Asia, forming a triad, along
with tamga and dastan. The term tamga, originally referring to
the ``seal'' of a given group, was later borrowed by Russians to
designate customs levies (Russian: tamozhnia). The tamga was
embroidered on tents, incorporated into rugs, filigreed into
jewelry, and used as a cattle brand. A list of early tamgas is
found in Kashgarli Mahmut's Diwan Lugat at Trk (twelfth century;
hereafter DLT). A dastan is an ``oral history'' of the origins,
customs, practices, and exploits of ancestors. See the discussion
of the Dede Korkut dastan in this collection.

e. According to a popular etymology of the designation zbek, it
is derived from ``zm Bek,'' meaning ``My Essence is Princely.''

f. Ortaq: ``partner.'' Among the Mongols, the khan provided
capital to his ``partners'' so that they could take caravans from
one end of the Mongol domains to other, to trade with neighbors.
Elizabeth Endicott-West and Thomas Allsen have been jointly
exploring this topic.

g. On the Bulgar Turks see O. Pritsak, ``Kultur und Sprache der
Hunnen,'' Festschrift fr Dmytro Cyzev'ky (Berlin, 19540; and
R.N. Frye, ``City Chronicles of Central Asia: Kitab-e
Mullazade,'' Avicenna Commemoration Volume (Calcutta, 1956).

h. Here Togan provides the Arabic quotation in a footnote.

i. The lineages, inter alia, of the chigil and the Oguz Turks
are outlined in DLT.

j. See H.B. Paksoy, ``Chora Batir: A Tatar Admonition to Future
Generations,'' Studies in Comparative Communism, vol. 19, nos. 3
& 4 (Autumn/Winter 1986).

k. The original compilation of Mongol customary law was
designated Altan Tobchi. See The Secret History of the Mongols,
translated, inter alia, by F. Cleaves. For a later survival of
the yasa, see V.A. Riasanovsky, Customary Law of the Nomadic
Tribes of Siberia. Indiana University Uralic Altaic Series, vol.
48 (Bloomington, 1965).

l. Yedi San: Seven Reputations. The term ``san'' may also
signify surname, or even the manner with which those tribes may
have presented themselves in a gathering or in battle.


m. Togan uses this spelling. The name of Temr (Timor) (d. 1405)
was corrupted in Western languages as Tamerlane, Tamburlane, and
so forth.

n. See N. Elias and E. Denison Ross, eds., The Tarikh-i Rashidi
of Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat (London 1898), pp. 119, 122,
272-74.

o. For the significance of the ``as'' and ``Yog'' ceremonies,
see A.T. Hatto, The Memorial Feast for Kkty Han (Oxford,
1977).

p. Another relevant history on the region, compiled from several
manuscript sources and edited by Y. Bregel, was published as
Firdaws al-ikbal: History of Khorezm (Leiden, 1988).

Trk duygusu her Trkye en tatl kmzdr;
Trk lks candan da aziz bayramzdr...
Darbeyle gnllerde yatan lk silinmez!
Atsz yere dmekle bu bayrak yere inmez!...
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  Quote Uyghur Oghli Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Sep-2005 at 11:49
Originally posted by YELKEN


You have explanied your own idea about the name of Uyghur above. Then how do you think about the appearing of the name of Uzbek? How did the Uzbeks and Uyghurs become speprate nations from one root? The Uzbeks definitely have a same origion with Uyghurs. I'd like to hear your viewpoints on this.


Salam Yelken,

Yaxshimu sen?

I think the close relationship between the Turkic people of Tarim Basin (i.e. today's Uyghurs) and those in the Ferghana Valley (i.e. today's Uzbeks) was established during the Karahanid (also called Ilkhanid) dynasty in 9991211. As you know, the territory of the Karahanids included the Transoxania (modern day Uzbekstan) and the Tarim Basin. At the time there is no significant differences between Turkic peoples in these lands.



After the Karhanids, although these lands fell in the hands of different intruders, the communication between these people never stopped; Then,  the Chagatay dynasty also ruled the same territory. The Chagatay language was common literary language for the peoples in these lands and poets at the time, such as Alishir Navai, Sakkaki, etc., are revered by Uyghurs and Uzbeks alike.

Then, during the reign of Atalik Ghazi (i.e., Yaqub Beg) the connection of these people further tightened untill our land fell to the hands of Chinese imperialists during the Qing Dynasty. However, even in those days, up untill the creation of P.R.C. brotherly connection continued. The president of our 2nd Eastern Turkistan Republic in 1944, Alihan Tre, was an Uzbek.

As you and other people know, the modern day names of Uzbek and Uyghur were created (or restored) in 1930s by Stalin, in order to "devide and control" the Turkic peoples in the central Asia. It also worked very well for the Chinese invaders as indicated in their old saying "
以夷治夷 (Yi Yi Zhi Yi)" (i.e., "control the barbarians by barbarians).

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chagatai_Khanate

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kara-Khanid

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uyghur



Edited by Uyghur Oghli
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  Quote Yungsiyebu_Uriankhai Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Sep-2005 at 11:59

Modern Uighurs are actually very different compared to the people of ancient Uighur empire in Mongolia.

1) Modern Uighurs are the common descendants and successors of ancient Uighurs(including other Turkic groups before the migration of the Uighurs) and the natives of Indo-European groups in ancient Xinjiang or E.Turkistan. It's totally wrong for Chinese sholars view the Uighurs as the newcomers to Xinjiang.  

2) Ancient Uighurs didn't leave an empty steppe in Mongolia after they were defeated by the Qirgizs, in fact, it's impossible that Uighur Khan led all of Uighurs(such a large nation!) to leave Mongolia to Turkistan, parts of their descendants should continue to live in their homeland, although they had lost their original national name soon. we believed that Naimans, Kereits, or other tribes of the followed history should had some link to ancient Uighurs, and they were eventually absorbed into Mongolian nation after Chinggis Khan unified all nomadic tribes of Mongolian steppes. so, we can say modern Mongolians are actually the greater successor of ancient Uighur empire and its people.  

 

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  Quote Sultan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Sep-2005 at 19:41

 

Originally posted by JiNanRen

So you agree that Uyghurs, migrated into the Tarim Basin in the 8th century A.D., and assimilated/turkified into the local populations of indo-europeans, turks and settle nexts to small remnants of Chinese population in the region.

 No One Agree About These Lies , Only The So Called Chinese And The People Who Read Only Chinese Lies About Asian History , Do You Really Think That All Uyghurs Migrated To The Traim Basin ! There Was Uyghurs There And i Dont Care If You Dont Believe It , And Dont Make Me Laugh Because Everytime You Say That There Was a Small Chinese Population In The Region , Its Enough That Russians And Your People Destroied All The Historical Books Of The People Of Turkistan And Killed All The Turks Historicals.

Originally posted by barbar


Originally posted by JiNanRen

So you agree that Uyghurs, migrated into the Tarim Basin in the 8th century A.D., and assimilated/turkified into the local populations of indo-europeans, turks and settle nexts to small remnants of Chinese population in the region.

Read intently my posts, I said the region was well Uyghurified before the ruling calss migration.

Originally posted by barbar


Originally posted by tadamson


After the Uighur capital was overthrown by the Kirghiz, the ruling classes migrated to thhe Khotan whare they set up and ruled semi settled kingdoms untill the Mongols came. 

Where did you learn that?

Uyghurs took three routes, one to the south west( Gansu) and built Kangsu kingdom, one to the west (Turpan and Beshbaliq) and built Ediqut kingdom, and one to the far west (Qeshqer) and built Qarahanid kingdom. Hoten was included in the Qarahanids. 


Originally posted by YELKEN


Jinanren,

 You all Chinese have a very strong passion to claim the Eastern Turkistan as your terriotry from very early history, even before the ear of human being. Do you think so? Of course you do! You Chinese historians never rely on historical documents, but on your emotion, on your policy...

  Will Said Guys Finally Someone Telling The Truth.

Turkistan is a door to two worlds,
Turkistan is a cradle of the Turks,
Living in beautiful Turkistan
Is Tengri's blessing to the Turks.

FREEDOM FOR EASTERN TURKISTAN
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  Quote barbar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Sep-2005 at 23:06

Originally posted by JiNanRen

I just want learn more about history that is not biased.

Very good, then don't try to make some comments if you don't know anything about the history of this people and this region. 

You can find archeological staffs with chinese characters along the silk road, but that doesn't mean there were chinese who lived there. It was the sign of cultural relation between east and west.  Keep this always in mind. 

Han and Tang armies did reach this region and stayed for a very short time, as conquerers they were very likey to be killed or expelled after the decline of their influence, as they were soldiers, not inhabitants. Keep this also in mind.

 

Either make a history or become a history.
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  Quote barbar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Sep-2005 at 23:09
Originally posted by Yungsiyebu_Uriankhai

Modern Uighurs are actually very different compared to the people of ancient Uighur empire in Mongolia.

1) Modern Uighurs are the common descendants and successors of ancient Uighurs(including other Turkic groups before the migration of the Uighurs) and the natives of Indo-European groups in ancient Xinjiang or E.Turkistan. It's totally wrong for Chinese sholars view the Uighurs as the newcomers to Xinjiang.  

2) Ancient Uighurs didn't leave an empty steppe in Mongolia after they were defeated by the Qirgizs, in fact, it's impossible that Uighur Khan led all of Uighurs(such a large nation!) to leave Mongolia to Turkistan, parts of their descendants should continue to live in their homeland, although they had lost their original national name soon. we believed that Naimans, Kereits, or other tribes of the followed history should had some link to ancient Uighurs, and they were eventually absorbed into Mongolian nation after Chinggis Khan unified all nomadic tribes of Mongolian steppes. so, we can say modern Mongolians are actually the greater successor of ancient Uighur empire and its people.  

 

Very objective point!

 

Either make a history or become a history.
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  Quote JiNanRen Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Sep-2005 at 23:10
Originally posted by barbar

Originally posted by JiNanRen

I just want learn more about history that is not biased.

Very good, then don't try to make some comments if you don't know anything about the history of this people and this region. 

You can find archeological staffs with chinese characters along the silk road, but that doesn't mean there were chinese who lived there. It was the sign of cultural relation between east and west.  Keep this always in mind. 

Han and Tang armies did reach this region and stayed for a very short time, as conquerers they were very likey to be killed or expelled after the decline of their influence, as they were soldiers, not inhabitants. Keep this also in mind.

 



Then how come excavations in E. Turkestan are uncovering tombs that have both Chinese and uighur bodies buried together in similar fashion.

BTW i'm not totally clueless, i've have read some books about Central Asia for example Rene Grosset's Emperor of the Steppe.
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  Quote barbar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Sep-2005 at 23:30
Originally posted by YELKEN

You have explanied your own idea about the name of Uyghur above. Then how do you think about the appearing of the name of Uzbek? How did the Uzbeks and Uyghurs become speprate nations from one root? The Uzbeks definitely have a same origion with Uyghurs. I'd like to hear your viewpoints on this

The name Uzbek is misused in my opinion, let me try to give you a general picture.

The Uzbeks who speak Qipchaq dialect should be more related to other Qipchaq Turks like Qazaq, Qirghiz, Qipchaq etc, and they are the group who have more mongolian influence. We can see it from the tribal names. Uzbekhan is a decendant of Turkified mongol. So came the name.

The Uzbek who speak Oguz dialect should be more related to other Oghuz Turks, especially Turkmens.

The Uzbeks who speak Qarluq dialect are the group who are almost exactly the same people as Uyghurs. I think this group is the Uzbeks you are talking about.

What do you think? Should there be a seperate Turkic group whose name is "Uzbek"?

 

Either make a history or become a history.
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  Quote barbar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Sep-2005 at 23:34
Originally posted by JiNanRen

Originally posted by barbar

Originally posted by JiNanRen

I just want learn more about history that is not biased.

Very good, then don't try to make some comments if you don't know anything about the history of this people and this region. 

You can find archeological staffs with chinese characters along the silk road, but that doesn't mean there were chinese who lived there. It was the sign of cultural relation between east and west.  Keep this always in mind. 

Han and Tang armies did reach this region and stayed for a very short time, as conquerers they were very likey to be killed or expelled after the decline of their influence, as they were soldiers, not inhabitants. Keep this also in mind.

 



Then how come excavations in E. Turkestan are uncovering tombs that have both Chinese and uighur bodies buried together in similar fashion.

BTW i'm not totally clueless, i've have read some books about Central Asia for example Rene Grosset's Emperor of the Steppe.

Who told you they were chinese? They were Qiangs (ancesters of modern Tibetans).

 

Either make a history or become a history.
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  Quote JiNanRen Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Sep-2005 at 15:18
No Qiangs are a ethnic group living in Sichuan and Sorrounding areas in South China they settled in present day Gansu and migrated south to Sichuan. They have little connections with E. Turkestan.
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  Quote barbar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Sep-2005 at 00:09

 

Hey, I was talking about ancient Qiang people. They were not limitted to present day Gansu. They also lived in Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan and Yunnan. Some of them did live around northen region of Kunlun mountain of the  of present day Xinjiang. They were definately non-Han people. 

 

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  Quote JiNanRen Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Sep-2005 at 12:23
Agreed, but i'm sure not all of them are Qiang, there had to be Hans too.  Not all Hans were simply killed.  For example, after the Battle of Talas, thousands of Hans were taken prisoner and taken back to the E. Turkestan as slaves.  I'm sure there were more than one occasion that Hans were either enslaved or settled in E. Turkestan as traders, craftsman, ect. ect.
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  Quote DayI Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Sep-2005 at 13:20
it whas abbasid empire who did won the battle of talas, so why they should take them all (prisoners, slaves) to e. Turkistan if there capital is in middle east? Also abbasids didnt reach in to e. Turkistan so far as i know...
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