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Mesopotamian Mythology

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Beylerbeyi View Drop Down
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  Quote Beylerbeyi Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Mesopotamian Mythology
    Posted: 12-Aug-2004 at 15:40

Does anyone know the name of a demon from Mesopotamian mythology? Or a supernatural spirit or similar, preferably something evil or tricky? Maybe a deity?

The older it is the better, and nothing later than approx. 1000 BC.

Thanks for any answers. If there will be no answers, no problem anyway, because I get to start the first thread in this subsection.

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  Quote TJK Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-Aug-2004 at 18:56
Namtar

More info about sumerian mythology :
http://www.crystalinks.com/sumergods.html


Edited by TJK
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  Quote Tobodai Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-Aug-2004 at 19:20
Well Im not sure if its a demon or not but theres the Enkindu or wild man who is tamed by sex with a whore sent from the city (Uruk I think)
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  Quote Arkhanson Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2004 at 15:25
Beyler beyi If you want also you can search Glgame and tyou can find some info from  www.ancientanatolia.com 
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  Quote Sharrukin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2004 at 20:10
There was Pazuzu, the king of the evil wind-demons.  His name and image was made famous in The Exorcist movies.  In fact, they made a new movie involving the origins of the curse.  His enemy was Lamashtu who preyed on pregnant women, and so despite him having a frightful vistage (he is either depicted as having the head of a lion, or just simply grotesque) ancient Babylonian women would put a Pazuzu charm on them for protection. 
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  Quote Arkhanson Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Aug-2004 at 05:30

Marduc( if I do not remember wrong his name) Head Quarter God of bablyon gods

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  Quote YusakuJon3 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Aug-2004 at 04:47
There was Humbaba, a demon sent by the gods to defend the cedar forest in the legend of Gilgamesh.  According to most versions of the legend (which got carried down through succeeding Mesopotamian civilizations since its origins in Sumer), the king Gilgamesh and his friend Enkidu travelled to the forest to kill the demon and make a name for themselves, thus offending the gods and bringing about the punishment for Enkidu which spurred Gilgamesh on to the quest which made up the moral of his story.

I could also point to Erishkigal (sp?), the goddess of the underworld.  It was before her that even the mother goddess Ishtar had to prostrate herself in a quest to restore the life of a deceased lover.

And then there was the warrior god Enlil, who capriciously ordered the destruction of the world in a flood against the advice of the other gods who wanted only to punish evildoers...
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  Quote Beylerbeyi Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Aug-2004 at 09:16

Hey , thanks for the replies. And the links.

I've known of Pazuzu (I've read the Exorcist), and Marduk.

I decided to read more on Tiamat.

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  Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Aug-2004 at 21:25
Tiamat wasn't really a demon in herself, she gave birth to monsters but really was just a representation of the negative aspects of motherhood. If I remember correctly she actually killed several of her monstrous offspring.
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  Quote vagabond Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Aug-2004 at 02:00

Have a look at the Enuma Elish - a part of the Babylonian creation mythology.  Many of the tablets recording these stories were found in Nineveh and Ashur - some of the tablets dating to the reign of Ashurbanipal (ca. 668 - 627 BCE) - but the story is at least as much as a thousand years older.  Some versions substitute Ashur for Marduk (Assyrian for Babylonian names).  Hammurabi (ca. 1728 - 1686 BCE)refers to both the Enuma Elish and to it's principal characters in the intorduction to his legal code.

In the Enuma Elish, Tiamat is the great mother goddess  and ruler of salt waters- wife of Apsu, father of the gods and ruler of all sweet waters.  Apsu is overthrown by Ea and the younger gods.  In later conflicts between the gods, Kingu leads a group to evil and inspires Tiamat to overthrow Ea. Tiamat gives birth to many venemous monsters:  vipers, dragons, sphinx, lions, mad dogs, scorpion men, storm demons, dragonflys and centaurs, and chooses Kingu to lead them against the younger gods.  When all the younger gods are filled with fear of Tiamat's army, Ea gives his powers to his son Marduk (Ashur).  Marduk rides the storm chariot into battle carrying his father's and grandfather's powers and spells, his bow, his mace, magic herbs and the weapons given him by the other younger gods.

Marduk overthrows Tiamat and kills her.  From her body parts he creates the sky, earth, mountains and clouds.  The Tigris and Euphrates flow from her eyes.  He binds the demons and tramples their bodies with his chariot, and takes from Kingu the Tablet of Destinies, which he fastens onto his own armor.  He then apportions the universe that he has created after the battle to the various gods to rule over.  Kingu is killed, and the first men are made from his blood.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/ane/enuma.htm

http://i-cias.com/e.o/enuma_elish.htm

http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/mesopotamian/enuma.html

Perhaps more familiar is the story of Gilgamesh.  Enkidu the wild man was created to humble Gilgamesh, King of Uruk, who thought he was the greatest warrior on earth.  Enkidu is in every way his equal, and they become best of friends.  Enkidu helps Gilgamesh to defeat the giant Humbaba, and after many other adventures, they together defeat the great Bull of Heaven.  Gilgamesh had refused the advances of the godess Ishtar - so she has her revenge by making the gods kill Enkidu. Gilgamesh is so stricken by grief at the death of his friend that he leaves his city and wanders alone in the wilderness.  He decides to find the secret of immortality, travels with the boatman Urshanabi across the sea of death and learns the stories of creation and the Great Flood from Utnapishtim, King of Shurippak and only survivor of the Flood.  Gilgamesh is given the herb of immortality, but loses it, and records the story of his travels with his friend so that the wisdom that they learned will not be lost and their friendship will not be forgotten.

http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/mesopotamian/gilgamesh/

http://www.sacred-texts.com/ane/iai/index.htm

http://i-cias.com/e.o/gilgamesh.htm

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  Quote cattus Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Aug-2004 at 18:47

Originally posted by Sharrukin

There was Pazuzu, the king of the evil wind-demons.  His name and image was made famous in The Exorcist movies.  In fact, they made a new movie involving the origins of the curse.  His enemy was Lamashtu who preyed on pregnant women, and so despite him having a frightful vistage (he is either depicted as having the head of a lion, or just simply grotesque) ancient Babylonian women would put a Pazuzu charm on them for protection. 

Have been interested in Pazuzu for years and was hoping they would cover it in the new Exorcist movie. But it doesnt, infact the movies is based in Africa.It would have been more appropriate for it to have gone back to the Sumarians.

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  Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Sep-2004 at 23:12
Marduk the Devourer was the chief God of the Babylonians. He required human sacrifices to be appeased, and preferred children. The sacrifices were fed into ovens while they were still alive, because apparently, Marduk liked the screams as the fire consumed them. Thought that was interesting.
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  Quote Master of Puppets Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Sep-2004 at 14:03
I didn't know such practices existed in Babylon too. I know the Phoenician/Carthaginian version of this story, though.
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