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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: We Central Asians.
    Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:25
Cultural life
   Kazaks, probably more than any other Central Asian people, show the impact of nearly two centuries of close contact with Russians. Unlike Central Asians to the south of them, Kazaks look more to Russia than to Islāmic countries for inspiration in the post-Soviet period. At the same time, Kazak scholars and other intellectuals actively work to reclaim Kazak traditions and distinctive ways of life, including the literary and spoken language of a people whose experience emphasized Russian culture, literature, language, and ways of thinking.

   Urban Kazaks of both sexes tend to wear modern clothing, but the women of remote villages continue to wear traditional dresses and head scarves. Kazak-made carpets are a common sight, and less-Russified Kazaks often decorate their homes with qoshmas, bright-coloured feltrugs.

   Oral epics formed the main literary genre among the largely illiterate Kazaks until the 19th century. In the 18th century, as a series of Russian outposts arose along the border of Kazakstan's plains on the north, Kazaks added other written, poetic forms to their literature. Poetry remained the primary genre until prose stories, short novels, and drama were introduced in the early 20th century, before the end of the tsarist era in 1917. Abay Ibrahim Kūnanbay-ul (Kunanbayev) in the late 19th century laid the basis with his verse for the development of the modern Kazak literary language and its poetry. (Aqmet) Baytūrsyn-ul, editor of the influential newspaper Qazaq, led the advance of modern Kazak writing in the early 20th century. Baytūrsyn-ul, along with Aliqan Nūrmuhambet Bokeyqan-ul, Mir Jaqib Duwlat-ul, and, later, Maghjan Jumabay-ul, represented the cream of Kazak modernism in literature, publishing, andcultural politics in the reformist decades before Sovietization set in after 1920. All these figuresdisappeared into Soviet prisons and never returned, as a result of Joseph Stalin's purges, which destroyed much of the Kazak intelligentsia. An early Soviet Kazak writer, Mukhtar Auez-ul, won recognition for the long novel Abay, based on the life and poetry of Kūnanbay-ul, and for his plays, including nglik-Kebek.

   Kazakstan has a number of modern theatres and offers Uighur, Korean, and Russian musicals, opera, ballet, and puppet performances. Cinemas and art schools, dance ensembles, and music groups are active, as are radio and television broadcasting, the last being especially important in communications with distant farms and villages. Reception from outside Kazakstan, especially from broadcasting stations in nearby Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan and by way of relays from Moscow, enables listeners and viewers to follow programs from many sources.
Sajaja bramani totari ta, raitata raitata, radu ridu raitata, rota.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:26
History
Kazakstan to c. AD 1700
   The immense size and varied landscape of Kazakstan exclude the possibility of a unified prehistoric culture covering the whole area. The Bronze Age Andronovo culture (2nd millennium BC) spread over much of Kazakstan; it was followed by periods dominated by nomads, producers of the animal art later identified with the Scythians. One can only speculate concerning the ethnic or linguistic identities of these populations; whether or not they were Turkic, they cannot be directly linked with the Kazaks.

   In the course of centuries, various parts of Kazakstan were incorporatedinto different empires. During the empire of the Mongols (13th14th centuries AD), most of the territory was part of the ulus (polity) of Chagadai. About 1465 some 200,000 dissatisfied subjects of the Uzbek khan Abūʾl-Khayr, under the leadership of Karay and Jani Beg, moved into Mughulistān, whose khan, Esen Bogha, settled them between the Chu andTalas rivers. These separatist Uzbeks became known as Kazak (Independent or Vagabond) Uzbeks, and over time a significant differentiation developed between them and the Uzbeks in their respective ways of life: that of the Kazaks was more nomadic, that of the Uzbeks more sedentary.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:28
   During the late 15th century and throughout the 16th century, the Kazaks were able to consolidate a nomadic empire stretching across the steppes east of the Caspian and north of the Aral Sea as far as the upper Irtysh River and the western approaches to the Altai Mountains. Under Burunduk Khan (ruled 14881509) and Kasym Khan (150918) the Kazaks were the masters of virtually the entire steppe region, reportedly able to bring 200,000 horsemen into thefield and feared by all their neighbours. The prevailing view is that the rule of Kasym Khan marked the beginning of an independent Kazak polity. Under his rule Kazak power extended from what is now southeastern Kazakstan to the Urals.

   Under the successive rule of three of the sons of Kasym Khan (151838), however, there was a partial weakening of the khan's authority, accompanied by a trend, later to become more pronounced, for the khanate to disintegrate into three separate hordes. These were, from eastto west: the Great Horde, in present-day southeastern Kazakstan north of the Tien Shan; the Middle Horde, in the central steppe region east of the Aral Sea; and the Little Horde, between the Aral Sea and the Ural River. In each horde the authority of the khan tended to be curtailed bythe power exercised by tribal chieftains known as sultans and perhaps even more by the beys and batyrs (the heads of the clans that were the components of each tribe). Nominally, the khans commanded a formidable force of mounted warriors, but, in reality, they depended on the loyalty of the beys and batyrs. The last son of Kasym Khan to rule the Kazak steppes, Ḥaqq Naẓar (153880), overcame these obstacles and, having succeeded in reuniting the three hordes, embarked upon systematic raiding into Transoxania, a trend that continued under his immediate successors down to the reign of Tevkkel Khan (158698), who even temporarily occupied Samarkand. By the beginning of the 17th century, the fragmentation halted by Kasym Khan resumed and became endemic; Kazak central power was weak or nonexistent amidst a plethora of petty rulers
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:28
   From the 1680s to the 1770s, the Kazaks were involved in a series of wars with the Oyrat, a federation of four western Mongol tribes, among which the Dzungars were particularly aggressive. In 168184 the Dzungars, led by Galdan, launched a devastating attack against the Great Horde. The unification by Teke Khan (16801718) of the three hordes brought a temporary reversal in the fortunes of war, and in 171112 a Kazak counteroffensive penetrateddeep into Dzungar territory. Teke's achievements were not limited to war; he also was responsible for the creation of a Kazak law code, an amalgam of Kazak customary and Islāmic laws.

   In 1723 Galdan's successor Cevang Rabtan was again on the attack. Aided by Swedish officers who had been made Russian prisoners at the Battle of Poltava (1709) and had found their way tothese distant parts, the Dzungars launched a devastating invasion of the eastern Kazak lands. The memory of this national catastrophe, the Great Disaster, has never faded among the Kazaks. The next and last Dzungar invasion hit the Middle Horde, but thanks to the skills of thathorde's khan, Abūʾl-Khayr (171849), who managed to forge a temporary all-Kazak alliance, it was less devastating. Final deliverance from the Dzungar plague came in the form of Chinese (Manchu) intervention; in 175758 the Ch'ien-lung emperor launched two major campaigns, in the course of which the Dzungars were, for all practical purposes, exterminated and their land incorporated into China. For a time, the wily Ablai Khan of the Middle Horde had chosen not to take sides in the Dzungar-Chinese conflict. But, once the scores were settled, Ablai found it prudent to offer his submission to the Ch'ien-lung emperor. Then, in 1771, Ablai was confirmed as ruler by both the Chinese and the Russians. As a result of the collapse of Dzungar power, the Chinese inherited a vast territory that extended to Lake Balkhash and beyond, far into the Kazak steppes.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:29
   The brunt of the Dzungar wars was carried by the Great Horde; the Middle and Little hordes fared better, partly because they moved westward toward Russian-held territories. In 1730 Abūʾl Khayr, khan of the Little Horde, swore allegiance to the tsarina Anna Ivanovna
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:30
Russian and Soviet rule and independence
   The reverses experienced by the Kazaks at the hands of the Oyrats undoubtedly retarded the emergence of a unified Kazak state and further depressed the prevailing level of Kazak cultural life. It also rendered the Kazaks even less able to resist the encroachments of Russia from the north. The Russian advance onto the Kazak steppe began with the construction of a line of fortsOmsk in 1716, Semipalatinsk in 1718, Ust-Kamenogorsk in 1719, and Orsk in 1735which was then steadily advanced southward. The Russian advance into Kazak territory was slow and seldom violent but ineluctable; it made full use of Kazak internal divisions and dissensions but, in its essence, was the typical encroachment of sedentary agriculturalists into the lands of nomads. Russian occupation of the Kazak steppe would prove essential for the conquest of Muslim Central Asia.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:30
   Some Kazaks believed that the Russian presence might at least provide some security against Oyrat raids, and in 1731 the Little Horde accepted Russian protection, followed by the Middle Horde in 1740 and by part of the Great Horde in 1742, although its effect upon the Oyrats was to prove minimal. Finally, after a series of ineffectual Kazak uprisings of which the most extensive was that of Batyr Srym in 179297, Russia resolved to suppress such autonomy as the Kazak khans still possessed. In 1822 the khanate of the Middle Horde was abolished, in 1824 the Little Horde, and in 1848 the Great Horde.

   Because of Kazakstan's incorporation into Russia, modern ideas found a more fertile ground among the Kazaks than in the semi-independent Uzbek khanates. Russian schooling brought these ideas into Kazak life, and Russian-formed intellectuals such as Chokan Valikanov and Abay Kūnanbay-ul adapted them to specific Kazak needs and created a secular culture unparalleled in other parts of Asian Russia.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:31
   The Kazaks were onlookers rather than participants in the Russian Civil War that followed the fall of the tsarist regime in 1917. A Kazak provisional government formed by the ephemeral Alash Orda political party existed only in name. In 191920 the Bolsheviks' Red Army defeated White Russian forces in the region and occupied Kazakstan. On Aug. 26, 1920, the Soviet government established the Kirgiz Autonomous Republic, which in 1925 changed its name to Kazakh A.S.S.R. From 1927 the Soviet government pursued a vigorous policy of transforming the Kazak nomads into a settled population and of colonizing the region with Russians and Ukrainians.

   Despite their nomadic, rural existence, the Kazaks were the most literate and dynamic indigenous people in Central Asia. But the collectivization brutally imposed by the Soviet regime resulted in a shocking decrease in the Kazak population: between 1926 and 1939 the number of Kazaks in the Soviet Union fell by about one-fifth. More than 1.5 million died during this period, the majority from starvation and related diseases, others as a result of violence. Thousands of Kazaks fled to China, but less than a quarter survived the journey; about 300,000fled to Uzbekistan and 44,000 to Turkmenistan.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:32
   Kazakstan formally became a constituent (union) republic of the Soviet Union on Dec. 5, 1936. During the first secretaryship of Nikita Khrushchev, the role of Kazakstan within the Soviet Union increased dramatically. The Virgin and Idle Lands program launched in 1953 opened up the vast grasslands of northern Kazakstan to wheat farming by Slavic settlers. The importanceof Kazakstan also increased through the location on its territory of the main Soviet space-launch centre and a substantial part of the Soviet Union's nuclear weaponry and the sites associated with nuclear testing.

   For a quarter of a century Kazak politics were dominated by Dinmukhamed Kunayev, first secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakstan from 1959 to 1986. The only Kazak ever to become a member of the Soviet Politburo, Kunayev proved to be not only a masterful Soviet politician but also a man capable of constructive thoughts and achievements. Realizing that Kazaks constituted a minority of Kazakstan's population, he looked with equal care after the needs of both Russians and Kazaks. His dismissal in 1986 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev caused the first serious riots of the 1980s in the Soviet Union.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:33
   Kazakstan declared its sovereignty on Oct. 25, 1990, and declared full independence on Dec. 16, 1991. Under the presidency of Nursultan Nazarbayev, Kazak politics continued to follow themoderate policies of Kunayev. Interethnic tensions were under control. Relations with Russia were close, marked by cooperation on intelligence and an agreement on Russian jurisdiction over the nuclear forces in Kazakstan. Kazakstan joined international organizations such as the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund and appeared destined for an importantrole in Central Asia
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:36
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:37
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 02:39
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  Quote The Hidden Face Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 13:07

man, you are the one. Thank you very very much for this information.

Thanks again.

best regards.

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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 15:12
My Dear Turk,
   Thank you very much to invest your time in this new forum. Well, it's got a long way to go. I need all your advices. I'm looking forward to hearing from you soon. Take care and take it easy.


Kind regards,
Iltirish
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 15:12
   They were, in 13th century, in the reign of Chengiz Khan; ruled by Juchi. Later, Batu made them part of Kizil Ordu.

   They have three sub-divisions: uli juz, orta juz and kuchuk (kishi) Ulu Juz spent winter in southern Balkhash and YetiSu and summer in Tien Shan. Orta Juz spent winter in SirDerya and summer in Irtish. Finally, Kuchuk juz spent winter in Caspian beaches and summer in northern/southern mountains.
   They are Sunnite Moslems they are Kazaks.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 15:13
   They were, in 13th century, in the reign of Chengiz Khan; ruled by Juchi. Later, Batu made them part of Kizil Ordu.

   They have three sub-divisions: uli juz, orta juz and kuchuk (kishi) Ulu Juz spent winter in southern Balkhash and YetiSu and summer in Tien Shan. Orta Juz spent winter in SirDerya and summer in Irtish. Finally, Kuchuk juz spent winter in Caspian beaches and summer in northern/southern mountains.
   They are Sunnite Moslems they are Kazaks.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 15:15
Dr. Halife Altay, in his book, wrote:
   Kazaks are distinguished and called by their boy (lineage) and oymaq (tribe)

   Of pieces of writing that goes about Kazaks history, Mir Yaqub Dolat Oghlis
Poetical Works are one of the best collections to study:

Kazakting arqa atasi, Batir Turik
Arap degen sozdin tubi shirik
Palen sahabanin zatimin dep
Aldaqan din jamilqan ong key juyrik

Kazaks ancestor is Batir Turik
Arabs words are futile and nonsense
saying we (Kazaks) are descendents of such and such a person
they have deceived theologians
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 15:18
    In 1446 A.D, a Turk khan, named Ormanbet, died and some changes happened after his death. Princes and other khans (beyler), started to dispute, for power. Finally, in 1450, Abulxiyer Khan approved his superiority. And the separated groups were called Kazak.

Ose kez bizding kazak atanqandik
Turikte bir adet dar eski zangdik:
tamizip kanin sutke koship iship,
antdasada eken, tuveskandik

At that time, we were called Kazak
from old ages, there has been a tradition among Turks:
they mix the clear blood and the mil, and then serve it;
in this manner, they become co-oath

Kuralqan mejlis kip kazak ati,
atdasip kan kosilqan karindasi,
el bolip oz erkimen kochip konar
degen soz kazaktin maqanasi

A session was hold; and the name Kazak was picked up,
promise- made, blood-mixed, they became brothers,
the divided tribe, freely travels and lodges
this is the meaning of the word kazak
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jul-2005 at 15:20
   While AzJani Bek Khan was the leader of Kazak tribes, KaraKipchak Kobland, a famous national hero, killed one of Kazak khans. This was too much of trouble for AzJani Bek. So, to take vengeance, he gathered his army. Kobland Batir came to Abulxyer Khan to seek refuge.
   Abulxyer Khan offered AzJani Bek to take three persons blood- money and instead, he should dispense killing Kobland. But AzJani Bek didnt accept his proposal; he was displeased with the Great khan so he moved to other yurts:

Jalinqan ush kishining kunin al dep
almaqan kerek emes bizge mal dep.
bermegen, abulxyer koblandini,
kalqan el onu oltirsek buzilar dep.

He groaned and said: take three persons blood- money,
it is told that he didnt accept it.
Abulxyer didnt give Kobland back;
He said: the whole tribe would be offended, if I kill him,

Ayrilip okpeleship, Kazak koshken
Kipshakti, sharip- shansip katti oshikken
O daqi Shaqatayding nesilinen      
karaymiz tukluk temir xanqa desken

Kazak disconnected from (the original); cheerless, moved;
he furiously surprised Kiptchak;
he was also the descendent of Chaghatay;
he said: we would remain related to Tukluk Temir

Askerini ushke bolgen AzJani Bek
Uli juz, orta juz, kishi juz dep.
Shaqatay nesilinen Ahmet Alash,
ustinen koshpeli elding turgan biylep.

AzJani Bek divided his army into three parts,
the big part, the center part, and the small part.
Ahmad Alash, Shaqatay descendent,
was the leader of nomads

Bolsa da tukimi bir zati aralas,
Sol kunde Kazak- Kalmuk jerge talas.
Alash Batur Alashtin tuven tikti,
Kalmuktar anin atin koyqan Alash

While being of the same origin,
For the land of Kazak and Kalmuk, quarreled
Alash Batur elevated Alashs flag
and Kalmuks called that Alash.

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