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Chronological Synchronisms in the Ancient Mid East

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Sharrukin View Drop Down
Chieftain
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  Quote Sharrukin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Chronological Synchronisms in the Ancient Mid East
    Posted: 02-Jul-2019 at 03:16
EGYPT                                                                                                          MESOPOTAMIA

6TH DYNASTY               DESTRUCTION OF EBLA SYNCHRONISM c. 2300 BC       AKKADIAN EMPIRE
Ebla was destroyed about 2300 BC.   The historical narrative indicates that it was Sargon of Akkad who went
northwest and conquered Mari, Iarmuti, and Ebla.   In the destruction level of Palace G of Ebla was found a
pottery shard with the cartouche of Pepi I of the 6th Dynasty.  Hence Pepi I was close in time with Sargon.  Their
reigns are independently dated (c. 2334-2279 BC) for Sargon and (c. 2332-2287 BC) for Pepi I according to one
scholar.

                                   4.2 KILO YEAR EVENT SYNCHRONISM c. 2200 BC
A worldwide famine has been dated beginning about 2200 BC and lasted for 100 years.   Scientists from various
disciplines have found that this even coincided with the collapse of the Egyptian 6th Dynasty and the
disintegration of the Akkadian Empire.  Northern Mesopotamian centers of Akkadian rule were abandoned and
contemporary narrative mentioned famine in Sumer and Akkad which led to the encroachment of the Gutians and the
end of the Akkadian dynasty.

1ST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD                                                                           GUTIAN PERIOD

                                                                                                                   NEO-SUMERIAN PERIOD

11TH DYNASTY                                                                                              ISIN-LARSA PERIOD

12TH DYNASTY

2ND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD                                                                          OLD BABYLONIAN EMPIRE

18TH DYNASTY                                                                                             KASSITE/MIDDLE ASSYRIAN PERIOD
                                      TELL AMARNA SYNCHRONISMS c. 1350-1330 BC
The Tell Amarna archive include correspondences between Amenophis III (c. 1391-1353 BC) and his successor
Amenophis IV (c. 1353-1336 BC) with rulers of other kingdoms including two rulers of Babylon (Kadashman-Enlil I,
c. 1374-1360 BC, and Burna-buriash II, c. 1360-1334 BC) and a ruler of Assyria, Ashur-uballit I (c. 1363-1328 BC).  
The chronology of the two rulers of Babylonia are established with the absolute chronology of the rulers of
Assyria.
    
19TH DYNASTY                RAMESSIDE SYNCHRONISMS c. 1290-1260 BC
Post-Amarna synchronisms are established through contemporay correspondences and treaties between rulers of
Egypt and rulers of the Hittites, Assyrians, and Babylonians.  Ramesses II (c. 1294-1227 BC) was contemporary with
the Hittite kings Muwatalli II (whom he warred against), Mursili III, and Hattusili III (whom he made peace with),
who were in turn contemporary with Assyrian kings Adad-nirari (c. 1307-1275 BC) who was in correspondence with the
Hittite kings Mursili III and Hattusili III, Shalmaneser I (c. 1274-1245 BC) and Tukulti-Ninurta I (c. 1244-1208
BC) who defeated Hattusili III, and Kassite kings Kadashman-Turgu (c. 1285-1268 BC) who communicated with both
Hattusili III and Ramesses II, and Kadashman-Enlil II (c. 1267-1259 BC) who communicated with Hattusili III.

20TH DYNASTY

21ST DYNASTY

LIBYAN PERIOD               SHOSHENQ SYNCHRONISM c. 926 BC                        NEO-ASSYRIAN PERIOD
The Biblical narrative mentions an invasion of an Egyptian ruler named Shishak who sacked Jerusalem and an
Egyptian inscription mentions that Shoshenq I invaded Canaan.  This synchonism is established by the synchronism
of Israelite kings with the Assyrian kings.   The earliest of these synchronisms establishes that king Ahab of
of Israel died in 853 BC.   Totaling the length of reigns of the Israelite kings (from the Bible narratives)
backwards to the first kings of the divided kingdom, Jeroboam I of Israel and Rehoboam of Judah, we arrive to
about 931 BC for the beginning of both kings' reigns.  Shishak's invasion occurred in the 5th year of Rehoboam
c. 926 BC.   The Shoshenq inscription mentioned that it occurred in the 20th year of the Egyptian king hence
marking the beginning of his reign about 945 BC.  

                                     LATE PERIOD SYNCHRONISM c. 716 BC
More than 200 years later, according to contemporary Assyrian inscriptions, the Assyrian king Sargon II
(721-705 BC) received 12 great horses from Osorkon IV, the last of the descendants of Shoshenq I.

25TH DYNASTY               LATE PERIOD SYNCHRONISMS c. 706-664 BC
Contemporary Assyrian inscriptions mention that Sargon II later received a political fugitive from
Shebitku a later king of Egypt. Esarhaddon (680-669 BC invaded Egypt and expelled Taharqa (690-664 BC). 
Ashurbanipal (668-627 BC) installed Psamtek I (664-610 BC) as vassal king of Egypt.

26TH DYNASTY               LATE PERIOD SYNCHRONISMS 605 BC                       NEO-BABYLONIAN EMPIRE
Nekau II, king of Egypt (610-595 BC) invaded Syria-Palestine to meet the Babylonians in battle at Carchemish
where he was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar, (604-562 BC) the crown-prince of Babylon.

PERSIAN EMPIRE                                                                                           PERSIAN EMPIRE
Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC) conquered Babylonia in 539 BC and his son and successor Cambyses (530-523 BC)
conquered Egypt in 525 BC.    
 


Edited by Sharrukin - 02-Jul-2019 at 03:20
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Arthur-Robin View Drop Down
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  Quote Arthur-Robin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Jul-2019 at 17:32

Sharrukin this is a good idea, i recently was asking someone about a source or sources that Rohl mentioned in the end notes of his Test of Time book which he said listed the known synchroisms. (Does anyone have his book and can give the synchronisms source/sources name/names he gave? I don't have access to his book.)
If the synchronisms are correct i agree with them but I don't agree with the calculated vertical dates on both sides (and they are only coincidental where they match).

Egypt: -- Mesopotamia/Iraq:
Semainian -- Uruk (ref Childe, Hrozny)
Old Kingdom -- Ur 0/1 graves (ref Waddell)
3rd/4th dyn - Byblos - Lagash (ref T&H, Alford, ...)?
4-6th dyn -- Lagash (ref Sayce)
"6th dyn - Ebla - Akkad?"
Middle Kingdom -- Mari (ref Childe)
13th dyn - Yantin - Babylon 1 dyn (ref Rohl, etc)
Hyksos scarab at Baghdad (ref Velikovsky)
"Hyksos afraid of Assyrians" (Josephus)
18th dyn -- Nahrina
18th dyn -- Hatti, Mitanni, Middle Assyrian, Kassi (ref Amarna)
19th dyn - Kadesh - Hittites
19/20/22 dyn Seapeoples -- Toakkari Sea Peoples depicted in Assyrian?
22nd dyn - Phoenicians, - Assyrians (refs Rohl, Weigall, Bey)
23rd dyn Osorkon 4 -- Sargon 2
25th dyn Shebitku -- Sargon 2
25th dyn (Taharka) -- Assyrian (Esarhaddon)
26th (Psamtek) -- Assyrian (Ashurbanipal)
26th dyn (Neco) - Carchemish - Neo-Babylonian
Persians
Macedonian
Ptolemaic -- Seleucid
Mubarak -- Hussein

Old Kingdom graves and Ur 0/1 graves are said to be similar or have similarities (ref Waddell).

Both the 3rd/4th dyn and Lagash traded with Byblos for wood?

6th dyn & Ebla & Accad are supposedly synchronous because interconnection between them, but it is said that it depends on context and possible time gap between 6th dyn & Ebla and/or Ebla & Accad.

Lagash 1 or 2 is synchronous with 4th to 6th dynasty pyramid builders because a Lagash statue/picture had same measurements. Not sure if it is Lagash 1 or 2 though. If it is 1 then confirms Accad with 6th dyn, but if it is 2 then confirms Accad may really match 4th dynasty.
(In my biblical findings Accad dynasty comes between Joseph (3rd-4th dyn) and Moses (6th? & 12th dyn). If Accad is 4th dyn then it is time of Joseph, if it is 6th dyn then time of Moses or between Joseph (4th dyn) and Moses (12th dyn). The worldwide famine you mentioned resembles Joseph's. Manishtusu resembles Manasseh & Menkaure/Mycerinus. Rimush/Mush of Akkad resembles Ramses/Moses. 2 suns in Naramsin resemble Joshua halt sun.)

Amarna & Kassite & Mitanni & Mid-Assyrian are synchronism because Amarna letters confirm all as contemporaries.

13th dyn & Yantin & 1st Babylonian dyn are synchronous because ancient evidence/source connects them as contemporaries.

22nd dynasty names Osorkon, Takeloth, Nimlot are similar to Assyrian names. (Sheshonk is similar to Elamite Susinak?)

NZ's mandatory fluoridation is not fair because it only forces it on the disadvantaged/some and not on the advantaged/everyone.
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  Quote Sharrukin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07-Jul-2019 at 12:51
Egypt: -- Mesopotamia/Iraq:
Semainian -- Uruk (ref Childe, Hrozny)

Both Childe and Hrozny are out of date in regards to chronology.  Childe's expertise was archaeological methodology and Hrozny's was Hittitology.    We now know that Semainian is 1st Dynasty.   The synchronism with Uruk is now Naqada I, II, and III.

Old Kingdom -- Ur 0/1 graves (ref Waddell)

Waddell, I'm not familiar with.   However, the Royal Tombs of Ur date squarely to Sumerian Early Dynastic III period (c. 2600-2350 BC) more specifically (c. 2550-2450 BC), so yeah they would be contemporary with Egyptian Old Kingdom but earlier than the Akkadian Period, hence earlier than Egyptian 6th Dynasty.

3rd/4th dyn -Egyptian Byblos - Lagash (ref T&H, Alford, ...)?

The 3rd and 4th Egyptian dynasties collectively were between c. 2680 and 2400 BC (middle chronologies).  Lagash I (Ur-Nanshe dynasty) was between c. 2500 and 2340 BC, so yeah there was some overlap of time, there.

4-6th dyn -- Lagash (ref Sayce)

The Egyptian 4th through 6th Dynasties lasted from c. 2600 to 2190 BC (middle chronologies).  Again, Lagash I (Ur-Nanshe dynasty) was between c. 2500-2340 BC, so more accurately they were contemporary if we exclude 6th dynasty and just include Egyptian dynasties 4 and 5 (c. 2600-2350 BC)

"6th dyn - Ebla - Akkad?"

This is the current concensus.   The archaeology indicates that Ebla was destroyed by about 2300 BC.   Mari was destroyed about the same time.  The narrative regarding Sargon mentions that he conquered both Ebla and Mari.   The earlier literature did however date the destruction of Ebla to about 2250 BC and speculated that it was Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin who destroyed it, but since then Ebla's destruction is now put at about 2300 BC.

Middle Kingdom -- Mari (ref Childe)

The Egyptian Middle Kingdom (11th to 14th Dynasties, c. 2050-1650 BC) and Mari (Shakkanaku Dynasty, c. 2266-1850 BC; Lim Dynasty, 1830-1761 BC) were contemporary, so, yeah.

13th dyn - Yantin - Babylon 1 dyn (ref Rohl, etc)

Apparently Neferhotep I of the 13th dynasty was overlord of Yantin (Intin) the governor of Byblos who may have been the Yantin-'Ammu of the Mari Archive of Zimrilim who was contemporary of Hammurabi of Babylon.  Precarious synchronism, but not unlikely.

Hyksos scarab at Baghdad (ref Velikovsky)

Velikovsky's expertise was in psychiatry and psychology and has no standing in ancient middle eastern history, linguistics, or archaeology.  His writings are relegated as examples of pseudo-science in the academic community.

"Hyksos afraid of Assyrians" (Josephus)

This is Josephus's interpretation.   He was no authority on Mesopotamian history.  The Hyksos presence in Egypt (15th Dynasty, c. 1650-1550 BC) coincided with the Hittite Old Kingdom which invaded and conquered Syria during the same period.   Assyria was either under Babylonian domination or very weak given that the greater part of northern Mesopotamia was under Hurrian domination which led to the formation of the early Mitanni kingdom by c. 1550 BC under Kirta.

18th dyn -- Nahrina

Nahrina was just another name for Mitanni, so 18th Dynasty (c. 1550-1300 BC) and Mitanni (c. 1550-1250 BC) synchronism is correct.

18th dyn -- Hatti, Mitanni, Middle Assyrian, Kassi (ref Amarna)

yes

19th dyn - Kadesh - Hittites

yes

19/20/22 dyn Seapeoples -- Toakkari Sea Peoples depicted in Assyrian?

I'm assuming that by "Toakkari" you mean the Tjekker?  I am not aware of any Assyrian reference to Sea Peoples.   The Tjekker in the 11th century were located at Dor.

22nd dyn - Phoenicians, - Assyrians (refs Rohl, Weigall, Bey)
23rd dyn Osorkon 4 -- Sargon 2
25th dyn Shebitku -- Sargon 2
25th dyn (Taharka) -- Assyrian (Esarhaddon)
26th (Psamtek) -- Assyrian (Ashurbanipal)
26th dyn (Neco) - Carchemish - Neo-Babylonian
Persians[/quote]
These synchronisms reflect what I posted above

Macedonian
Ptolemaic -- Seleucid
Mubarak -- Hussein

These go beyond the scope of my synchronisms

Old Kingdom graves and Ur 0/1 graves are said to be similar or have similarities (ref Waddell).

But let's be clear about this.   There are NO contemporary evidence of contacts between the two regions.  Similarities could mean anything.   From the much more documentary evidence from the Egyptian Old Kingdom from the period c. 2600-2350 BC the only evidence of contact with western Asia are in the form of artefacts and descriptions of contacts with the Sinai, and Syria-Palestine.

Both the 3rd/4th dyn and Lagash traded with Byblos for wood?

The Lagash evidence only describes the Cedar Forest which didn't necessarily mean that there was contact with Byblos.  More than likely would have been contacts with Ebla, since the Eblaite archive does describe contacts with Sumer.

6th dyn & Ebla & Accad are supposedly synchronous because interconnection between them, but it is said that it depends on context and possible time gap between 6th dyn & Ebla and/or Ebla & Accad.

The current archaeology dates the destruction of Ebla by about 2300 BC.   In the destruction level of Palace G was found the cartouche of Pepi I, and since some chronological constructs do date him (independently of the Mesopotamian chronology) in the period just prior to its destruction, either he was a contemporary of Sargon, an older contemporary, or at least a generation earlier than Sargon.

Lagash 1 or 2 is synchronous with 4th to 6th dynasty pyramid builders because a Lagash statue/picture had same measurements. Not sure if it is Lagash 1 or 2 though. If it is 1 then confirms Accad with 6th dyn, but if it is 2 then confirms Accad may really match 4th dynasty.

Again, one shouldn't place too much emphasis on such coincidences since even the purpose of such measurements are widely different.   Your "Lagash 2" (Gudea dynasty?) dates from the time just prior to Ur III (beginning about 2113 BC).

(In my biblical findings Accad dynasty comes between Joseph (3rd-4th dyn) and Moses (6th? & 12th dyn). If Accad is 4th dyn then it is time of Joseph, if it is 6th dyn then time of Moses or between Joseph (4th dyn) and Moses (12th dyn). The worldwide famine you mentioned resembles Joseph's. Manishtusu resembles Manasseh & Menkaure/Mycerinus. Rimush/Mush of Akkad resembles Ramses/Moses. 2 suns in Naramsin resemble Joshua halt sun.)

Well, you know my opinion on your biblical synchronisms, and so I'll just leave it at that.   I'll only concern myself with the inscriptional and documentary evidence.

Amarna & Kassite & Mitanni & Mid-Assyrian are synchronism because Amarna letters confirm all as contemporaries.

Yes

13th dyn & Yantin & 1st Babylonian dyn are synchronous because ancient evidence/source connects them as contemporaries.

As I've written above, this is precarious, but not unlikely.   It is precarious because there may have been more then one "Yantin" governor of Byblos.   We just don't have a good list of rulers of Byblos for the period.   I will accept this, for the time being, though.

22nd dynasty names Osorkon, Takeloth, Nimlot are similar to Assyrian names.

Umm, no.   Direct Assyrian contact with Egypt only dates from Sargon's raid on an Egyptian border town about 716 BC which resulted in Osorkon (Shilkanni in the Assyrian inscription) giving him a tribute of horses, after which the Assyrian king withdrew.

(Sheshonk is similar to Elamite Susinak?)

Sheshonq's ancestry is Libyan.  Susinak is an element of the Elamite deity name In-shushinak.   There is no evidence of an Elamite empire stretching that far into Libya, otherwise we should have evidence of the name of the deity stretching the entire length of the fertile crescent into Egypt, (prior to the Libyan period) and into Libya itself.  The Elamite city of Susa (Shushan) was named after the name of the deity, and is ancient, dating back to about 4200 BC.
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