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historical "(King) Arthur" quest

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  Quote Arthur-Robin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: historical "(King) Arthur" quest
    Posted: 09-Feb-2018 at 12:52

Can "(King) Arthur" be found to match or be from an historical person?

I searched the forum archives to see if already a thread fitting this, but i found too many (a few to half a dozen) and couldn't decide to post this in any of them and decided it would be better as a new thread of its own. (We also wanted to have a thread specially on "who was Arthur" separate from our other 12 battles thread which is more about where than who/when.)

A few years ago we discovered that 8 of the 9 battle sites of the 12 battles of Arthur in the Historia Britonum of "Nennius" seem to match 8 of the 9 Saxon Shore forts of the Notita Dignitatum from Great Yarmouth [Glein] to Portchester [Badon (2)]. This answered the big question of "where was Arthur?" We are pretty certain from the quantity and quality of evidence that the match is right. However, although we found where Arthur was, we still have yet to answer the other question of when and/or who was Arthur? If we can answer this then it would surely be major supporting evidence for that our match of Arthur's battle sites with the Saxon Shore sites is right.

There might possibly be more than one historical original of "(King) Arthur". So i usually specify "the Arthur of the battle of Badon or Guinnion" in the 400s and/or 500s a.d.

I have between a few to a dozen candidates for Arthur but i have not yet been able to prove which one or ones is/are the correct main match. Some (not all) of my main candidates include: Cadwallon Lawhir, Ambrosius/Aureli(an)us, St Patrick, Gwallawg, Ethelbert, Urien(s), Rhuvawn Pebr, Pol Aurelian, Vortimer, Pabo Post Prydain, Count Paul, Garthwys Hir, etc. If we are able re time and health and situation we hope to post evidences for each of the main candidates. I am aware that some may be wrong, so don't be to harsh on me.

The first candidate we post on is Ethelbert of Kent 552-616.

(Each block below has first Arthur detail(s) and then similar Ethelbert details.)

Arthur: Became king when 15 yrs old. 12 yrs peace after Badon in HRB.
Ethelbert: Ascended throne only 7 yrs old in 560 in ASC. Was 15 yrs old at battle of Wibbandune in 568 in ASC. 12 yrs 604-616?

Arthur: was/wasn't a "king"? "emperor"? "dux". ["chief(tain)"?] "miles". commander/leader of battles of alliance of British kings in the HB.
Ethelbert: king (ASC).  "son of king of Kent". "Ethelbert reigned in England" in 594 in the AC.
Kentish Royal Legend.
3rd Bretwalda, held imperium over Saxons (Bede).
(Son of Ermenric who is emperor in Dietrich of Berne?)
Called "a man of Kent".
Redwald "conceded to him [Ethelbert] the military leadership of his people".

Arthur: versus tribute demands of Roman general or procurator or "emperor" Lucius Tiberius in Gaul/France. Versus Flollo in Gaul/France.
 Maybe connected with Riothamus and legion of Britons at the Loire?
Ethelbert: "no evidence Ethelbert ever accepted a continental [Frankish] king as overlord".
"as far as mouth of Loire".
(Roman emperor was Tiberius 2 Constantine.)

Arthur: "christian".
Ethelbert: "christian".

Arthur: said to not be known to be in the ASC.
Ethelbert: is known in the ASC.

Arthur: name Arthur/Art(h)us/Artorius (theorized to maybe mean arth "bear" or ard "high" + vawr "great" or gur "man") might be a corruption of Aurelius? [Gildas contemporary of Ard-ri "high king".]
Ethelbert: name (St.) Ethelbert/Aethelbert/Aethelberht/Aethelbriht ("noble bright", Eormenricing) is perhaps similar to Arthur or Arthuret or Eliffer/Elifert/Eleuther(ius) or Luthor/Liber or Uther Ben or Aedan?
(Daughter Aethelburg/Aethelburh.
Ethelings also mentioned in 617 in the ASC.
(A)ethelfrit(h)/Ethelfrid/Aedlfred shared 3rd Bretwalda 593.
Ethelric/Ydolorec 588 (ASC).
Augustine & monks from St Andrew's, Rome.)
* Pope Eleutherius or "Evaristus/Eucharistus" is emperor (L(ucius) (Aurelius)) Verus.

Arthur: siege/battle of Bad(d)on/Bath/Badonbyrig/Baddesdown "Badda's"? connected with Gildas birthday and 44 yrs, and 150 yrs prophecy end in ca 547/597? Until time of Ida (547-560) in the HB. Iddawg. Osla. Arthurian peace ends 570.
Ethelbert: Bebbanburh 547 ASC? battle at Wibbandun(e)/"Wimbledon" "Wibba's mount" & Oslake 568 or c 590, synod of victory 569 (AC), close to Columba 44/45 yrs old in 560/565. battle at Bath 577. battle of Woddesbeorg 591 (ASC). prophecy of Augustine 607 (ASC). battle of Beandune 614 ad / 5618 am. 44 yrs 560-604?
(Possibly compare Badda, Bebba, Bertha?)

Arthur: fought specifically Kentishmen (HB, Collingwood, Jackson, Evans). 5 of his 9 battle sites are in Kent.
Ethelbert: king in Kent.

Arthur: may be connected with Emrys/Ambrosius/Aurelius or Riothamus. Athrwys son of Meurig? Arthur was brought up by Merlin/Emrys/Ambrosius. [Gildas contemporary of Ainmire/Anmericus. Patrick contemporary of Matheus/Amatheus/Matheorex/Amatheorex.]
Ethelbert: son of Irminric/E(o)rmenric.

Arthur: civil war of Camlan "537". (Civil war of Arthuret 573?)
Ethelbert: "stirred up civil war" 568 (Ethelwerd). Bedcanford 571?
(One major difference between Ethelbert and Arthur though is that Ethelbert isn't said to have died in a last battle, though his death comes shortly after the Beandune slaughter?)

Arthur: Camelot. "Malory moved Arthur to London". Llychlyn.
Ethelbert: Mellitus. Canterbury Aethelbert's "metropolis". London. Redwald was "at Aethelbert's court".

Arthur: Merlin/Myrddin/Emrys? [Maelgwn a monk (DEB).]
Ethelbert:  son of Ermenric. St Martin's church Canterbury. Bishop Mellitus. [St Martin le Grand Dover.]
(Great great grandchild the "holy child" Merefin.)

Arthur: Lancelot du Lac (affair with queen Guinevere). Gawain (died at Rutupi/Dover). Augusel (HRB).
Ethelbert: bishop Liudhard (queen Bertha's chaplain). Oslake 568. Laurentius 616 (ASC). Cnebba 568. Augustine 597.

Arthur: 22 yrs from Badon "516" to Camlan "537" (AC).
Ethelbert died 21 yrs after baptism (Bede).
53 minus 32 yrs = 21 yrs in the 560 entry of the ASC.
Wibbandune 568 (similar to Badon) to Woddesbeorg 591 (similar to Camlan) = 22 yrs?

Arthur: section 50/56 of the HB of Nennius.
"halted Saxon advance for 50 yrs".
[Gildas may have lived 53/54 yrs (Evans)?]
Ethelbert: Wibbandune 568 is 50 yrs after Badon 516/518 of the AC.
Ethelbert reigned 53/56 yrs from 560/565.
(Pentecost also mentioned in 627 in the ASC.)
(A footnote in Bede's EH also says "50 years later" after Augustine the language of the Franks was regarded in as a barbara loquella in England.)
(2nd battle of Badon 665 is 50 years after Beandune 614 just before Ethelbert's death in 616.)

Arthur: some sources suggest he may have lived to quite old age.
[Patrick like Moses lived to 120 yrs (HB).
Aurelius Conan 100 yrs like Methusalem (DEB).
Vortipor "grey hair" (DEB).]
Ethelbert: reigned 53/56 yrs (ASC) which some scholars doubt.

Arthur: Mother Igraine/Igerna. Wife queen Guinevere/Winlogee/Guanhumara (affair Lancelot).
[Constantine put away his wife, and Vortipore put away his wife, and Cuneglas threw out of doors his wife and esteemed her sister (DEB). DEB mentioned "former wife" of Maelgwn, and that he enjoyed affections of wife of his brother's son.]
Ethelbert: Wife queen Bertha daughter of Ingoberg (chaplain Liudhard). (Daughter Aethelburg/Aethelburh. great grand daughter Domne Eafe. Ethelbert's laws code has bits on divorce.)
Eadbald married his step mother.

Arthur: Badon "516/518/554", Camlan "537".
Ethelbert: died 616/618 ad / 5618 am.

Arthur: French medieval Arthurian romances etc. St Arthmael.
Ethelbert: Frankish cultural influence 510-570.

Arthur: holy grail?
Ethelbert: glass beakers. (glass vessel at Dover.)

Arthur: son of Uther/Uter/Iubher (Ben/Pendragon) [who is similar to Tewdrig.]
Ethelbert: forefather is Octa or Oeric. from Jutes/Euthiones 450-500.
(Theudebert. Theuderic. Vortigern married daughter of Hengist.)

Arthur: magnanimous (HB). munificence, generosity (HRB). politeness (HRB). code of courtliness (HRB). code of chivalry/conduct (French Romances). Arthur reigned in peace for 12 yrs (HRB).
["did all and every one of them live orderly", "laws of truth & justice", "virtues" (DEB). 
Ambrosius/Aurelius was "a modest man" (DEB 25). Aurelius means "golden, fine, excellent". "Besides, he was magnificent in his presents, constant at his devotions, temperate in all respects, and above all things hated a lie..... Reports of these his noble accomplishments...." "showed moderation in all his conduct" "the mercy of Aurelius" "Aurelius was moved with pity" "restores ecclesiastical affairs" (HRB)
Maelgwn "more liberal than others in giving" (DEB).
Maelgwn "extraordinary munificence".
Mynyddawg "courteous"
Pol Aurelian "preserver of the faith, constant lover of his country, champion of righteousness".
Urien "generous of bounty".
Rhuvawn "pious, hospitable"
Tudvwlch "dignity".]
Ethelbert: code of laws.
[Compare: Atilla "restrained in action, gracious to suppliants, lenient...".]

Arthur: Gildas 44 yrs. Gildas may have died 78 yrs old (Evans)?
Ethelbert: Columba 44 yrs. Columba died 77 yrs old.

Arthur: Uther Pendragon. Arthur Pendragon. Golden Dragon at Badon/Guinnion/Bereford. Gwyn Dragon (Y Gododin). [Symbol of Gwynedd/Wales is Red Dragon.]
Ethelbert: symbol of Kent/Jutes is a white horse [or white dragon] on a red field?
"Gwyn Dragon probably Hengist" (John Williams).

Arthur: In the list of Bretwaldas Arthur must/may come somewhere between Aelle & Redwald, or between Aelle & Ethelbert, or "between Aelle & Ceawlin", and he possibly could match either Aelle or Ethelbert or Redwald.
Ethelbert: He has possible matches with Arthur, and he comes between Aelle and Ethelbert/Redwald.

Arthur: comes either during or after Octa 488 in the HB of Nennius.
Ethelbert: comes after Octa.

AA = Aurelius Ambrosius
AC = Welsh Annals.
ad = anno domini "year of the Lord" (current/common/christian era)
am = anno mundi "year of the world" (from reckoned date of creation)
AN = Arthurnet
ASC = Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
ByT = Brut ...
C&O = Culwch & Olwen
CMSM = Chronicle Mt St Michel
DEB = Gildas
DM(T)N = Descent of Men of the North
eg = for example(s)
EH = Bede
Geoff = Geoffrey (of Monmouth)
HG = Holy grail
HB = Nennius
HRB = Geoffrey of Monmouth
KA = "(King) Arthur"
LF = Liber Floridus of St Omer
Mt(n)(s) = Mount(ain)(s)
ND = Notita Dignitatum
OEC = Old English Chronicles
PG = Pa Gur
RT = round table
SH = Sutton Hoo, or Stonehenge, or Staffordshire Hoard
SS = Saxon Shore
St(s) = Saint(s)
WA = Welsh Annals
Yr(s) = year(s)

Edited by Arthur-Robin - 09-Feb-2018 at 13:01
NZ's mandatory fluoridation is not fair because it only forces it on the disadvantaged/some and not on the advantaged/everyone.
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  Quote Arthur-Robin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-Feb-2018 at 03:34
Just a postscript to the first post:

Suggested possible meanings of the name Arthur / Arturus/Artorius / Arturo/Art(h)us have been:
arth "bear" or ard "high" or "stone" or arrdhu "very black" or ath "very" or "our" or xartus "righteousness" + vawr "great" or wras "great" or gur "man" or rig "king" or rhwys "vigorously" or -hun "bear cub" or ouros "guardian/watcher" or "noble one" or artir/ardir "upon the land/ground/territory of" or artor "ploughman", or Gwarth "a calumny justly retorted".

The name Ethelbert/Aethelbert/Aethelberht/Aethelbriht / Athelbrictus/Aethelbricto/Edelbrictus/Edelbertus / Albert/Al/Alberto/Aubert/Bert is said to mean "noble (and) bright/brilliant/illustrious/shining/glorious (one), nobly famous"

The suggested meanings of the name Atilla/Atli/Etzel have been:
atli "bear" (in Norse), "grandfather", "little (fore)father", "(the) ocean(ic)/sea/river great/old/universal ruler", "name/fame", "possessor of geldings, provider of warhorses, cavalier/horseman, horse tongue", "same/similar", "to use".

* I think i have also seen these meanings for either Arcturus, Arthur &/or Pendragon, MabUter, Uther Ben/Pendragon: "guardian of the bear", "horrible bear", "terrible warrior", "horrible son", "[wonderful] head of Bran", "tower of battle/slaughter"?

Edited by Arthur-Robin - 12-Feb-2018 at 03:42
NZ's mandatory fluoridation is not fair because it only forces it on the disadvantaged/some and not on the advantaged/everyone.
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  Quote Arthur-Robin Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-Aug-2018 at 03:45

One of the subjects connected with who was "(King) Arthur" is the question where his grave/tomb is. This following piece is intended to try to give you our collected clues/evidences for where Arthur's body or grave or cenotaph may be. A recent post in the Arthurian Society group in facebook about the tradition of Arthur resting in a cave or hill helped us to write this piece. Our original discovery that the 12 battles 9 battle sites of Arthur match the 9 Saxon Shore sites from Yarmouth to Portsmouth helps us to identify lots of Arthurian places. Arthur was certainly in the south and east quarter/half of England/Britain. My own candidate for the site of Arthur's (or Vortimer's or Ambrosius'/Aurelius') grave is either Richborough/Rutupi (city of the legion) or Dover (Guinnion/Eidyn) or Reculver (Bassas/Afarnach) or Canterbury. It seems that Arthur's grave might be the same as Vortimer's brazen pyramid? The only body in the 4 main candidates is the skeleton found in St Martin le Grand which it seems might possibly be "Arthur" (or Ninnian?) In the list of grave/tombs below we are trying to show certain significant similarities of Arthur's grave/tomb and some of the other peoples graves/tombs, and that these connections provide the subtle clues to where his grave/tomb/body is/was. Arthur is maybe called by more than one other name(s) than just the name Arthur, and some Arthurian places have more than one name (eg Dover/Guinnion/Eidyn). (There might have been more than one "Uther" and/or "Arthur", with the few main candidates including Patrick, or Ninnian, Vortimer, or Natanleod, or Ambrosius/Aurelius, or Urien, or Cadwallon Lawhir, or Gwallawg, Vortipore, or Ethelbert, and Cadwallon/Cadwaladr. Arthur's name and battles is pretty similar to Vortimer's and/or Vortipore's.)

King Arthur's grave:
(Arthur "was an old man" according to The History of Gruffydd ap Cynan.)
- "Arthur is not dead" in Cornish. ("Arthur's messianic return".)
One of the sometimes claimed leaders of the Wild Hunt is King Arthur.
- "Arthur’s grave not known" / "an eternal wonder is the grave of Arthur" in Black Book of Carmarthen. (Carmarthen may be conected with St Martin le Grand?)
Arthur's grave "nowhere seen" (William of Malmesbury).
- in a cave or in "hollow hill/mountain" or underground. (Womb?)
"Arthur sleeps in South Cadbury in a hollow hill with iron gates which open on St John's Eve".
- died at the City of Lions/Lyonesse (140 churches, ref Brewer/Cooper). (The city of lions in south-west is an analogous memory of the city of the legion Ricborough in the south-east.)
- Arthur died after "great slaughter" at battle of Camlan (cant/cam "bend, twisted/crooked/curving" or "a comb/crest", + "glen/river/valley/bank" or "enclosure/inclosure" or lann "land"? Compare "the bank of the Caman formerly a deep torrent" in Saints Lives?) (yr 22, or yr 92/93, or cw126, or 537 in the AC, or 542 in the HRB, or 576 in Hergest, or after Arthuret (Triads), associated with a plague or climatic/weather event. Battle connected with Iddawg. Some say that Camlann was maybe near to Camelot?) (Some have identified Camlan with Camboglanna nearby Hadrian's Wall, or Camelon in Falkirkshire, or Slaughter Bridge / Cam/Camel/Camelford/Tamar in Cornwall/Defna/Devon/Somerset, or Cwm Llan on Snowdon. There are crooked rivers near Sutton Hoo, Richborough/Sandwich, and Bitterne. Some think that Kent and Canterbury have the same cam/cant root-word in them? Camlan's name might resemble NawCantLeod, or Bedcanford?)
- Arthur taken with 3 females or Barinthus in a  boat/ship to "hall in the island of Afallach" (in the 'Welsh Triads') or Avalon/Avallon/Avaron/Avilion (which might be associated with apples/pomona, and which is variously a hall or island or vale, said to be "in the North Sea" in an Irish source according to Spanuth). ("Avalon & Logres, Heaven & Earth, Egypt & Israel". Arthur's sword was made in Avalon. Ogier the Dane was also taken to Avalon. Some have identified Avalon with the likes of Avallon in Burgundy, or ile d'Aval near Lannion, or Avon, or Aballava or Burgh by Sands, or Arran island in nw Scotland. Avalon might be connected with "Arvon's shore" which is presumably nearby Carnarfon/Segontium? We showed that "hall in the island of Afallach" resembles "Afarnach's hall" of the Pa Gur. Arthur has traditional association with the place Appledore (near Abulcorum). Avalon as "apples" might possibly be connected with the Appled Ash in the Wonders? Avalon's name is maybe similar to either Albion and Alannus in the HB and Atlantis, or Badon and Abaddon/Apollyon? Vale of Avalon might resemble Vallis Doloris / "Wedale"? The valley could match Wantsum-Stour. Compare similar names Akalon and/or Accaron in the HRB? Arthur taken to Avalon is similar to "Cadwaladr goes to Alan" in the HRB?)
Avalon as a "castle" in one source might link with castellum Guinnion (Dover)?
- Arthur's grave at Glastonbury Tor/Abbey (aka urbsUitrea / ynysGutrin/ineswitrin: "between the (two old Saxon) pyramids ... in a marble tomb. It lay deep in the ground in a hollowed oak .... ... a leaden cross attached to a stone beneath the coffin"
"What was reputed to be his crown was surrendered to Edward 1 at Carnarvon in 1282". (The two pyramids possibly recalls Vortimer's "Brazen Pyramid", or the two Lighthouses at Dover? Note that St Mary mother of god at Glastonbury. Glastonbury was only founded in 670/688 in the ASC. Bardsey island in Wales is associated with a "glass palace". Possibly compare the name Glastonbury with names Cadbury and Canterbury, or Almesbury/Amesbury/Ambresbury? Reculver is connected with a "former abbot of Glastonbury". Glasgwin in the 12 Monastries list may correspond with Guinnion/Dover in Arthur's battles. Cruc Glas? Maybe compare the city of lions had 140 churches? The Glastonbury Thorn might possibly be the Appled Ash in the Wonders of Britain? Maybe compare Augustine's Oak? Arthur's grave at Glastonbury is associated with a "lead cross"? The skeleton of Martin le Grand was in a lead coffin?)
- Bardsey island: "its legendary claim to be the burial site of King Arthur".
(Bardsey marks the end point of the North Wales Pilgrim's Way.)
- In one tradition Arthur sleeps at Craig Y Dinas where Blodeuwedd is buried, in a cavern with treasure hoard guarded by a bell. Blodeudwedd is similar to Mary of Guinnion (Dover). Craig Y Dinas is similar to castellum Guinnion & din Eidyn (Dover).
- Snowdon/Sinadon/Isneldone:  "King Arthur died/sleeps at Bwlch y Saethan/Saethau where he fell defending the pass"  / "excalibur thrown into Glaslyn" / "Arthur's men rest/sleep  nearby Y Lliwedd on Snowdon in a cave/cavern deep in the hill. This story has reappeared in connection with a cavern newly found near Aberdare in Glamorgan." (local Snowdonian folklore, Alan Garner).
 (Snowdon means "snow hill/down", compare the white chalk Downs of Kent. There is a Snowdown village in modern Kent not far from Dover. The Arthurian "castle of Snowdon/Stirling" has matches with the Arthurian "castle of Windsor", and with "castellum/fort Guinnion" at Dover.)
- Mt Etna / Sicily. (This is pertty certainly an analogy of Dover which is the site of Guinnion of the HB and mynydd Eidyn of the PG. There is an Edinburgh Hill at Dover. Sigar "Sicily" = Dobar in the 8 labours of Turein.)
- Eildon Hills in Roxburghshire
- the Mysterious Body of Levitating Altar in the Wonders of Britain is Arthur, and he or "Arthur the 2nd" is Arthwys ap Meurig of Gwent, and that he was buried in a cave in Gwent (refs Evans, Wilson & Blacket). (This Wonder seemingly may match the Reculver Cross in the monastery-church at Reculver which is the site of the Bassas battle of the HB and Afarnach's Hall of the PG?)
- Arthur's [Cross and/or] image of Mary was preserved at "Wedale" near "Melros" in the province of Lodonesia. (There is a church of Mary at Reculver, and at Dover/Guinnion. Possibly also compare Avalon with Alauna/Maryport?)
- The Berth near Baschurch in Shropshire ("poor research of Phillips", Deverell). (May be analogous to the Monastery-church at Reculver, and Afarnach's Hall.)
- "Arthur slain at battle in Dunnichen"?
- Alderley Edge (Alan Garner).
- under Richmond Castle near Catterick (Potter Thompson).
- 'A' at Buncarrick not far from Wexford (Wamsley). (Compare a maybe similar 'A' at [Glascow?])
- "Blencathra in Cumbria" (Stephen Holden)?
- Lindisfarne/Metcaut Holy Island (my father once suggested this might be Avalon, Uriens is also supposed to have died there? Compare Afarnach's Hall above?)
- Alderney/Longy in the Channel Islands was  briefly a possible isle of Avalon candidate of mine years ago. (Arthur's 12th battle of Badon was at Portchester. Alderney's local history details include a nunnery, burial cists, pond, fort, hoard. Compare with Arthur sleeping in Alderley Edge? Perhaps also compare that King Alfred was in "the marshy isle/island of Alney/Athelingay"?)
- The Pictish Palace in the Liber Floridus was suggested by Judy Shoaf as possibly being Arthur's resting place or cenotaph.
- Sutton Hoo Man ship burial (a past theory of my own). (Deben river  is very crooked banked. Cavloc and/or Pavloc are similar to Avalon and/or Camelot? Camlan could be Woddesbeorg 592 which could be Woodbridge or Woodnesborough. There is a Campsea near Sutton Hoo.)
Clarent was maybe the weapon which Mordred slew King Arthur with? Suffolk is associated with name Clarence.
- "Fred" the skeleton found in St Martin le Grand church in Dover/Dubris and now in the Dover Painted House Museum collection.
- "Arthur sleeps in Caerleon with all his court".
- "Arthur sleeps beneath the castle ruins at Sewingshield, Northumberland, with a pack of hounds".
- "stirred up civil war" in the Wibbandune/Wimbledon 568 entry of Ethelwerd's ASC might be similar to Arthur versus Mordred at Camlan?

- The HRB has Mordred fleeing to "Winchester" (Guintonhi/Guintguic) in the Camlan chapter.

Merlin's grave:
- "Merdinn Avellanaw"?
- Arthuret and the Caledonian Wood/forest. (Compare Aneirin after the battle in Y Gododin. Gwendoleu seems to be connected with Guinnion/Dover.)
- "Merlin hid golden throne of Britain in cliff nearby CribyDdysgl (Snowdon) when Saxons invaded"
- Broceliande (Paimpont, in Brittany) (a tree/bush/wood or rock/stone/cliff/cave). (Brocmail? Bercilak the Green Man? Berchan/Brychan?)
- Merlin like Vortigern is traditionally associated with Chislehurst caves in local/Arthurian tradition.
- Drumelzier in Scottish Borders (Adam Ardrey)
- Merlin's Grave near Plounevez-Quentin
(Might be connected with St Martin le Grand in Dover or St Martin's in Canterbury or "St Martin in London" and Black Book of Carmarthen? St Martin's dates range is:  bishop 371, d 444, calends 538? church 560, Galicia 580.
Dover might match Clas Myrddin? or Mynyddy Gaer "fortress mountain"? or mur dyn "bulwark of men"? or "sea fort"?
A certain Melkinus is claimed to have grown old in Oxford according to an alleged insertion in Asser's life of Alfred.)

Amr's tomb:
- Amr's Tomb in "Ergyng/Archenfield" in the Wonders of Britain which some identify as supposedly being Wormlow Tump in Herefordshire. Evans said that Amr/Gamber might be connected with Camlann. (Kamber/Camber was brother/associate of Locrinus/Loegria/Logres and Albanact/Albania and Corineus/Cornwall.)

Uther Pendragon's grave:
(Uther due to sickness was obliged to lie on horse-litter at "Verulam / St Albans". Poisoned at/near a spring at/near "Verulam / St Alban's" in the HRB.)
- Uther buried within structire of stones 'Giant's Dance', close by Ambrosius, supposedly "Stonehenge".

Ambrosius'/Aureli(an)us' grave/sepulchre:
(Ambrosius poisoned at Winchester by Eopa. Aurelius lay sick at Winchester.)
- Sepulchre of Ambrosius in Giant's Dance at/near covent of Ambrius/Ambresbury at/near  "Winchester" not far from Salisbury, supposedly "Stonehenge". (Might be connected with Dinas Emrys? Possibly might also be connected with Amphibalus? See also Merlin, and/or Amr's Tomb. Aurelian might be related to Maisuriam, Uriens, Rience?)

Constantine 3's burial:
- was "buried close by Uther within structure of stones not far from Salisbury" (HRB).

Vortimer's cenotaph:
(Vortimer given a poisonous draught; seized with sudden illness.)
- Some have suggested that his cenotaph was at Richborough/Rutupiae, which seems to match Vortimer requesting his bones to be buried in "the Chief Ports of this Island" and/or (on the top of a "Brazen Pyramid") "at the port where the Saxons first landed" in the HB & HRB. (Vortimer might possibly be connected with Amr and Ambrosius? Arthur's name is similar to Welsh spellings of Vortimer and/or Vortipore.) *
("the brazen prince buried" in the Prophecy of Merlin might resemble the Brazen Pyramid?)
- "Rapin says he (Vortimer) was buried at Lincoln; Geoffrey, at London"?

Tewdrig's death:
- Tewdrig was wounded in a battle near "Tintern": "... upon the old king/saint Tewdrig reaching that place. As he was being carried to his chosen burial place after being mortally wounded at battle with the Saxons. Tewdrig was taken on a bier pulled by 2 stags, and when they came to a place near a meadow towards the Severn... ... the bier was completely broken." (Book of Llandav.) (Compare Uther's death in the HRB. Compare Arthur's death at Camlan and taken Avalon.)

Maelgwn's (dragon's) grave:
- died in yellow death plague, sleeps "in the court of Rhos" according to Welsh Annals 547. (Rhos is connected with Melros / Trimontium. Rhos means headland or promontory. Compare Rutupi/Richborough or Reculver/Regulbium.)
(Maelgwn's dates range in sources is: d 547/549, Mailcun 559? Coinmail 577? d 581/586, succeeded 590.)

Urien(s)' grave:
- "whilst he was on an expedition he was murdered, at the instance of Morcant, out of envy" (HB 63) is similar to Arthur's death resulted from Mordred's rebelion. (There is a Morgan who died in 665 in the AC.)
- Urien assasinated at 3 day battle at the isle/island of "Lindisfarne"/"Metcaut" 575.
- Urien(s) is said to have been assassinated/slain in/at Aber Lleu/Llyw about 567.
- Urien murdered after battle of Raith 596.
- "Urien's craggy bed" grave in Grey's 'Bard' poem (possibly implied to be near to or same place as "Arvon's shore"? Urien's name is similar to Aureli(an)us, and Rience/Ritho? The name Urbgen/Urgennius/Urien(s) is maybe similar to Urbs legionis or Verulam or Pol Aurelian or Orleans/Arles or Ursicinus?)
(- He supposedly was of Rheged supposedly near Catterick near Richmond Castle. Urien/Uriens is variously associated with either Ogledd/North or Rheged or Gore or Moray or Bath or Metcaut/Lindisfarne or Cattraeth or Aberlleu.)
- graves of "Gwrien, Morien and Morial"?
"grave of Gwrien and Morien"?

Tristan's grave:
- island Ile Tristan in Dournenez.
- on/by a river in the TV movie?

King Mark's/Cynfarch's grave:
- Menez-Horn in the parish of Dineault. (Mark similar to Martin?)

Cadwalla's or Cadwallon's &/or Cadwaladr's (or "Peter's") grave:
(Cadwalla lay sick upon his bed. Cadwaladr fell into a fit of sickness.)
- Cadwallon died at/after Cantscaul in 631 (in the Welsh Annals, compare Arthur died at Camlan).
- Cadwallon: "The Britons embalmed his body, and placed it with wonderful art in a brazen statue. ... This statue they set up with complete armour, on an admirable and beautiful brazen horse, over the western gate of London.... They also built under it a church of St Martin in which divine ceremonies are celebrated for him and the others...." (Compare the temple of Mithra in London? The "church of St Martin in London" in the HRB might match  St Martin le Grand in Dover or St Martin's in Canterbury and/or Arthur's grave in the Black Book of Carmarthen? "London" in Arthurian/Welsh is 'Trinovantium' which might have been Triputiensis/Rutupi/Richborough not London. Analogously compare with Trimontium/Melros. Tremonus was bishop of city of the legion. Trebonius died in Caesar's invasion.)
Compare with "the brazen prince buried" in the Prophecy of Merlin?
- Cadwallon or Cadwalla or Cadwaladr went to Rome and died there according to the ASC and/or the HRB. (It is stated in one source that the city of the legion was called "2nd Rome".)
- Cadwallon's Afael island is maybe similar to isle of Avalon?
Cadwallon is maybe implied to be at Arvon's Shore in Gray's 'Bard' poem?
("Cadwaladr goes to Alan" in the HRB is similar to Arthur taken to Avalon ?)
(Cadwallon's dates range is: Caesar's invasion 55 bc, succeeded 443, died 517, died 689.)

St Patrick's (or "Moses'") grave/tomb:
- "no one knows his sepulchre, nor where he was buried" (HB 55) is similar to descriptions of Arthur's grave. (Compare Patrick/Moses with Merlin/Lailoken?)
- Sts Patrick and Brigit and Columba ("dove") rest in Dunum/Down ("in Ireland", 'Richard of Cirencester'). (Compare Brigit with Mary of Guinnion.)
- St Patrick was immured in a cell where he scratched his grave with his own fingernails.
(Compare the "metropolis of Padarn", St Petroc/Padstow.)
(St Patrick's life maximum dates range in sources is: b c 387/389, 403, coming 405, 421 yrs, left Menevia 428, sent 429/430, arrive 432, 433, arrival 438 yrs, d 457, d 461/462, 492, letter 496-508, relics 553.)

St David's grave:
(David was taken with a sudden illness.)
St David buried in church at Menevia / "St David's" (HRB).
(St David slept 7 years in the enchanted garden of Ormandine.)
(David's dates range is: b 458, day 540, d 601, day 640, burnt 645.)

Julius &/or Aaron &/or Alban &/or Amphibalus martyrdom/church:
(These saints are supposed to have been martyred in the persecution of Diocletian's reign which is conected with the 2nd church of Smyrna in Revelation/Apocalypse. The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus who also died in Diocletian persecution are claimed to rest in a cave under Mt Celion.)
- Julius & Aaron were of city of the legion or "Caerleon/Carlisle". (Aaron is similar to Avalon.)
Alban was of "St Alban's / Verulam".
Amphibalus was of "Winchester" (Guintguic or Guintonhi, which might be Guinnion/Dover). (Amphitheatre of "Chester" is analogous to amphitheatre of Ricborough/Rutupi.)
(St Alban's dates range is 283, 304, 429.)

Nin(n)ian's resting place:
- died "long before" 560, rests ("with many others") in St Martin's church in Hwiterne "white house" which has supposed to be Whithorn in Galloway but which seems to possibly really match St Martin le Grand in Dover (Guinnion "white fort"). (Possibly compare Bitterne/Clausentum? Nennius' name is similar to Ninnian's, and Finnian and Guinnion, and to the Menevia name of "St David's", and name in life of Patrick?)

(Gildas moves to Ireland 565 (AC).)
(- Gildas went to secret island Houat off Brittany.)
- Gildas relics removed to Berry in 10th cent?
- unknown where his boat with body finally ended up. (Perhaps compare the mysterious body of the levitating altar? Gildas 43 yrs may match Columba 44 years in the ASC 560 entry?)
- An alleged insertion in Asser's life of Alfred mentions an alleged local tradition that Gildas and other persons "had grown old" in "Oxford". (Oxford is Rico/Ridoc or Boso in Arthurian. Compare the Wantsum-Stour with the ancient Bosporus "bovine/ox ford".)
(- Gildas' brother who was slain by Arthur was buried in Anglesey.)
(The maximum dates range of Gildas' life dates in sources is: 421, d 512, wrote 546, moves 565, died 572, Hilda d 680?)

- "in Gafrain, in retreat of Brecheinawc" in the end of Gwallawg's battle list is parallel to Camlan/Avalon in the end of the list of Arthur's battles? Gafrain name is similar to Avalon and/or Gabran? Brecheinawc is surely connected with Brychan's sepulchre which some say seemingly maybe connected with Cruc Mawr / Cruc Marc.
(Gwallawg's battles seem to match Arthurs in the HB and PG. His name also occurs in Pillar of Eliseg. Gwallawg's name might be connected with either Cat Gwaloph, Cadwallon, Emrys-Gueltic, and/or Welsh/Wales?)

Brychan's sepulchre:
- Brychan's sepulchre in/near Mannia/Mynav, maybe connected with Cruc Mawr/marc? (Might be connect with Birchington and Minnis Bay (or Thanet)? The Vallis/Valley (of) Brychan, and Vallis Doloris/Wedale, and Vale of Avalon, and Valley of Suesia may all be the same and match the Wantsum-Stour or Dover straits?)

Cruc Mawr tomb:
- Cruc Mawr in the Wonders of Britain is said to have had a grave/tomb on top. Some say that Brychan's sepulchre seems to be connected with Cruc Mawr in some sources. (Cruc Mawr's description is certainly connected with the Cross of Calvary/Golgotha of christianity.)
Compare with Patrick "continued fasting 40 days & nights, on the summit of the mountain Eli, that is Cruachan-Aichle...." (HB 54) and Germanus "upon a rock prayed for his sins during 40 days & 40 nights" (HB 47).

Vortigern's death:
- perished when tower burnt down (by some identified with Dinas Emrys which has been supposed to be in Snowdonia in Gwynedd?)
- Vortigern "some accounts state that the earth opened and swallowed him up" (HB 48).
- Vortigern like Merlin is said to be associated with Chislehurst Caves in local tradition.
(Vortigern's dates range in sources is: 400, 426, 447/449.)

St Stephen's martydom:
- Stephen was the first christian martyr in 'Acts'. There was a church of Stephen at Camelot which might be connected with the church of Julius/Aaron at city of the legion, and these might be connected with Labienus who died in Caesar's invasion at/near Richborough/Rutupi.

Horsa's &/or Catigern's/Kit's:
- Died in Vortimer's battle at Ep(i)sford or Rithergabail/Sethirgabail/Sassenaghabail or Kit's Coty House (which Evans/Aspin corresponded with Horsa's death in 455 in the ASC).

- died and buried at "9th wave Peryddon" or "Rutupi/Richborough" or "Dover/Dubris" (HRB, Blyton, etc). "the tomb of Walwen... was found in the time of King William upon the sea shore". (9th wave is connected with 9th hour of Caesar's invasion, and 9th battle site city of the legion, and Linn Liuan.)

Llywarch Hen's son Gwen "was slain on the ford of Morlas".

"A grave for Gwgawn of the ruddy sword".

Geraint of "Devon":
- Geraint died in battle of Llongborth. There were two battles of Llongborth. The 1st battle of Llongborth around 500 ad may correspond with the very high rank Briton slain in battle of Portsmouth/Portland 501 or Natanleod slain in 508 in the ASC. The 2nd battle of Llongborth was in 710. Geraint's name is similar to Roman name.
(Compare Gawain died/buried at Richborough?)

- died with 5000 others at Cerdicesford/Charford or Natanleod/Netley ("wet leah/clearing" or "wet wood") or "Winchester" or "Dragon's Hill in 508 in the ASC. (Compare the number slain at Badon/Bath in the HB and/or the HRB. Natanleod might be linked with the city of the legion Richborough? NawCantleod might be connected with Camlan or Camelot?)

St Benedict:
- ascended in 509 (in the ASC, or died in 536 in Matthew of W. Note that 536 is same date as Camlan 537/539 in the AC.)
(Benedict's maximum dates range is: shone 482, ascended 509, rule 529, d 536, biscop 628-690.)

"the grave of the giagantic Gwrveling became a green sward" (Y Gododin).

- last known location possibly somewhere near Deols or Avallon in France. (Compare "tomb of Rhitta Gawr"?)

"tomb of Rhitta Gawr" in Mt Aravius in the HRB and in Snowdon folklore. (Rhittagawr is supposed to be the same as the giant Ritho or Rience in some other Arthurian sources. Compare Urien(s) and Aurelianus, or Riothamus?)

"the graves on the shore... Are those of  ... Rhun foremost in the war, Of Carwen daughter of Cennyn, of Lledyn and Llywy." (Compare Rhuvawn and Rhun. Compare Carwen with Hanes Taliesin.)

grave of Rhuvawn (Pebr), and/or grave of Garthwys / Gorthyn (Hir):
- "resting place of Rhuvawn Pebr chief of kings"? (Compare Rhuvoniawg below/next. Rhun/Paulinus?)
- Grave of Gorthyn Hir seen from highlands of Rhuvoniawg ('Y Gododin') or
Grave of Garthwys Hir from Rhuvoniawg ('Y Gododin').

"Gwydion reported to have been buried in Morva Dinllev".

Grave of Pryderi:
- Pryderi said to have been buried at Maen Tyriawg near Ffestiniog.
- In Abergenoli is the grave of Pryderi where the waves beat against the shore
grassy tomb (Gododin 88). (Compare 9th wave Peryddon of Gawain?)
(Peredur died in 580 in the AC.)

- grave of Beli in great plain.
- "his body was burned, and the ashes put up in a golden urn, which they placed at Trinovantum, with wonderful art, on the top of the tower" "a prodigiously large tower" built over "a gate of wonderful structure in Trinovantum, upon the bank of the Thames, which the citizens call after his name Billingsgate to this day".
 (Note that the names Eli, Ely, Heli, Beli, Belin, Maesbeli, Helig, Electi, Eliseg, Eliwlod, Elvod, Elmet, Eliffer, Elfin, Liethali, Enli, Benlli, Builth, Guithelin, etc all seem to be connected with the city of the legion Richborough which was founded by Beli/Heli or Julius or Allectus. A Beli died in 627 in the AC?)
(Beli's dates range is: 401 bc, 58 bc, Cym-beline 4 bc, d 613/616, d 627, d 722.)

grave of Cynon:
"the grave of a warrior of high renown  is in a lofty region but a lowly bed; the grave of Cynon ab Clydno Eidyn".
"whose grave is beneath the hill? Its is the grave of a warrior valiant in conflict, - The grave of Cynon ab ClydnoEidyn".
(Cynog died 606 in the AC.)

460 Britons slain in the "Long Knives" massacre, buried near Ambrius not far from Salisbury (HRB). (Compare number slain at Badon/Bath/Guinnion, and Natanleod/Netley.)
(Compare "the blood of the Britons at Hengeston (hill) in Cornwall in 836?
Maybe the same place as: Ethelwulf was buried at Stemrugam?
Perhaps compare Hengist buried in a heap?)

- "It is not known what is my body" ('Hanes Taliesin')?
("To the depth of Ebron Vale" might link with Avalon?)

Emperor Claudius died at Moguntia on way to Rome (HB 21).

Emperor Constantius:
- his sepulchre/tomb is at Cairsegont/Segontium/Carnarvon/Minmanton in which city he sowed 3 seeds (HB 25). (See "Arvon's Shore"? Arvon is associated with "Bencor in Arvon"? The Arthurian "3 centres of Caerleon, Caermarthen, and Caernarvon" may match Richborough/Legionis, Dover/Guinnion, and Reculver/Bassas? Saint Aaron?)

Maximus :
- beheaded at 3rd milestone from Aquileia (HB 29).
(Maximus' dates range is: 381/383, 422?)

Atilla the Hun:
- defeated near Chalons/Catalaunian. (The name Catalaunian/Chalons is possibly similar to either Caledon or Avalon or Camlan?)

Helena's Tomb at top of "Michael's Mount" (HRB). (Maybe compare Sarn Helen "paved way of the legion"? Helena mother of Constantine of "York", who may link with cross and Mary of Guinnion/Badon? Michael's Mount may corrspond with St Martin le Grand, Dover?)
(St Michael's dates range is: 421, Gargano 493, consul 538? consecrated 718.)

Labienus' &/or Nennius' grave:
- La(m)bienus/Laberius (or Scaeva or Trebonius) is the soldier who died in Caesar's invasion and who presumably was afterwards comemorated by Caesar/Claudius/Romans. Julliberies Grave is said to have been supposedly Labienus' grave. Caesar's invasion was somewhere in the Dover / Deal / Walmer / Richborough / Ebbsfleet area. Our Arturian articles give evidences for the city of the legion Richborough/Rutupi being the site of Caesar's invasion and Labienus' grave/cenotaph.
- Nennius is supposed to have died from wounds received in his battle with Caesar. The battle and grave site are associated with the name of "Caesar's sword" 'Crocea Mors' "yellow death" (compare Maelgwn 547 in the AC). Crocea Mors seems to match Cruc Mawr at the city of the legion Richborough (the "massive cruciform platform" there).
(Caesar's invasion dates range in sources is: 60 bc, 55 bc, 47 bc, daughter 17ad.)

(Abducted by Melwas. Note that Winlogee/Guinevere in the Modena Archivolt seems to match with both Guinnion/Mary and Dover.
Guinevere banished: A(l)mesbury. Guinevere convent: Caerleon. Guinevere died at Almesbury.)
- Guinevere buried: "Glastonbury".
- "Hector Boece identified Meigle, in Perthshire, as the burial place of Guinevere/Gwenhwyfar" (or monastery in Perth nearby Meigle?)
- "sleepsatSewigshieldNorthumberland with Guinevere"

St Antony was enchated into a deep sleep in the Black Castle. (Name possibly similar to Arthur/Artorius?)

- was slain at Maserfield/Mirfield and "his body was buried at Bardney", and his hands remain uncorrupted at Barnburh (ASC 642); his body was translated from Bardney into Mercia in 909.
(The body of Ethelred son of Penda also lies at Bardney.)

Commail and Condida and Farinmail slain at Derham/Dyrham and/or Bath/Cirencester/Gloucester in 577 (ASC).

Bedwyr's grave at Allt Tryvan.

St James/Iago:
- buried at Santiago de Compstela in Spain in c 45 ad. (Priscillian is also buried there.) (Compare St Julius of city of the Legion, and Jago of city of the legion in 613. Compare Compstela name and church picture with "many towered" Camelot and "Glastonbury"?)

"the sullen wave beyond the strand round the grave of Disgyrnin Disgyfedawt". (Compare 9th wave Peryddon.)

(- Columba came/moves from Scots among the Britons to instruct the Picts in 560/562/565, and the king gave him the island Hii/Iona, where he built a monastery, and "where he died".
Inchcolm the "Iona of the East"? Iona is identified with Arthur's Avalon in one Arthurian theory.)
(Columba & Loch Ness monster 565.)
(- Columba means "dove" and he was at 'Iona' which name is corresponded with Jonah "dove". Jonah was 3 days in belly of fish/whale/shark.)
(- Columba patron St of Derry.)
(Columba's life dates range is: b 521, came 560/562/565, d 595.)

"at the extreme boundary of Gododin will be thy grave" (Gododin 74). (Dover is an extremest boundary point.)

Edited by Arthur-Robin - 13-Aug-2018 at 10:21
NZ's mandatory fluoridation is not fair because it only forces it on the disadvantaged/some and not on the advantaged/everyone.
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