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    Posted: 14-Jan-2016 at 23:30

The african lions mane has been one of the biggest topics in science debates, some say the mane is to protect the lions neck, others say its just for display for the females...lets compile all the facts that most people dont know about and some so called experts are in denial of:

Trainers basing their opinions upon observation and experience:

Clyde beatty

"Nine times out of ten a lion will lick a tiger," he said. "A tiger will fight with all four feet and with his teeth, while a lion generally uses only his two forepaws and teeth. But a lion Is tougher than a tiger. he can take it better. See that big lion in that cage over there? See how much heavier lie is than a tiger, especially around the neck and shoulders? Ills mane protects him, too. And the lion is a more aggressive fighter than the tiger. he keeps attacking, keeps trying for the tigers throat until he gets It. The tiger generally grabs hold where he can-maybe on the lion s shoulder or a paw-and won t let go. That way the tiger doesn't hurt the lion vitally unless he hap- pens to be lucky enough to get a throat hold In the beginning-but a flon s throat Isn't so easy to reach."

Clyde beatty would know more than most because he has seen an accumulated amount of fights through out his career:

Bert Nelson:

The speaker said that the lion is truly the king of beasts. While tigers and lions do not fight in their native jungles because one inhabits Africa and the other India, "even an old and feeble lion will lick any tiger ever born." He said the tiger is a "back fighter." It rolls over on its back, tries to plant ts fangs in its enemy's throat while disembowelling it with its hind legs. The mane of a lion, which surrounds its neck and extends down its belly, protects the lion from such attacks, he explained.

~The Kokomo Tribune 26 December 1934 › Page 2

The speaker said that the lion is truly the king of beasts. While tigers and lions do not fight in their native jungles because one inhabits Africa and the other India, "even an old and feeble lion will lick any tiger ever born." He said the tiger is a "back fighter." It rolls over on its back, tries to plant ts fangs in its enemy's throat while disembowelling it with its hind legs. The mane of a lion, which surrounds its neck and extends down its belly, protects the lion from such attacks, he explained.

~The Kokomo Tribune 26 December 1934 › Page 2

Indian Expert Damoo Dhotre:

THE FAMOUS Dhotre, an Indian animal trainer who appeared with many European and American circuses during the 1940s and 1950s was once asked whether a lion or a tiger would win in a battle to the death. Dhotre said he would back a lion. although the tiger is faster, the lion is at least equal in strength. Although the tiger is as fierce and savage as any animal in the jungle the lion has boundless courage" he said in his memoirs in 1961 The heavy mane around the lion's neck also makes it difficult for another animal to grip the lion's throat with his teeth, according to Dhotre.

~Lion Picked In Fight: Milwaukee Sentinel - Jul 4, 1970

Charles gay:
"The lion." he insists, "is the greatest competitor in the animal world. The lion can whip a tiger for just one reason it has everything the tiger has on attack speed, quickness, courage, etc., and it has a perfect defensive armor against teeth and claws in the thick, matted mane that protects both throat and stomach. It would be almost impossible for a tiger or a leopard to reach a lion's throat, and the throat is the main target usually they first target."Few people understand the tremendous strength and the amazing quickness of a full grown lion say between the ages of six and ten. They have big, heavy paws as you can see and yet these paws work with the quickness of a cat's. They are like flashes of lightning."

Roman Proske:


Trevor bale:

”The hairy mane the lion's throat, preventing the much-speedier tiger from killing the African cat during a battle and giving the lion the reputation of being "king.”
Terrel jacobs

So the facts are according to observation of over 2,000 big cats in fights amongs captivity wild bred animals:

- The mane can sheath the lion against claws and bites 
- It can absorb blows lessening the impact
- It can make the lion appear bigger and intimidate

Science organizations:

National geographic

If the lion has any claim to royal lineage, he probably is king of beasts. While no coward once engaged in mortal combat, particularly in the protection of his young, Leo finds the odds against him when he gets into an an argument with a tiger Occasionally, however, the tiger allows his claws to become tangled in the lion's huge mane and loses the battle."Occasionally,+however,+the+tiger+allows+his+claws+to+become+tangled+in+the+lion's+huge+mane+and+loses+the+battle."&source=lnms&tbm=bks&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjil46P85TKAhVT32MKHSVTA0oQ_AUIDigB&biw=1473&bih=656&dpr=0.9

Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals

If so, it is conceivable that a single male lion attacked by a pack of hyenas could reduce injury with the help of its mane. Manes protect males in intera specific in other species. It may additionally confer advantages by limiting wounding in the neck region.
~Timothy M. Caro

Facts about lions

Their mane serves a number of purposes: a) it identifies him as a mature male to other lions, even at a distance b) it gives an appearance of increased size with little weight cost c) the condition of the mane conveys the level of health and vigour to female lions d) it can help protect the head and neck area in fights with other lions.

"A lion's mane protects during fights— softening blows of his enemies"

~Daily News*-*May 2, 2003

Big Cats: And Other Animals:

The Atlas lion differs from other lions in that the male has a long, thick, dark mane that extends along the back and ... hairs of the mane protect the neck and throat from scratches and bites during fights

The Virtues Unveiled

The male lion's mane, which increases with age, adds grandeur to this ferocious cat, and serves to visually intimidate other lions. It also protects the lion's throat against lethal bites during a fight. Allegorical (Greek, Allegoria) To say something ...

No intruding lion is in any doubt that a lion territory is occupied. Maintaining territories involves a considerable amount of work, because they can be quite large. ln good lion habitat, such ... A lion's mane helps to protect his neck during fights.

Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals

If so, it is conceivable that a single male lion attacked by a pack of hyenas could reduce injury with the help of its mane. Manes protect males in interaspecific in other species. It may additionally confer advantages by limiting wounding in the neck region.
~Timothy M. Caro

According to science organizations out in the field:

- The mane can ward off intruders by intimidating factors 
- The mane can tangle an attacking animals claws giving enough time for the lion to kill its attacker
- It protects the lions head and neck from harm by other animals

Naturalist, Zoologist, Biologist and other people who have studied the lion:

In a fair-shake showdown between a full-grown male lion and the same-size, same-sex tiger, animal handlers mostly bet on the lion. Although the tiger is regarded as being more bloodthirsty, treacherous and untamable, the physical differences between the two big cat species are slight, being mainly those of hide, skull and mane. he tiger has no mane, but old male tigers have long, spreading cheek hair. Much of the lion-tiger difference is in family relations: a lioness never destroys its young; the tigress often does. The lion helps rear his offspring; the tiger forsakes his lady love for gamier affairs. Physically, the lion has better forequarters and the great advantage of his mane because it protects the carotid artery and acts as a tangle for attacking claws or jaw.

Kailash Sankhala Indian natrualist opinion on the mane

Craig packer reinstate’s lion mane’s are for protecting

George B. Schaller

Male lions are the only cats with manes. This collar of long, thick hair covers the head, except the face, and the neck down to the shoulders and chest. The mane makes the male look even bigger and stronger than he is. It also protects him during fights. The long, thick hair softens the blows of his foes.
Schaller, George B. World Book Encyclopedia. 2002 .

George Conklin

John Varty:

"The manes on the male lions make them look larger and more fearsome. They protect the neck from blows from the opponent.

18 May 1996 by Dereck Joubert

After spending some 25 000 hours studying lions in Botswana I have come across just three maneless lions, so they are as rare as David Featherbe records in the latest issue of New Scientist to arrive at our camp in Botswana (In Brief, 24 February, p 8).

When speculating about why male lions have manes you have left out the most important reason. When male lions attack each other they mostly rear up on their hind legs and slap out at each other's heads and necks. The neck and throat are vulnerable and a full-bodied mane acts as protection against blows.
Remember that it is not necessary and often not desirable in nature for a conflict to end in the death of the vanquished, so much of this fighting is for display, with the mane giving protection, and many of these battles for territory are won on psychological ...
lions mane protects

The thick mane around the lions head helps to protect its neck from the enemys paws while fighting for its territory.

It also serves to protect the head and neck when fighting

It also protects the lion's neck from his enemy's teeth.
~Harriet E. Huntington Doubleday, Jan 1, 1981 - Science - 63 pages

His mane also protected his neck in fights, and fights were inevitable for Leo
~Jeannette Hanby Houghton Mifflin, 1982 - Nature - 221 pages

The mane acts like a thick, woolly scarf to protect his neck from the teeth or claws of unfriendly lions
~Jonathan Bocknek Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 2001 –

A mane makes them look bigger and scarier, and the extra fur protects their neck in a fight.
~James FieldParragon, Incorporated, Jun 1, 2003 - Animals - 256 pages

Curious lions will stick their tails straight up in the air when greeting each other. Male lions have a shaggy mane of dark hair that covers the neck. This mane makes lions appear larger and more threatening. It also protects the head and
neck ...
~Melissa S. Cole, Tom Leeson, Pat LeesonBlackbirch PressInc, Mar 1, 2002 –

A mane also helps protect a lion's throat from bites and
~Catherine NicholsScholastic Inc., 2004 - Juvenile Nonfiction - 59 pages

This mane gives the lion an impressive, even regal, appearance. It makes the male look even bigger than he is, and protects his neck during fights with other males.
~Jane Goodall, Leslie McGuire 1989 –

No doubt the mane has other functions too: it probably protects its owner's neck against claw wounds
~Brian C. R. Bertram Scribner, Jan 1, 1978 - Lion - 253 pages

The mane is a collar of long, thick hair that covers the lion's head, except for the face and neck, down to its shoulders and chest. The lion's mane makes the lion look even bigger and stronger than he is. It also protects him during fights
~George Shea, Anne Marshall Runyon Emc Pub, Sep 1, 1981 - - 40 pages

Physically, the lion has better forequarters and the great advantage of his mane because it protects the carotid artery
~William Ballantine (artist.) Rinehart, 1958 - Nature - 344 pages

he male has a beautiful mane that apparently protects the neck when lions fight one another.
~Marshall Cavendish Corporation Marshall Cavendish, 1993 - J
Probably the mane helps protect a lion's neck from injury when he fights.
~ William Darrach HalseyMacmillan Educational Corp., 1980 – Reference

The neck and throat are vulnerable and a full- bodied mane acts as protection against blows.
~New Scientist, Volume 150, Issues 2024-2030New Science Publications, 1996 - Science

The male lion has a heavier body, and his mane protects his head and neck during fights with other males.
~Sally Morgan Raintree Steck-Vaughn, Jan 1, 2003 - - 32 pages

The distinctive mane that adorns a male lion may signal his sex and adult status to females and males alike. It may also protect his head and neck during fierce combat with other males.
~ Great cats John Seidensticker, Susan Lumpkin Weldon Owen Pty, Limited, 2000 - Felidae - 240 pages

Mane attraction By the time a male lion is five years old, its mane is virtually fully grown. An impressive mane may help to attract the interest of females. lt also makes a lion look big and fierce, and protects its neck during fights.
~ Big cats J. Sheikh-Miller, S. Turnbull Edc Pub, Jan 1, 2003 –

The function of the mane is uncertain, but probably it is to protect the neck from injury while fighting.
~Chambers's Encyclopaedia, Volume 8 G. Newnes, 1959 - Encyclopedias and dictionaries

The mane seems to intimidate rivals, and possibly lionesses. It also protects the neck during fights.
~Kingdom of cats National Wildlife Federation National Wildlife Federation, 1987 - Pets - 204 pages

It also protects him during fights. The long, thick hair softens the blows
~World Book, 2000 - Encyclopedias and dictionaries - 538 pages

the Lion's mane protects his neck from danger when fighting.
~Animals of East AfricaClive A. SpinageCollins, 1962 - Zoology - 160 pages

The mane also protects the lion's neck from the bites of other male
lions and enemies.
~ Grrr!: a book about big cats Melvin Berger, Gilda Berger Scholastic, Inc., 2005 - Nature - 40 pages

A mane makes them look bigger and scarier, and the extra fur protects their neck in a fight
Wild cats and other dangerous predatorsClare Oliver, Ross WattonParragon, 2001 - Pets - 32 pages

the thick hairs of the mane protects the neck and throat from scratches and bites during fights with another male

Did you know? The larger skull and thick coarse-haired mane of a male lion protect it from blows to the head, both from struggling prey and rival males head clashing is part of male territorial behavior

Men the mane helps protect the males neck during fighting. It also makes him look bigger

Mane a bunch of long think hair that grows a lions neck and head. The mane helps protect the lions in fights

Adult male lions grow a thick mane of hair. The mane helps to
make a male look large and impressive when fighting other males. The mane also protects the lion's head and neck during fights.

A mane protects a lion's head and neck during a fight

In the lion world, there is a huge benefit to being big and strong and having a thick, bushy mane, which protects the vulnerable neck.

The males are somewhat larger than females, and their abundant mane protects the neck, which is the usual point of attack

Lions may not seem as though they need protection, but the shaggy mane covering the neck of the male may act as protection when they engage into the death fights over access to the females

The mane of the lion forms a good defense against the attack,; of rival lions

The male has a distinctive mane that apparently protects the neck
when lions fight one another

The bigger a lion is, the fewer other lions will try to steal his pride. Manes also protect a lion's neck. When lions fight other lions for control of a pride, theylike to bite each other on the neck. This is how lions usually kill their prey.

The males, as is well known, occasionally engage in terrific battles, the old Lions being protected from the attack of the young ones by the huge tuft of hair.

Thus the splendid mane of the lion appears to be chiefly useful in partially
shielding his neck and shoulders from the teeth and

his thick mane in protecting his neck from the teeth of his rivals

The neck of the maie is protected by a thick mane,

The other portions of his body may be wounded, but if the arterial system of the neck is thus protected,

- The lions manes are used to protect them against hyenas and other interspecific fights
- Attract females in letting them know they are the healthy and in prime fighting condition
- The mane is used to attract the female lions the biggest maned lions being in fighting shape
- The bigger darker male lions show they are in better health and strength

Zoo keepers and Animal owners:

What do you think of when you picture a lion? (Answers from audience) When I think about lions, the first thing that comes to mind is a lion’s mane. Male lions are the only cats to develop manes. Almost like a prince earning his crown, a young male’s mane develops as he matures, and a full, dark mane can signal health and increased fighting ability to potential challengers, as well as mates. When they have to fight, a lion’s mane helps to protect it’s most vulnerable part: it’s neck. Lions attack their prey by using brute force and massive sharp teeth to bite and hold their prey, but attempts to bite or claw another lion’s throat are deflected by the cushion of the mane.

ten times stronger than any human being. It only takes one stroke of the paw for a lion to break the necks of their prey... A typical characteristic is the illustrious lion mane. It takes up to five years for it to grow to its fullest splendor. The mane serves as protection to the male in battles with other animals. For this reason, the female lioness does not have a mane. Moreover, it would be more of a handicap, as the females are entrusted with hunting and breeding. To a further extent, studies show that male lions living in colder regions tend to have a fuller mane than those that are found in warmer climates. Thus, they serve as a protection against the cold

A male lion can devour up to 20 kilos of meat per meal. A lion’s roar serves as a defense mechanism and can be heard up to 8 kilometers away.

Lions hardly have any natural enemies because of their known strength. Only hyenas must be defeated occasionally because of the food rivalry between these two species, which has existed since primeval times. Saber tooth cats, for example, an extinct wildcat line, often left at least half of their game for hyenas, mostly because back then, they had undeveloped teeth that did not allow a full consumption. Hence, only the lion breed with the shorter teeth survived, which, in turn, resulted in the extinction of the referred to type of hyena. Thus, through evolution, a new type of hyena evolved that had to fight the lions for food from then on. Usually the lions win the fights and kill the hyenas

Male lions have an impressive large, bushy mane of darker fur around their head which makes them appear larger (without increasing his weight or need for food), helps scare away other males and attracts females. The mane also helps protect the lion’s face and neck when fighting other male
Special Adaptations:

William Bridges Bronx zoo

"The thick mane around the lions throat offers a certain amount of protection and a tiger forced to fight a lion in his own den would fair badly"

The male’s mane helps protect his head from blows, bites and wounds during a fight. They have powerful shoulders and forelegs to bring down prey. Their large paws have retractable claws that are used to hold down their prey. Lions have rough tongues to help remove meat from the bones of their prey.

Mane Attraction Male lions have an impressive large, bushy mane of darker fur around their head which makes them appear larger, helps scare away other males and attracts females. The mane also helps protect the lion’s face and neck when fighting other males.

The male lion’s thick mane helps it look bigger and protects its throat when fighting off predators

African lion Coarser grass, Savannah Mane for protection

Mane protects the neck area during competitive fights;

Males have a large mane about the neck. The mane protects the neck for sparring with other males and indicates mating fitness. Lions are usually regarded as the only truly social cat.

In the past, with the exception of Central Sahara and forest, Lions lived all over Africa. In Southern Asia, only a few Lions now roam free in the natural Gir reserve in the Indian province of Kathiawar. The male lion’s mane develops when it reaches three years of age. It protects the Lion in fights with rivals when it could be seriously hurt by sharp claws. Lions are very social and live in groups

The mature male lion has a mane that covers the backside of the head, and the shoulders. The extent of the mane varies from individual to individual, with some having no mane at all, while others have a luxurious mane that runs onto the body, along the abdomen, and even onto the fronts of the back legs in exceptional specimins. The mane varies in color from the rest of the body, and tends to grow darker with age. Some lions in the Serengeti area and from North Africa have a nearly black mane. Just like th body hair, the mane color is determined by the ratio of dark hairs to light hairs present. The mane hair is stiff and wiry, like stiff horeshair. Besides it's primary role of protecting the male during fights, it has been discovered that female lions prefer males with bigger and darker manes.

Lions will often move in search of territory and one of the most vulnerable times is when they try and establish a territory of their own. Wounds are often inflicted around the rump from fights amongst males - these could be scratches or bite puncture wounds from the large canine teeth. At about five years of age a male lion has developed a thick mane of hair to protect their necks during fierce battles.

Why does a male lion (Panthera leo krugeri) have a mane? A thick mane makes a male lion look bigger (more threatening) and protects histhroat against other predators or the thrashes of prey.

Of course the males are famous for their manes, another unique feature of lions. The mane is considered to play an important role in protecting the throat during fight between competing lions


In case you arent familiar with that term:

Pseudoscience is a claim, belief or practice presented as scientific, but which does not adhere to the scientific method.[1][2] A field, practice, or body of knowledge can reasonably be called pseudoscientific when it is presented as consistent with the norms of scientific research, but it demonstrably fails to meet these norms.[3]

From natgeo interview on payton west and craig packers opinion:

A protective role for the lion's mane has long been assumed but this assumption has never been tested. We compared patterns of injury, mane development and adult mane morphology in a population of African lions and found no compelling evidence that the mane conferred effective protection against wounding. The mane area was not a specific target of attacks, and injuries to the mane area were not associated with higher mortality than other injuries. Regions of the mane that were most frequently attacked did not show earlier onset of mane growth in subadult males or longer/darker mane hair in adult males. Adult males appeared to be wounded less frequently on the mane area than predicted by surface area, but it is unclear whether this trend was only caused by observer bias from decreased visibility. We conclude that, although the mane may have conferred protection during the early evolution of the trait, protection appears to be secondary to the strong sexually selected advantages of the mane as a condition-dependent ornament.

These were the manicans that peyton west constructed to see if the lions mane offers protection:

(Peyton west manicans)

Peyton west theory is if lions dont attack the mane, then it doesnt offer protection, but of course the lions sometimes dont because they understand, as stated they target the rump area to where tigers and leopards ect, blindingly assail at the a lions view he targets the rump area because its exposed via un-protected, its afterall his own armor so he would understand its function. Hence peyton wests theory of attacking the armored area means the armor doesnt protect is flawed, and disputed in the same fashion if someone struck at the legs of a armored person who has no armor on the legs, doesn't prove that the upper armor doesn't offer protection.

Following in peyton west and criag packers former thoughts that the mane offers no protection of their pseudo science testing via fake lions would result in a fake answer, its trailed by many fakes and deceptive pseudo accounts as well:

This comes from Jim tullys book circus parade:
Black Squirrel Books/Kent State University Press, 1927 - Fiction - 280 pages

Roman proskes incident didnt have proske himself initially say that the lion died, it just said the lions neck was crushed in the process of the tiger helping him escape, the lions name is achmed, and further looking through his archive might just show that same lion alive and performing again, much like the mogul fight with falkendorf, who newspapers reported the lion prince might have died, yet the very next performance herr flakendorf said the two brother lions caesar and prince picked a fight with mogul, this time beating the tiger up, proving that the lion prince wasnt dead the original for buckland said it was a young lion.

Also many fights claim to have a lions throat ripped out in the 18-19th century, but if you read the entire source, it will be the exact same account via Charles jamrachs incident, only twisted from hear say.

Published as lion, giving a deceptive account that this lion had a mane, we can see that the encloser at there were only a lioness with two cubs, most likely it was 1 of the cubs:

It was not clear why the death of one of the three lions in the zoo was publicized so late

The 3 lions at Ankara zoo:
 Ankara Hayvanat Bahçesi

- Packers census showed than 200+ lion fights none were confirmed to have had their throat torn out
- Peyton west interview showed no tangible evidence of a lions mane not working as a protecting factor

True science:

Regular rope, is basically small strands of string that intwine and is brade'd to increase its Tensile/Durability and overall density to withstand pressure/friction, this makes it dense to where a small skinny rope can hold a ship in place that weighs over one hundred thousand tons:

Hair is made out of protein. Proteins, by and large, are great at tension and awful at compression. For tensile strength, yes, hair is stronger than steel.

- Science confirms the lions mane although has little compression, would have the strongest tension
- The quantity and volume of the lions mane would act as a solid barrier against superficial claws and fangs. 

Photo comparison:

In showing how much the tigers neck is more visible compared to the lions:



(The circumference of the mane is 3-4x the size of the man)

(The circumfrence of the tigers neck is the same size as the lady)

Tigers fur 1-3 inches long

Brown bears 3-5 inches

Lions mane 1-2 feet long

- The lions mane is too long for any claws of big cats to get through entirely, claws are 3 inches, while the mane is upto 2 feet long.
- The lions mane makes his neck, trachea, carotid artery and throat not visible compared to tigers making it more difficult to target.

The best sum up of the lions before Charles darwin even was cited:

In many parts of that continent his dimensions considerably exceed those which have been mentioned as the average in the preceding part of this notice, the length being sometimes more than nine feet, and the height nearly five.

The mane of the lion is not confined to the upper part of the neck, but surrounds it on the sides, and even on the chest below. It is very closely set; and the hair of which it is composed is, in the largest specimens, more than two feet in length. This formidable clothing is with difficulty penetrated with any ordinary weapon. When the animal is prowling or using only his common powers of locomotion, in the use of which he is generally slow and majestic, this mane lies a considerable way over the back, hangs down over the shoulders, and thus protects the powerful muscles which put his destructive arms in motion from all changes in temperature, so that they are never stiffened by cold or relaxed by heat, even when he finds it necessary to prowl in the open deserts, either during the night or during the day.

There is a beautiful adaptation of nature in this particular part of the covering of the lion. On the African deserts, the heat, even far without the tropics, is excessive during the day; but during the night the cold is often much greater than would readily be supposed. During the night, those animals do not, and cannot run very far, because they are in so far benumbed with the cold, and that cold exhausts them on their inarch, as cold is observed to do with horses during a keen frost. The lion, however, protected he is by the mane, is subject to no such calamity. The muscles which he uses in his prowling march are strong, and they are so slowly used as not be in the least heated or fatigued, when those which ho has to use with greater effort while he springs, are secured by the thick covering of matted hair, which invests the neck, shoulders, and chest. The Hoie-s, in general, prowls less in the open desert thai the lion, and therefore the same kind of protection is not so necessary in her case

Though the lion has probably more powerful muscles than any other of the mammalia, those muscles have not the same firm and rigid character as those of the eagle. The reason of this is, as it should seem, that their powerful action is much more momentary.

This figure is not in the attitude from which the tiger takes its spring, but in that of advancing in a low and crouching attitude in order to gain the distance at which he shall take it; and this is perhaps the best for displaying both the litheness and the symmetry of the animal. It will be seen in the figure, which is equally faithful and spirited, that the tiger is a much more symmetrical animal than the lion; that, though the fore paws are still stronger and more firm in their texture than the hind ones, yet, that the strength of the tiger is more uniformly distributed over the whole length of his body than that of the lion; and consequently, that he is much more an animal of chase.

The length of the tiger is rather more in proportion to the whole size of the animal than that of the lion, and the tail is also rather longer; the length of the body sometimes exceeds nine feet, and the tail is about five feet in length; the legs arc rather shorter, and the animal bends them more, and has more of the snake-like flexure of the spine when he walks. The head is less square than that of the lion, the features are not so grim and formidable to appearance; the cheeks appear much more rounded, which is in part owing to the thick fur with which thev are covered, and the absence of the eyebrows and the mane cause the animal to look less ferocious than the lion,...

The absence of the eyebrows and mane indicate a difference of habit in the animal, and this difference is farther pointed out by a difference in the structure and appearance of the eyes themselves. The shaggy mane of the lion defends him, as already observed, from the great changes of temperature to which the nature of his haunts exposes him; and as, during the dry season, even the bushes among which he resides afford him but little shade from the rays of the perpendicular sun, the projecting brow makes up the deficiency. The richer vegetation and more expanded foliage in the haunts of the tiger, render those protections unnecessary in his case; and thus, as nature is never redundant any more than she is defective, the tiger is not furnished with these.

Tangible proof that a lions mane offers protection:

Lucia zoras lion, has its mane tangle the lions claws long enough for the lion to kill him, which is the same thing the national geographic stated in its previous issue:



Which lead to an exhausted tiger:

Two badly bitten about the neck, but why did only the tiger die and not the lion too? Thats because the mane prevents and limits the amount of lacerations and bite wounds to the neck:
photo lionvstigeraccount1.jpg

A tigress who ambushed a lion, couldnt even get pass the mane and was killed:
Screenshot (13)

Intent on finishing the fight, the bull gores his adversary twice, but the shaggy mane and tough hide protect the lion, and instead of being killed he regains his feet.

Shot gun at the lions chest maned area

Mane saved lion from grenade:

Tangible evidence that the unprotected (maneless) neck is vulnerable

According to John varty, he mentions the lion in this case (of fighting) has a protecting factor:

"The manes on the male lions make them look larger and more fearsome. They protect the neck from blows from the opponent.

Having a no mane on the tiger allows the lion to more easily get to the tigers throat even if their is a struggle:


again the throat where a lion would have had a mane:


both male tiger and lioness died, because both had no mane:
The lioness was the aggressor and attacked first, fastening her teeth with a vice like grip into the neck of the tiger, 

The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 11 August 1924, Page 6

a lion tore out a tigers throat

Today we found T-36 with a broken neck and severly brusied body.

The officials suspect the tiger could have been killed in a territorial fight with another tiger. “There are canine marks on tiger’s neck .Also there were pug marks of another tiger in the vicinity suggesting a territorial fight,” said Sawai Madhopur collector Giriraj Singh Kushwaha.

The carcass with multiple injuries on the neck was found late Thursday evening from the Mala range of Pilibhit forest reserve. "Prima-facie it appears that the tiger, aged around three years, died in a territorial clash with another tiger," Divisional Forest Officer V.K. Singh told reporters in Pilibhit

The death could be the result of a fight with some other big cat as certain canine marks were found on the neck resulting in penetrating wounds, said Dr Rajiv Garg who performed the post mortem

MYSORE: A male tiger, aged about six years, was found killed in a territorial fight, near Gadde Haadi of Nagarahole National Park in the district on Sunday. Marks of deep paws and clawswere found on the neck of the deceased tiger. the nails and pelt were not removed from the carcass, it could be assumed that the tiger was killed n the territorial fight, not in any other fashion, said a Forest official.

Tiger Reserve in Umaria district, said CH Murlikrishnan, director of the tiger reserve. The carnivore was suspected to have been killed in a territorial fight with tigers as deep injury marks were found on its neck and back, he said.

It appears that the male moved in a flash towards the cubs, and the mother was forced to take quick action. With a leap and a bound she attacked the male from the rear, clawing his right foreleg before sinking her canines in and killing him.
(Tiger has his throat ripped out)

Factors in why other pantheras have not formed a mane: 

- No social system like prides with lions up to 30+ at a time forcing into more frequent fights.
- Only the male lion forms coalitions which are used to enhancing fighting more frequent.
- These groups constantly claw and bite one another which other big cats rarely do month to month
- They live in the open, always on ground and always head on against hyena and wild dogs, which leopards, cheetahs and tigers would run, since they run/ran, there was no reason why a buffer was needed.

So the mane has now been shown (when more data is there to be analyzed besides just theory and speculation) the lions mane is not a anatomy that is one or the other, it has multiple functions, whether primary or secondary, or even if just as is, the lions mane protects him against harm and amplifies his strength, intimidates and shows his status and health for mating and for combat. the tigers like all other big cats still have their carotid artery, throat and trachea exposed...this is why there are accounts that show this, in abstract form, in photo form and in video form as well, by quite alot more than vice versa, there is almost no accounts of male lions, specifically ones with large manes being killed in the same.

Edited by Prime - 15-Jan-2016 at 00:09
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Catlion View Drop Down

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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Feb-2016 at 09:34
The lion bear fight is quite amazing. The lion ending up ripping the bear's throat.
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Feb-2016 at 18:24
Is there any useable process for hair from a lions mane. For example in making wigs for cancer patients.
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Feb-2016 at 21:54
A mane is something that exists on animals other than the Lion. It's function is the same to protect the throat, and to give the attacker a false target.

Check out a full grown male "Rough Coat" Collie. Their original purpose was to fight off wolves and other threats to the herd. They even have an extra layer of skin and fat around their throat, under all that hair.
"Arguing with someone who hates you or your ideas, is like playing chess with a pigeon. No matter what move you make, your opponent will walk all over the board and scramble the pieces".
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Feb-2016 at 22:27
Originally posted by Catlion

The lion bear fight is quite amazing. The lion ending up ripping the bear's throat.

Yeah the ones with illustrations are always better:

1 of 3 of the bears that were killed by Boones lions:

Screenshot (47)

Queenies illustration of striking the bear dead crushing his skull with a swipe:

Screenshot (46)


2nd bear monarch

The large pit dog in the ground to hold the huge grizzly bear, Monarch, is completed. He will now have an opportunity of putting himself in good condition in his proposed fight with the man-eating lion, Parnell. A good many people are under the impression the bear would stand no show. Well, if one saw the size of this monster, be would think the show was all on his side. He is really the largest bear ever bald in captivity, and is as furious as he appears. In my opinion the trick lion, Parnell, notwithstanding bis reputation for killing people, would soon be made into mincemeat. The Monarch weighs in the neighborhood of 1750 pounds, besides baying claws' fully four inches in length. 

3rd bear Ramadan

Bear illustrated twice as long/tall and 3 times the size of the lionesses:

Screenshot (45)

King of swedens Barbary lion kills a european brown bear with one blow: 

The king, of whom I have just narrated so many anecdotes, had a very large lion‘ presented to him by one of the Barbary powers. There were at this time several bears kept by the butchers about the shambles in Stockholm, and his majesty, being anxious to witness a rencontre between one of these animals and the lion, ordered them to be brought into contact with each other. lu the lion's den there were twoapartments, into one of which the bear was introduced. On the lion, however, getting access to that animal, he found him posted in a corner; when, going up to him, he gave him a slight rap with his paw, as if to see of what materials his visiter was composed. The bear, not liking this kind of salutation, growled, and endeavoured to parry it. This made the lion angry: when, ‘ with one- fell swoop,‘ with -his paw, as the story goes, he laid the bear dead at his feet. 

Menelik who killed a north american grizzly

Lion breaks grizzly bears back with one swipe: 

There are only two species of bear in the Park, the black and the grizzly. Of these the black tear is the less timid. At least we never encountered a grizzly upon the road.—to our entire satisfaction,—while we saw many black beai-s. We did see | grizzlies, though, at the "Bear • Feeding Grounds" which are maintained near the big 
hotel and tourist camp near Old Faithful, and they are an impressive looking beast. While the black bear rarely attains a weight ofmore than 400 pounds, the grizzly when full grown generally weighs around 1.000 pounds. And his strength is in proportion to his size. A few years ago an Englishman who had hunted lions In Africa ventured, upon a visit here, to express the opinion that an African lion could whip a grizzly in fair fight. His' opinion was so warmly disputed by partisans of the grizzly that he determined to settle the matter. He brought a full grown lion to this Park and it was put into a cage'along with a grizzly. The lion at once sprang to the attack^ leaping upon the bear's' back and trying to dig in with claws and teeth. The grizzly sincerely shook him off. The lion again sprang and was again shaken off. A third time it was shaken off, but this time the lion, annoyed, gave it a swipe with one of its paws, and broke its back. killing it with a single blow. 

article211294395 5 001

All the ones with illustrations of course makes the article alot better to view then ones with just text. Its quite interesting that lions have killed big bears, especially with a single blow of the paw, on record, the lion has killed with a blow from the paw...

2 leopards, 20 hyenas, 1 puma, 1 jaguar, 3 tigers, 1 lion, 6 black, brown and grizzly bears, 3 donkeys, 5 zebras, 2 horses, 2 buffalos and oxen, and 2 giant lands and noted by over a 100 sources to have one of the strongest striking strength of all land animals...I would think it would be impossible for a lion to kill a brown bear with one blow especially with breaking the back or crushing its skull, thats some crazy power, but since they have killed things like oxen, eland and other animals who are twice as heavy as your ordinary bear, its not all that unbelievable. As for the mane, its quite concrete at this point that the lions mane offers a degree of protection, it doesnt have to be impenetrable to sheath him from blows, it just has to buy enough time for the lion to do his work. almost forgot to add this source, mr antle:

Antles explanation is pretty much spot on, thats all there is too it really, the hair instead of flesh will come out, to me its better than rhino hide, croc hide ect, since we actually see countless of accounts of crocs being devoured almost entirely by all big cats from jaguars, leopards, tigers lions ect...hence its not about how thick it is, but its main function, if the hide of thick skin animals is penetrated, than its a done deal...its over, if the mane is bitten, pulled on, slashed at, gripped just falls out, no harm done to the lion...and big maned lions have alooot, of hair.

Croc hide one of the most noted armors in the animal world

Peyton west and packers dummie lions, was done on fake lions, hence you got a fake opine, who would have thought, that all needed to have been said to debunk the lions mane theory was, lions dont target there... ha ha ha thats worth noted for a nobel prize. Even though I can cite in over a thousand videos of lions actually striking at the mane.
It starts and ends with, periodically. In other words how much times does big cat A...get slashed, bitten, and torn at the upper body reigon more than big cat count them in on a week to week basis...Big cat A:

Every week he must eat, and every week when he eats he has to be slashed and torn at the upper body area to get to the food.
Big cat B:

Every week he must eat, and every week big cat B, does not have a bombarding of hundreds of cuts, wounds, slashes and bites towards the upper body, hence big cat B, did not evolve a would have to have a reason to evolve big cat placed as B, leopard, jaguar, tiger, ect has a reason for a mane to develop, on a evolutionary stand point it would have to be periodically, not once in a while. In other words, in one week, there would need to be over a hundred slashes and bites accumulated towards the upper body, a tiger would be lucky if he was slashed at that much times in his entire life, since one good slashing or bite can already kill the un-maned big cat...almost every adult male lions face is literd with scratch marks, this goes to show how much times they are exposed to hard towards the upper body...this all wouldn't have been possible without the pride, the play like dominating limits how far they go in terms of wounds, hence they arent trying to kill each other but instead dominate with presence, hence this dominating factor changed the lions appearance away from every big cat on the planet.

And the bigger question, why dont the females grow manes, that video like most is evident, are the females the ones rushing in and wanting to get all clawed up and bitten? No, only the males do this, they do this to every oppsing species they go up against, lionesses dont go raiding 20+ hyenas and force them off diving in head first, only males, only males raid other encampments of rival lions to either take over the pride, kill other coalitions of males ect... the males do all the heavy fighting, hence only the males have manes. 

Edited by Prime - 04-Feb-2016 at 01:37
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J.A.W. View Drop Down

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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07-Feb-2016 at 18:21
Thanks for the prodigious effort in presenting such a comprehensive literature review on the subject, Prime.

The testosterone - male hormone - aspect is interesting, do lions have higher levels than the other 
big cat species?

Neutered  lions do not develop a mane ( or lose it - if lately gelded).

Even an intact male 'Tom' house-cat develops a larger head/shoulder musculature with thickened fur 'ruff' & skin padding as armour for intimidating/fighting his rivals..

It is remarkable how well developed lions are in muscular-mass ( ~60%, very high for a mammal),
given that they are sleeping/lazing about - for much of their time.

Cats do have a markedly powerful adrenaline hormone release - which enables their vigour in the feats of speed/strength that they are seen to deploy. 
Be Modest In Thyself..
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Feb-2016 at 04:28
I think testosterone levels plays a role exclusively to lions other words, a scientist could manually inject another cat species with more testosterone formula to the same or even a higher degree, doesn't mean they will grow a mane, is that the key for its dna imprint? In other case, could one inject more testosterone in a alligator to make its hide stronger and thicker compared to a crocodile? Could one inject more testosterone into a rat and see if it grows a armadillo protective hide?

These animals have unique imprinting soley because of there social and precise way of life, like I explained simply with the amount of times lions lacerate and bite each other in feeding time that is most likely the sole reason why they formed manes (since other big cats absolutely has never, can never and will never develop a mane) because they lack the degree of quantity of the social structure the lion has, not just once twice or even several times, but periodically through out their entire lives, a defensive gene was formulated against it, tigers formed stripes to aid its areas where there are the tallest of bushes/jungles/cover, leopards and jaguars to their more divided terrain, pumas for their elusive but primary forestry/desert ranges...and lions which is quite obvious of the lot...they have spots because like most (as in a vulnerable state of being killed as a cub) needs a primary elusive camouflage to protect them against danger...hence africa lions or the leo species, have spots when they are young...which is a state of their most vulnerable form, when they are older (and because they live in the open) they lose their danger protecting gene, since they dont have anything higher than them that would threaten their survival as a species, leopards and jaguars dont lose their spots obviously because they still run the risk of being killed by larger big cats, bears, crocodilily/familys.

Cougars not so much as shown in the lion vs bear thread as they are not just capable but they actually out perform bears and kill them almost more than vice versa in other words in their own habitat nothing stands higher then them in terms of a periodic point of constantly killing them in nature, hence they dont need a camouflage defensive gene as adults...tigers...well according to all the native, biologist, naturalist and hunters are the biggest cowardly animals who take to flight, hide and seek the most cover are killed by wild dogs, herbivores, other large predators like bears, leopards and even lions, so they need the most unique defensive gene their is, stripes...again...lions dont have any defensive camouflage gene as adults, soley because nothing can threaten a large pride of lions on a predatory scale...not the biggest of bears, the largest clans of hyenas or wild dogs, not the most longest of tigers, not the most cunning of leopards or even the largest of crocodiles could compete against a pride/coalition of many males in its full prowess...which is a rarity in all its glory.

People think the mane needs to be explained with much probing, a entire book of denials, and an entire summary of questions, equations and riddles...but its as simple as it is obvious as explained. The lions mane is no different then humans or any other type of protects as needed. The day they figure out how a lion actually can reproduce more hair then another lion, will be the day there will be not a single bald man on the planet...many theory's exist, its doesnt mean one is right over the other, all could be right/wrong and benefactor to the all around contribution of its element. 

Take the health status, condition and strength level that the mane signify's as of what packer him self stated...did you know back in the medieval days of knights...that the armor worn by men wasnt just exclusively for battle, but men of the round tables would have different sets of armors...only the best, most shiniest or well crafted armors would entice the fair ladys into, since men used their metallic battle armors for this purpose, does that prove the metal, iron or steel armor offers no protection against harm? 


Hence they haven't come even close to debunking the mane theory that floats around as supposedly debatable.

The word armor its self doesn't mean impenetrable, even the most toughest and most hardest of material titled as armor is still penetrable:

Hence the lions mane is a well guarded armor against natural weapons of carnivores at the vital areas, the trachea for instant killing of the throat and some times it extends down the lions belly protecting against disemboweling, even if it is capable of being bypassed to an extant, it is still an armor his adversary completely doesn't have.

"The tiger was found dead with a deep wound around its neck yesterday near a drain in Khapa range of Kanha, situated in eastern Madhya Pradesh," State additional Principal Chief Conservator of Forests T R Sharma said.

Posted Image

But forest officials ruled out poaching and said that the autopsy reports have revealed canine marks on the tiger's neck and samples have been taken for forensic tests.

Posted Image

There was some damage to the windpipe and a blood clot was found in the heart region. The veterinarians who conducted the post-mortem suspected that it died of starvation, shock and internal injury to the windpipe sustained during the fight.Sources ruled out the possibility of poachers' involvement.


According to Deputy Director of Tiger Reserve Tirki Mrs. Anjana P -212 shoulders, thighs, neck, were found in a total of 21 wounds.


The carcass of another male tiger with injury marks on the neck was found near Lonkur Chapor

Mar 8, 2015 - The cat has suffered injuries on its neck and was badly wounded, they stated. Bandipur tiger reserve director H C Kantharaju visited the spot


“The tiger suffered multiple fractures on both its forelegs and hind legs. It also sustained claw and canine injuries on the neck and other parts of the body. During the fight, both the animals have rubbed against each other. Since the ground is wet due to monsoon, we could see a lot of pug marks,” he explained. He said the post-mortem report had revealed that the tiger was healthy and able to hunt before it died.


Young Tiger disemboweled in a fight:


We have found injuries on its neck. This indicates the tiger was attacked by another tiger that wanted to stamp its supremacy in the territory," said Sanjay Thakre, Chief Conservator of forests (CCF), Chandrapur forest circle.

Again they separated, and then, with a charge which see me 4 to me to carry all the wfld deviltry of which her frantically savage nature was capable, her jaw wide open and grinning, the angles of her mouth drawn back, the, tigress hurled herself upon her companion, and. seizing him by the throat, left him dead,


“The tiger suffered multiple fractures on both its forelegs and hind legs. It also sustained claw and canineinjuries on the neck and other parts of the body


Another tiger carcass found in Kaziranga

The carcass of a tiger was found inside Kaziranga National Park February 19 evening, a day after the recovery of a carcass of another big cat. A forest official said the carcass of a male Royal Bengal Tiger was found near Tarzan camp in Kohora range, adding it may have been killed during infighting of the animals. Local villagers claimed to have heard gun shots inside the park and eyewitness saw the dead animal with its teeth removed. The carcass of another male tiger with injury marks on the neck


He Reserves last January 18 in Kisli a tiger was found dead. Investigation revealed that the tiger was killed in the battle between two tigers. Four-year-old tiger's teeth marks on the neck were a big tiger.


NEW DELHI: A 12-year-old tiger has been found dead in the Ramnagar forest division adjoining Corbett national park by Uttarakhand forest officials.

The tiger, whose body parts have been found intact, apparently died due to injuries inflicted by porcupine quills in its neck


"Puss was watching him. As he jumped upon her she jumped aside. Then she sprang. Her teeth were In his throat and as he rose on his hind legs she dug her claws into his chest and clung like a bulldog. We used the bars again, but she paid no attention to them. She would not let go. She hung on with teeth and claws until the tiger gurgled and fell over, dead. 'Then came the polar bear. He was one of the best we had all but his bad temper. He did not like to do as he was told. Puss was ready, when the time came, for a quarrel. 'The bear thought it was so easy just to give this little one a cuff and send her across the cage. But Puss went at the throat again. We beat her with bars, the dogs -went at her and bit her, but she clung until she had killed him

Again, pumas dont have spots or stripes as adults, because they out compete bears, heres one showing not even two bengal tigers could quickly dispatch a puma like regal the lion owned by keller did:

Again, why dont all other big cats have a chance to grow a mane? Because when they do fight, (the only time being against a rival) its usually just one fight, and the loser is usually dead, hence they do not pass on the protective gene necessary to grow a mane...since in lion fights as a family group dispute, the accumulative amount of times wounds, lacerations and bites on the upper body, makes the male evolve a mane:

First week: lions fight:

Second week: Lion fights again:

Third week: Lions fight more:

Forth week Still fighting:

End of the month, and still fighting:

Please have packer or peyton west show me a single tiger, or single leopard which has fought this much times and survived to pass on the mane-ifactor gene? Bet they cant.

Edited by Prime - 08-Feb-2016 at 21:18
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