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Some Chinese Sources on the Khazars and Khwarazm

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    Posted: 28-Aug-2004 at 05:58

                          Author:  Lin Ying
      ARCHIVUM EURASIAE MEDII AEVI, 11 (2000-2001), Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 339-364

       Of the Chinese characters, shi (history) pictures a man holding an open book in his hand. According to the opinion of the famous scholar Wang Guowei (1877-1927), shi was an official title in charge of the imperial archive and library, which had been an important position since early times. We dont know exactly the function and position of shi in the court before the Shang Dynasty (1700-1045 BC), however, the fact that many titles of courtiers included shi and even transformed from shi seems proof of the high position of shi at that time. Down to the period before the Qin Dynasty (227-207 BC), more accounts inform us that the positions of shi officials were lifetime and hereditary, thus they were able to maintain and accumulate documents generation after generation. In addition, there were gushi (blind shi officials) in the court who preserved the details of important events with their memory and recitation.
      The earliest history included writing of words and writing of events. Later, the two styles were combined and transformed into Biannian ti (annalistic style) and Jizhuan ti (historical biographical style). Zuoshi chunqiu written in the period of Warring States (475-221 BC) is regarded as the first Biannian ti work. Unlike the rough writing of events, Zuoshi chunqiu described the words and events together with the background , consequences, and contemporary peoples remarks. However, the achievement of Biannian ti did not equal that of Jizhuan ti until Sima Guangs Zizhi tongjian again won a positive reputation for it in the early 11th century.
      The inventor of Jizhuan ti is Sima Qian (145 or 135 BC-?), a shi official in the court of the West Han Emperor Wudi. He inherited the title from his father and also an ambition to finish a systematic general history. He was castrated in 98 BC because of his blunt words in a remonstration to the emperor. He did not commit suicide in order to work on his Shi ji (written in 104-97 BC). The Shi ji includes 130 pian (chapters) which can be divided into five genres. They are Benji (12 pian), Biao (10 pian), Shu (8 pian ), Shijia (30 pian ), and Liezhuan (70 pian). Benji is the biography of an emperor which relates the life of an emperor and also the major events of his reign. Biao includes three types, Shibiao (chronology of generation), Nianbiao (chronology of states and dynasties) and Yuebian (month chronology). Shu relates the events and words around one subject, for instance, Pinghuai shu discusses the economy, while Hequ shu reports matters dealing with water conservation. Shijia includes biographies of fedual princes and also important historical figures, such as Confucius. Liezhuan records the famous in various professions embracing nobilities, generals, cruel officials, chivalrous assassins, and even comedy actor in the court. It also includes reports of neighboring countries and nations.
      During 60 AD to 80 AD, Ban Gu (?-92 AD) finished the Han shu, the history of the West Han Dynasty (206 BC-8 AD). The Han shu mainly followed the style of the Shi ji, yet it made some slight changes. Firstly, Ban Gu chose Liezhuan instead of Shijia. Secondly, he changed Shu into Zhi because his work was titled Han shu. In addition, Shi ji is a general history work, while the Han shu is a dynastic history. In a short, Shi ji and Han shu established the tradition of Chinese historiography, that is , the dynastic history containing Benji, Biao, Zhi and Liezhuan. Because the Biao and Zhi were comparatively difficult to compile and write, historians in the succeeding dynasties often omitted these two parts, however, Benji and Liezhuan are indispensable, therefore this writing style is called Ji (Benji) zhuan (Liezhuan) ti.
      Jizhuan ti had been the standard style for compiling dynastic history since the time of Ban Gu. The authorship of these official histories can be divided into three types. The first one is finished entirely by an individual and then admitted by the court. The second is compiled by an individual with the support of the court, and the third by collective of appointed historians. In general, the compilation of Jizhuan ti history was closely connected to the court. The main chapters of Jizhuan ti works concerned the activities of emperors. The court had most well-maintained archives and library. Therefore, most historian, even including independent authors like Sima Qian, were shi officials or imperial librarians.
      Down to the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), 24 Jizhuan ti histories admitted by the court had been accumulated which were so-called 24 shi. They were also named Zhenshi (Standard History) which was first seen in the literature of Liang Dynasty (502-557) and accepted as the formal subject of library classification in the early Tang Dynasty (618-907).
      The transmission of 24 shi is inseparable from the block printing technology of China. The Song Dynasty (960-1279) saw the first appearance of block-printed history books, which included only 17 shi at that time. The Emperor Qianlong (re. 1736-1796) ordered his courtiers to compile and reprint the 24 shi. They completed Dianben (the Court Edition of 24 shi), which became very popular since publication. In addition, Juben and Bainaben are both important editions. The union of five large book houses published Juben in the late 19th century. The compilation was based on the nongovernmental edition and personal print. Bainaben was published by Hanfen lou, a press in Shanghai, in 1920s which was based on the early edition printed in Song and Yuan periods. In recent years, Zhonghua shuju, the largest press in literature and history publications, has invited scholars to recompile the 24 shi and added notes of collation. Now the new Zhonghua shuju edition has been widely accepted by scholars because of its convenience for study.
      The 24 shi are no doubt the most important part of Chinese historical documents, yet it is not the whole. The traditional classification of book in China includes 4 general titles and numerous subjects. Most dynasties organized large-scale book collections and compilations according to the book classification. The largest one was completed under direction of the Emperor Qianlong during 1773 to 1787, which was called Siku quanshu (the Four Vaults Collection). Siku quanshu totals 3,470 books (79,018 volumes). The Siku quanshu zongmu, general catalogue of Four Vaults Collection, help us learn the richness of Chinese literature. Usually, a historian can begin with 24 shi if he wants to do research on Chinese history, and then collects other sources from various literatures. Thereby, the knowledge of traditional bibliography is very important for the researcher of Chinese history. If he hoped to further his study and reach great attainments, he must have a mastery of ancient literature, history and philosophy, and thus use the documents in higher perspective.

Sources on Khwarazm
The basic document on Khwarazm can be found in the Xiyu zhuan of 24 shi. Xiyu is first seen in Ban Gus Han shu and usually translated as western region. It defines initially the region to the south of the Kulban-tangut Desert and to the west of Sunny Pass of Gansu Province, embracing the Pamirs and Farghana. Later on, the term has the general meaning of area to the west of Sunny Pass, that is , Eurasia and even Europe and Africa known to ancient Chinese. As other chapters of 24 shi, Xiyu zhuan originates from governmental archives. The Chinese court had all along thought of itself as the center of world and the foreign traders as emissaries bearing tributes. The court established offices and guesthouses to accept them in order to increase the glory of empire. Most knowledge about the outside world was obtained from these traders. As F. Hirth conjectured in his China and the Roman Orient, the official and interpreter may ask the guests some questions as a rule, which included name of his land, distance to China, number of city and vassal state, population and products.[1]The answers were recorded in an archive. The authors of 24 shi compiled these materials and added sources from other channels. The added part was usually marked as in addition at its beginning in order to distinguish it from a governmental report. In general, the writings of Xiyu zhuan in 24 shi have some unity and fixed style.
      We can find some other sources on Khwarazm besides Xiyu zhuan, most of which were written in the Tang (618-907) and Yuan (1271-1368) periods. During the reign of the Tang Emperor Gaozong (650-683), the Tang force put down a rebellion of the West Turk Qaghanate the territory of which extended the Caspian region to Tukhara in present-day Afghanistan. From 658 AD through early 8th century when the Tang Dynasty achieved political control in this region, traders and embassies from Central Asia made extensive visits to Changan, the capital of the Tang. According to official records, Huoxun, which was the name by which Khwarazm was known at that time, sent six embassies to China during the period 645 to 755.
      On the other side, the knowledge of Khwarazm in the Yuan Dynasty seems more plentiful and complicated. The Yuan people denoted this country in several ways. The first one is Hualazimo, which become the standard transliteration of Khwarazm in modern Chinese. Yet it was not popular at that time. We only find it in the Xibeidi fulu (appended list of place names of  the northwestern region) of Yuan shi. Another more renowned name of Khwarazm is huihui guo or huihu guo. Huihui referred to Arabs and Muslims after the15th century. However, this term may point to Khwarazm, Muslim, or other nations in the western region in the Yuan period. As a result, the first question is how to distinguish Khwarazm in the sources among the numerous records on Huihuiguo. My criterion is the west march of Chinggis Khan (1218-1223). Chinggis khan and his soldiers reached Khwarazm in this period, therefore, literatures connected with this march and western region may indicate the Khwarazmian Empire. I chose two travel notes, whose authors both visited Chinggis Khan as emissaries at that time. However, most documents about the Huihui guo in the Yuan dynasty are descriptions of food, plants, and implements, which have nothing to do with the westward march of Chinggis Khan. We lack a full understanding of the social and economic conditions of Khwarazm and hence cannot always distinguish some of the records referring to Khwarazm. I have selected, for illustrative purposes, a text from the Bencao gangmu, a Materia Medica written in 16th century.
     I will translate these sources in chronological sequence in this paper. If the text is extracted from 24 shi, I will just give the background of the source. If the text is from another work, I will add a brief introduction about the author, data, and historical background.
     The first text is taken from Sima Qians Shi ji. [2]In 126 BC, about twenty years to the day that Sima Qian started to write the Shi ji, Zhang Qian (?-114 BC), who is famous as the first emissary to the western regions in Chinese history, returned to China. The Han Emperor Wudi (re. 140-87 BC) sent him to make alliances with the peoples in western Central Asia, hoping to attack the Xiongnu from the rear. He did not complete his mission, however, he brought back to the court some valid knowledge of the western region for the first time. Since then the way to the western region was opened and the court sent emissaries constantly. The following text records a visit of  a Han emissary in this region after the death of Zhang Qian:

          At the beginning, the emissary of the Han Dynasty reached Ansi (Arsaces = Parthian Iran). The king of Arsaces sent twenty thousand cavalrymen to welcome the emissary at the eastern border, which is thousands of li ( around 0.5 Kilometer) away from the capital. The emissary passed by thousands of cities where numerous people lived en route from the border to the capital. As the emissary returned, the king of Arsaces sent envoys to follow him to see the vast land of Han. They made tribute of a big birds eggs (ostrichs eggs?) and a magician from Lixuan (Alexandria). [3]At the same time, countries to the west of Dawan, Xuanquan (Khwarazm),[4] Dayi (Dai),[5] and those to the east of Dawan, such as Gushi , Hanmi (or Hanmo),[6] Suxie (Kesh),[7] all sent their envoys to follow the emissary to call on Tianzi (son of heaven, emperor) and make their tributes. Tianzi was delighted very much. 

The second text is taken from the Han shu written by Ban Gu (32-92 AD). Ban Gu was born into one of the most prestigious families in the Han Dynasty. According to the last wish of his father, Ban Biao, he worked on the continuation of Shi ji. The Han Emperor Mingdi appointed him as director of the royal library, thus, Ban Gu was involved in this enterprise which could rely on the governmental archives. He added new parts to the Shi ji houzhuan (includes 65 chapters) written by his father. After his death, his younger sister Ban Zhao appended 8 Biao and Tianwen Zhi (Zhi of Astronomy) and thus finished the Han shu involving 100 chapters. In a short, the Han shu is the product of a familys effort.
     In the time when Ban Gu wrote his work, the Chinese had learned more about the western region. Ban Chao, the younger brother of Ban Gu, was renowned for establishing the rule of the Han Dynasty in the western region during the course of  his life. The military march of Ban Chao may have increased Ban Gus interest in this land. The record of Khwarazm in the Han shu shows more details than that in the Shi ji. This text is connected with the records about Kangju. According to the Han shu, Kangju was a strong country in Central Asia which had 600, 000 population and 120,000 soldiers. It occupied an important position on the way from Han to Arsacid Iran. The Han Dynasty kept relations with it all along:

          Kangju  dominated five small kingdoms. The fourth is entitled the Aojian king and his seat of government is at the town of Aojian. It is distant by 6906 li from the (seat of the ) protector general and 8355 Li from the Sunny pass.[8] 

      The third document is taken from the Wei shu [9] which records the history of the Northern Wei (386-534 AD) and the Eastern Wei (543-550) built up by Tuoba family. [10]The author, Wei Shou, had taken part in the work of compiling the dynastic history of the Northern Wei and the Eastern Wei since he was 26 years old. Previously he had been state minister. In 551 AD, the court of the Northern Qi (550-577 AD) placed him in charge of the compilation work. Two years later Wei Shou finished the Wei shu. In this period China was disrupt into the Northern Dynasty and Southern Dynasty. The rulers in the north (the Northern Wei and the Eastern Wei) were noblemen from Tuoba tribal federation  and Chinese aristocrats. They paid much attention to maintaining the connection between the core land of China and the western regions. As a result, the continuous war and changes of dynasties seemed not to interrupt the political and economical contacts of  the western region and north China. The following text is extracted from Xiyu zhuan of the Wei shu :

          The kingdom of Husimi (Khwarazm)[11]: its capital is situated in the city of Husimi. The kingdom is in the west of the Afutai Qaghanate.[12] The land is plain, producing silver, amber, and lions. Abundant Wuguo ( five kinds of fruits including peach, plum, apricot, chestnut, and jujube.) are also brought from this country.

      Where is the Afutai Qaghanate? The Wei shu continues:

          Afutai Qaghanate: its capital is situated in the city of Afutai. The country is in the west of Niumi ( Bokhara )[13] and 23,720 Li away from Dai (capital of the Northern Wei , nowadays Datong city, Shanxi Province ). The land is plain, and produces abundant Wuguo.

      The fourth text is taken from the Datang xiyu ji written by the famous Buddhist monk Xuan Zang (596-664). [14]Born into a family of Confucian scholars and local officials, Xuan Zang showed high interest in Buddhism in his childhood. When he grew up, he became a monk in spite of strong family opposition. In 627 he started on a pilgrimage to India. He returned to China in 645, and at the suggestion of the Tang Emperor Taizong, wrote out the Datang xiyu ji (travel accounts on the western region of the Tang Empire) the next year.
      The Datang xiyu ji consists of 12 volumes, recording 138 countries totally. Xuan Zang described what he saw and heard in the course of his journey from east to west. The writings have some fixed style. The narrative of each country contains information on the size of its territory and capital, geography, farming, commerce, customs, language, writing, money, religion and so on. Xuan Zang gave particular attention to the languages by reason of his great attainments in this field. The data on Khwarazm is in the first volume. Of the 34 countries recorded in this volume, Khwarazm ranks 15th.
      Holiximijia[15] is situated on both bank of the Wuhu water ( river Oxus ), extending from east to west 20 or 30 Li, and from north to south 500 Li. The local conditions and customs are as same as Fadi .[16] Their languages are very much alike.[17]

      Also in the same volume:

          The perimeter of Fadi is about 100 Li. The local conditions and customs are the same with Samojian. From Fadi one goes toward south-west 500 Li to Huoliximijia.

      Regarding the customs of Samojian, Xuan Zang gives us more details:

          The perimeter of Samojian[18]  is about 1,600 Li. The territory stretches long from east to west, but keeps narrow from north to south. The capital of the country is 20 Li or so in circuit. It is situated in a strategic and impregnable place, filled with numerous residents. The valuable merchandise from foreign lands flocks to this country. Samojian possesses rich soil and various sorts of crops. The woods there are verdant and flowers are flourishing. The land also produces many good horses. The crafts of Samojian are the best in the western region. The climate is agreeable and temperate, yet people have a fiery disposition. The neighboring countries all consider Samojian as the center of the western region and follow its manners and customs. The king of Samojian, a brave man, commands the neighboring countries. In this land is garrisoned a strong army and many shijie.[19] Shijie are warriors of character. They face death unflinchingly and can defeat their enemy in every battle.

The fifth text is taken from the Xin tang shu. There are two works regarding the dynastic history of the Tang among the 24 shi. One was written from 941 to 945, right after the end of the Tang Dynasty. The other was written 1045-1060. Scholars called them the Xin Tang shu and the Jiu Tang shu respectively. The works are both products of collectives who are appointed by the court . The Jiu Tang shu has many details about events and retains valuable historical materials, but the accounts of Tang Xuanzongs reign (847-907) is too brief. On the other hand, the  Xin Tang shu adds quite a few data to the history of late Tang. However, Ouyang Xiu and Song Qi, the chief authors of Xin Tang shu were both noted literati. As a result, their pursuit of an elegant writing style exceeded their attention to giving a true historical picture. The Xin Tang shu has beautiful and concise writing, but often leaves the reader uncertain about the details of an event.
     The account on Khwarazm is in the Xiyu zhuan of Xin Tang shu:

           Kang (Samarkand) is called Samojian now and Xiwanjin in the Northern Wei and the Eastern Wei. In the south it is 150 Li away from Shi (kesh). In the northwest it is over 100 li away from West Cao (Kebud). In the southeast it is 100 Li away from Mi (Maimargh). In the north it is 50 li away from Zhong Cao (kaboudahan). The country is situated in the south of Nami River (Zarafshan River). It comprises 30 big cities and 300 small cities. The King s family name is Wen, who is Yueji by origin. The ancestors of the King lived in Zhaowu city in the north of Qilian Mountain, then they were defeated by the Turks and moved south to the Cong ling (the Parmirs). Later the branches of this family established kingdoms there. They are An (Bokhara), Cao (Kebud), Shi (Tashkent), Mi, He (Kushania), Hou xun (Khwarazm), Xu di (Betik), and shi which are called Jiuxing (Nine Names) and all named after Zhaowu. The land is rich in plants and fine horses. Their forces have controled the neighboring countries. People there like drinking and dancing in the road. The King wears a felt hat inlaid with gold and precious stones. Women coil their hair and cover their faces with black cloth inlaid golden flower. When they have a son, they will let the baby lick Shimi (stone honey) and put glue in his hand, wishing that he has a honey mouth and glue to a lot of money with his hand. They write in the Hu style ( writing from left to right). They are good merchants in hot pursuit of money. When one reaches twenty years old, he will go to neighboring countries for trading. They may go anywhere as long as they can earn money. They take the December in Chinese calendar as the first month. They believe in Buddhism and Zoroastrianism. They are also skilled craftsmen. In November they dance and drum, splashing each other with water, seeking the cold to drive off the devil.[20]

     In the following text, the authors provide information on each country of the Nine Names. With regard to Khwarazm, they write:

          Huoxun[21] is called also Huoliximijia and Guoli. This country is situated in the south of the Wuhu water (river Oxus). In the south-east it is 600 li away from Shudi (Betik). In the south-west it extends as far as Kesa (Khazar). At the time of the Han Dynasty, it was ruled by the king of Aojian .The contemporary ruler resides in the city of Jiduojuzhe. Among the Hu (people of Western regions of Tang) this is the only country where carts drawn by oxen are found. The merchants travel in these carts to other countries. In the tenth year of Tianbao (750), Shaoshifen [22], the ruler of Huoliximijia, send emissaries to make tribute of black salt to the Chinese court. In the year of Baoying (762)his emissaries came again.

      In the last part of Bosi, Xiyu zhuan of the Jiu tang shu, the authors recorded another visit of Khwarazm:

          After the period of Zhenguan (627-650) some distant countries sent their envoys to render tribute to the court. The officials at that time did not refer to other sources to make clear their origins. Now the compiler added them at the end of this chapter. One is called Huocimi (Khwarazm), bounded by Bosi (Persia). In the 18th year of Zhenguan (645) its envoys called on the emperor together with envoys of Muru (Maru).[23]

      According to the official history, the envoys of Khwarazm called at the Chinese court at least five times from 645 to 755. Besides the aforementioned three visits, the others are recorded in the Cefu yuangui, a large handbook compiled under the sponsorship of the court from 1005 to 1013. The chief editors were the courtiers Wang Qinruo and Yang Yi. The Cefu yuangui comprises 1,000 volumes, based on the contemporary books as much as possible. However, some books, such as novels, were regarded as not ethical by the court and hence excluded. The data taken from numerous books are organized together under 1104 subjects, thus, it became one of the largest handbooks in the Siku quanshu ( Four Vaults Collection ) and famous for its rich information.
      In volume 971, part of tribute, we find accounts on the Khwarazmian emissaries:

In May of the 12th year of Tianbao (753) Huoxun pay tributes of purple deer fur, raw white shimi (stone honey) and black salt.[24]

In March of the 14th year of Tianbao (755), Shaofen (Schwouschfar), the vice-king of Samarkand and also ruler of Huoxun, and Sheahu, the king of Cao guo (Kebud) send their envoys to call on and make tribute to the court.
      The seventh text is taken from the Liao shi (official history of Liao Dynasty). The emperors of the Liao Dynasty (re. 947-1123) paid no attention to the preservation and compilation of historical documents. Until 1103 AD, the first official history was written out by Yelu Yan. During 1189 to 1207, Jin Zhangzong, the fifth emperor of Jin Dynasty (1123-1226) ordered Dang Huaiying and Chen Daren to rewrite the history of Liao, however, they just finished a rough draft. Finally, the work was completed under the supervision of Tuotuo, premier of the Yuan Emerpor Huizhong in 1343. By the reason of its rough draft and hasty work, the Liao shi became the shortest in length among 24 shi. However, documents regarding the Liao Dynasty are also lacking, thus the Liao shi is still not substituted by other data .
      The volume 30 of Liao shi, Benji 4 of Emperor Tianzuo, recorded the departure of Yelu Dashi (Gurchan) from China, his march in Central Asia and establishment of West Liao (Karakhitai). Noticeably, it is the first time that Huihui, the word concerning Khwarazm appeared in Chinese sources.
      When he arrived at Xunsigan, he met the united army of all the western kingdoms, numbering 100,000 men, and commanded by the Huershan.these three divisions rushed at the same time upon the Huershan, whose army was completedly defeated, and to an extent of ten li the ground was covered with dead bodies. He (Yelu Dashi) garrisoned Xunsigan for ninety days. Then the king of Huihui guo personally went to Dashis seat, surrendering and rendering tribute to him.[25]
      The eighth text is taken from Beishi ji (note on an embassy to the North) written by Liu Qi in 1222.[26] At that time, the Mongol forces invaded Sanxi and Hebei, which had all along been the territory of the Jin Dynasty. The Jin Emperor Xuanzong had to sent Wugusun Zhongduan and Wanyan Zhen to call on Chinggis Khan, with the request of making peace treaty. In the summer of 1221, when the Mongols were ready to attack Urgenj, Wugusun Zhongduan saw Chinggis Khan in Huihui guo and presented the request letter of the Jin. However, Wugusun Zhongduan was not able to persuade with Chinggis Khan and then had to return to the Jin with empty hands in December of 1221. The journey made him realize that under the heavy attack of the Mongols, the destruction of the Jin state would only be a matter of time. In 1233,  he committed suicide at home. The next year saw the destruction of the Jin Dynasty.
      Liu Qi was a friend of Wugusun Zhongduan and also a famous member of the literati, who wrote the travel account according to Zhongduans talk. The text was entitled Note on an  Embassy to the North, because people in the Jin Dynasty called the authority of Chinggis Khan the Northern Dynasty. The Beishi ji is collected in Liu Qis Guiqian zhi. It gives us a colorful picture of Khwarazm in the 13th century:

 In December of 1220 I passed the northern frontier ( of the Jin empire ), and proceeded in a north-western direction, where the ground rises gradually. Advancing parallel with ( the northern frontier of ) the Xia empire, after having travelled seven or eight thousand li, I arrived at a mountain. East of it all rivers flow to the east; west of it they run to the west, and the ground gradually descends. After travelling four or five li, the land became very dry. I passed through hundreds of cities which did not have Chinese names. The people living there included Molici, Mokeli, QiliQis , Naiman , Hongli, Guigu, Tuma, and Helu .[27] Having gone on for ten thousand li, I finally arrived at Ili city[28] in April of 1221. The city was the capital of Huihu.

The Huihu were once ruled by Yelu Dashi, who was a descendant of the Liao Dynasty.  Jin Taizong (the first emperor of the Jin Dynasty) cherished his talent and gave him a wife. However, he was not loyal to the Jin Dynasty.  He fled to the mountains and raised his tribes to march toward the northwest. After several years they arrived at the Yinshan (Talki Mountains). Facing the impassable ice and rocks, they abandoned their carts and carried their impedimenta on camels. They conquered the land of Huihu guo and established their authority there. Yelu Dashi named himself Dezong and reigned for over thirty years. After his death, his son inherited the throne and named himself as Renzong. After the death of Renzong, his daughter, Ganshi, ruled the country as regent. She had her husband murdered by her lover and caused confusion in the country. Finally, she was killed and the second son of Rezong succeeded to the throne. He did not use talented persons to manage the country, as a result, his reign was brought to an end by the Huihu.[29]
     Now only a few people from the tribes of the Gurchan still live there who dressed like the people of Huihu. The land of Hui hu guo is very vast, extending toward west without end. In April and May of each year the plants turn yellow as they are in the winter. Snow still remains in the mountain in summer. It is hot when the sun rises and cold at night. One needs a quilt for sleeping even in June. There is no rain during summer. When the fall comes, plants sprout new buds, and the winter sees trees green and flowers blossom again.
     The nation includes various races, which all have curved and soft beards of dark or bright yellow colors. Only their eyes and noses can be seen clearly. Their customs and hobbies are different from each other. The Mosuluman huihu  ( Muslim ) are cruel and cold hearted. They eat only meat killed by themselves [30] and do not stop having meat and liquor even in the month of fasting. The Yili huihu [31] are weak in character and do not like killing. They do not have meat during the month of fasting. The Yindu huihu  ( Indian ) have black skin and devotional character ( to their religious faith ). The others are so many that I can not write them down one by one. The kings are waited on by eunuchs who are poor and ugly men from India and face-damaged with fire.
     All the people live in cities, hence, you cannot see any village. The houses are built with clay, decorated with well-carved wooden beams and rafters. The windows and bottles are all made of white glass. The gold, silver and precious stones are rich as well as the cotton and silk . The bows and arrows, as well as carts , clothing and daily-used implements. are very different from those of China. The bridges are built of bricks and the boats look like shuttles. Only the mulberry and five cereals (rice, millet, ji, wheat, beans) are similar to those of China. Trees are also planted like the Chinese do. The salt is produced in the mountains, and the grapes are made into wine. There grow the huge melons weighing 60 jin ( 0.5 kilogram ) and beautiful Chinese flowering crabapples. The scallion looks fine and also tastes good. The animals include camels with one hump, cattle with ? back, and sheep with big tails. There are also lions, elephants, peacocks, water buffaloes, and wild donkeys. The snake has four feet. A kind of poisonous worm looks like a spider. If one is bitten by it, he will howl and die. The other beasts, fishes, insects, and plants are various and not found in China.
     The Tabisihan mountain [32] is 50 to 60 li in circumference. Fresh green woods cover it and spring water flows out of its foot. The local people all wear white clothes [33], The front of their garments are not divided into the right and left (as people do in China ). They also wear a belt waist at all times. Their clothes are made of wool of Diyang ( wool of lamb grown out of the field ).[34] The main food is Hubing [35](sesame seed cake ) adding soup, fish, and meat. Women wear white garments and cover their faces with veils except for the eyes. Some men perform as singers and dancers. Only men do the work of spinning and tailoring. There are also performances such as magic, opera and so on. The characters they write are called huihu zi ( characters of the huihu ). The pen is made of reed pipe. Their language is very different from Chinese. The dead are not creamated and not buried in coffins, but the head of the corpse must be oriented toward the west in the grave. The local monks have hair (not like the Chinese Buddhist monk ). There are no statues and paintings in the temple. Their scriptures are not understandable also.
      The ninth text is taken from the Heida shilue ( brief account of the black Tartars) written by Peng Daya and Xu Ting, who both went to the territory ruled by gdei as emissaries of the Southern Song in 1233. Their travel note is a full report of the situation of the Mongols in the early 13th century, including geography, climate, nomadic life, customs, literature, taxation, trade, law, divination practice, the organizational system of the army, military equipment and so on. The earliest edition is a copy of a Ming print made in 1542. The best edition for research was compiled by Wang Guowei in the early 20th century.
      The authors mentioned Huihui guo and the tribes of the Huihui in their travel note:

          Ting (Xu Ting) saw the Mongol soldiers marching ahead, bringing their implements, live stock, old men and children together. The line seemed endless in the grassland. Many soldiers were only teenagers. They told me that they were recruited to attack the Huihui guo. It would take three years to reach the destination, thus, down to that time, the younger had grown up and became strong soldiers. The tribes of Huihui had almost surrendered to the Mongols except one situated in the land right facing the backgate of Xichuan. The perimeter of the capital is 300 li. The land is warm and rich in products. It has abundant grains, fruits and trees. The watermelon is especially big. Up to now it is still resisting the Mongols. The general Naihehu has attacked it for several years and has not yet won the war. As a result, more soldiers are sent there.[36]


      However, the Huihui in this account is not Khwarazm, which is called Salida in the following paragraph:

          The countries that have been conquered and not resisted again are as follows. In the southeast is Baida jinlu . In the northwest are Naiman , Wugu , Shuli , Salida , and Kangli . In the north are Data , and Mieliqi . In the south is  Xixia .[37]

      The last text is taken from the Bencao gangmu written by Li Shizhen (1518-1593), the renowned doctor of the Ming Dynasty. Li Shizhen was born into a family of medical men. After failing to pass the national exam for selecting officials, he decided to follow in his fathers profession, researching medicine throughout his life. He started to practice medicine in around 1540.  He was recommended as royal physician in 1556 but resigned the office and returned to his hometown shortly thereafter. From 1552 through 1578 he wrote out the Bencao gangmu which includes 1,900,000 characters and was divided into 50 volumes under 62 subjects. In regard to each medicine, he gave the explanation of the name, explanations from other medicine books, function, process and prescriptions. The book also appends 1,160 illustrations of herbs aiming to help the medical man to tell them apart. Thus, the Bencao gangmu is not only an collection of medical knowledge, but also an important historical source.
      In volume 15, the author recorded some herbs from Huihui guo.
      Fanghonghua (red flower from the western regions )is called safulan and also safalong (saffron ). It is produced in the Huihui guo of the western regions and Dashi (Arab lands ). It is named after the safflower by the local people. In the period of the Yuan it was taken as food. Zhanghuas Buwu zhi (notes on natural science) recorded that Zhang Qian (the first emissary to the western regions in Chinese history ) obtained the seed of the safflower in the western region. Maybe this kind of saffron is slightly different from that one in producing place and living circumstances.[38]
      Also in volume 18:

          Maqianzi (nux vomica) originated from Huihuiguo. Now it is widely planted in the west area and Qiongzhou (in Sichuan Province)It is said by the people of Huihui guo that this herb can cure 120 kinds of diseases. It can be used in various ways according to different symptoms. It may have a better curative effect after adding bean curd, or it can poison a dog.[39]

Sources on the Khazars
      The accounts on the Khazars are a relatively sparse in the Chinese sources compared to those on Khwarazm. I only found records on the Khazars in the literature of the Sui and Tang periods. At that time the Khazars were called Turkish Kesa, Asa, and Gejie. When the Sui Dynasty (581-618) started ruling China, the Turk Qaghanate was a strong power in east Asia and thus threatened the security of the Sui seriously. The Sui Dynasty made alliances with the West Turks to strike against the East Turks which led to a lingering war. The emperors of Sui paid much attention to the situation of the Turks and had a full knowledge of the Turks and other nations subjugated by it. As a result, the Sui shu ( the official history of Sui) written by Wei Zheng, the famous premier of Tang Taizong and other officials from 629 to 636 contains many valuable accounts on the nomadic peoples in the western region . The Khazars is recorded in Volume 84 of Sui Shu, Liezhuan 49, Beidi, Tiele.
        The ancestors of the Tiele[40] belonged to the tribes of Xiongnu. The Tiele include many tribes. They occupied the valleys, scattering in the vast region in the east of the West Sea. In the north of Dulu river [41] live Pugu[42], Tongluo, Weihu[43], Bayegu[44], Fuluo[45], which are called Sijin[46] totally. There also live Mengchen, Turuhu, Sijie, Hun[47], Huxue and other tribes. They have 20,000 strong soldiers. In the west of Yiwu [48](Hami or Khamil in Mongolian) and the north of Yanqi[49] (Karashahr), nearby the Bai shan [50](Ak-tagh, white mount), live Qipi[51], Boluozhi[52], Yizhi, Supo, Nahe, Wuhu[53], Hugu[54], Yezhi, Yunihu and so on. They have 20,000 strong soldiers. In the southwest of Jin shan (Gold Mount, Altai Mount) live the Xueyantuo[55], Zhileer[56], Shipan[57], Daqi[58] and so on. They have 10, 000 strong soldiers. In the north of Kang guo ( Samarkand) and by the Ade water (Etil, Volga river ) live Hezhi[59], Gejie[60] ( Khazar ), Bahu[61] (Bolghar ),Biqian[62] ( Pechenegs ),Juhai,hebixi[63], Hecuo,Suba[64], Yemo[65], Keda[66] and so forth. They have 30,000 strong soilders. On the east and west of Deyi sea [67]( the Caspian Sea ) live Suluhe[68], Sansu, Yemiecu[69], Longhu[70] and so on. They have 8,000 soldiers. In the east of Bulin (Byzantine) live Enqu[71], Alan[72], Beiru[73]jiuli[74], Fuwenhun and so on. They have nearly 20,000 soldiers. In the south of Beihai ( the North Sea, Lake Baikal) live Dubo [75](Tubas?) and some other tribes. The names of these tribes are different, but all of them can be called Tiele. The Tiele don't have kings, They are subject to the West Turks and East Turks separately. They dont have permanent residence, but move with the change of grass and water. Their character is fierce and brutal. They are good riders and bow-men. They are especially greedy and make their living by looting. The tribes toward the west have more farming and feed on a lot of  cattle and sheep, but they are short of horses. Since they established a state, the Turks have depended on the Tiele to invade into the west and east and thus control the northern lands.
      The customs of the Tiele and Turks are much alike. However a man of the Tiele lives in his wifes home after marriage and will not return to his own home with his wife until the birth of a child. In addition, the Tiele bury the dead in the ground. In the third year of Daye (607) the envoys of the Tiele brought tribute to the court. Since then they visited the land of Sui constantly.[76]
      By the Tang period there are more records on the Khazars. Although the official history of the Tang (the Old Tang shu and the New Tang shu) do not include a specific chapter on the Khazars, they indicate a clear knowledge about their location. The Khazars are mentioned in the accounts on Khwarazm, Persia, Byzantium, and the Arab lands in the New Tang shu.
      In volume 221, Liezhuan 146 of the Xin tang shu, western region, part 2, the author writes:

             Huo xun called also Huoliximijia and Guoli. The country is situated in the south of the Wuxu water ( river Oxus ). In the south-east it is 600 li away from Fadi ( Betik ). In the south-west it extends as far as the Kesa (Khazar ).

           Bosi (Persia) is situated in the west of Dage shui ( River Trigris). It is 5,000 li away from the capital of the Tang Dynasty. In the east it is bounded by Tohuoluo (Tukhara ) and Kang (Samarkand). In the north it is next to the Turkish Khazars. In the southwest it borders on the sea. In the northwest it is 4,000 li away from Bulin (Byzantine).[77]

           Bulin (Byzantine) is Daqin recorded in Ancient literature. It is situated on the West Sea and so is called the state west of the sea. It is 40,000 li away from the capital of China. In the east it borders on Shan (Syria). In the north it extends toward Tujue kesa ( Turkish Khazars ). In the west it faces the sea. In this country there is a city called Chisan (Alexanderia). In the southeast it borders on Bosi ( Persia ).

       Dashi (the Arab lands) In the west of Dashi lies Shan[78] (Syria), which is an independent country. Shan is bounded by the Turkish Khazars in the north. The territory of this country is thousands of  li wide, ruled by Wu jiedu (five military commanders). It has 10,000 strong soldiers. The land is rich in grain. There is a big river flowing eastwards into Yajuluo (Aqula in Syrian, Kufa). Prosperous commerce can be found in this country.
      How did the Tang people learn about the location of the Khazars? The accounts in the New Tang shu give us a clue which is the Jingxing ji (Notes on the Places Passed by) written by Du Huan. Du Huan was born into a renowned family in the Tang Dynasty. His uncle was Du You, a high official and famous historian at that time. Du Huan was captured at the Battle of the Talas between the Tang army and the Arabs (751) and sent to Kufa. He traveled around the Arab Empire, passing through Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia. He returned Guangzhou (in south China) in 762 by sea and then wrote the Jingxing ji. The book is not extant except for some paragraphs cited by Du You in the Tong dian, however, the accounts on Bulin (Byzantine) in the New Tang shu indicate that the authors had referred to Jingxing ji or at least the passage of it kept in Du Yous Tong dian..
      In the volume 193 of Tong dian, account of Daqin, Du You wrote:

          According to Du Huans Jingxing ji, Daqin (Byzantine or Roman Empire) face the West Sea in the west , and the South Sea in the south. It borders with Tujue kesa  (Turkish Khazars) in the north.[79]

      In addition, a interesting record of a Khazar drink is found in the Qiuyang zazu (mlanges) written by Duan Chengshi, which indicates that the Chinese in the Tang period might have known more about the Khazars. Duan Chengshi (803-868) was born into a family of high officials. His father once served as premier in the court. When he was a young man, he held a post in the imperial library with the help of his father, then he became a local official for many years. Duan Chenshi was also noted for his elegant poems, rich book collection , and high attainments in Buddhism. The Qiuyang zazu is divided into 30 volumes, containing 378 items which record fantastic stories, anecdotes, exotic customs articles. It provides historians with many valuable data about the customs, life, religion and products of  the Tang era.
      In volume 4, Account regarding the strange things in foreign lands, the author wrote:

Asa people (the Khazars) like to hunt tigers and deers. They cut off the meat , make them overlapping and press the juice by stones. Then they put rice and grass seeds imported from Persia and Byzantium into the juice. Having been brewed for some days, the juice turns into a very intoxicating liquor.[80]


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* I would like to express great appreciation to Prof. Peter. B. Golden for considerable assistance in the preparation of this article.
[1] F. Hirth, China and the Roman Orient , trans. Zhu Jieqin ( Beijing; Shangwu yinshuguan, 1964), pp. 16-17.

[2] This record is also seen in the Han Shu, although it is omitted that the sentence concerning Khwarazm ( at the same time Xuanquan, Dayi and those to the east of Arsaces, such as Gushi (?), Han (uzun tati), Sufei (Kesh), all sent their envoys to follow the emissary to call on Tianzi (emperor) and make their tributes. Tianzi was delighted very much.). We have no means to know the reason for it.

[3] Lixuan (Li-kan ) refer to some region in the Roman Empire, see A. F. P. Hulsew, China in Central Asia: The Early Stages, 125 B.C.-A.D. 23,(Leiden, 1979 ) pp. 117-118, n. 275. He has included almost references on Lixuan.

[4] Xuanquan point to Khwarazm. See Feng Chengjun and Lu Junling, Xiyu diming ( handbook of the place names in the Western Regions ), (Beijing, 1961, 2nd edition ), p.52.  also, Zhou Liankuan, Khwarazm, the old country in Central Asia ,  Tatang xiyuji shidi yanjiu congkao, ( Zhonghua shuju, 1984) pp. 310-319.

[5] Zhou Liankuan consider it as Dai mentioned by Herodotus. However, he did not give furthur identification. Ibid . p. 312.

[6] Hanmi is regarded as Uzun tati. According to Zhang Qians report preserved in the Shi ji (Liezhuan 63 ), Hanmi and Yutian located to the east of Dawan ( Farghana ). See Feng Chengjun and Lu Junling, p. 101. Also E. Chavannes, Documents, ( St. Petersbourg, 1903 ), p. 128, n. 1.

[7] The Chinese character of Suxie is similar with that in the Han shu Liezhuan 96. It refers to Kesh. See Hulsew, p. 131. The Xin tang shu recorded Shi of the nine names (jiuxin hu ) was once entitled Suxei, which was the seat of lesser king of Kangju. See, E. Chavannes, p.136, n. 3.

[8] This text has been carefully translated and noted by Hulsew, p. 131,  n. 324.

[9] Wei shou, Wei shu,  Liezhuan 90, Xiyu zhuan (Beijing; Zhonghua shuju, 1974), P.2273.

[10] Tuoba, the leadership group may have been of Turkic origin, although the federation incorporated Xiongnu and Xianbei tribes.  See Wolfram Eberhard, Das Toba-reich Nord Chinas, (Leiden 1949 ), pp. 6-12.

[11] Husimi refer to khwarazm. See Xiyu diming, p. 52.

[12] It is recorded as Afutai hanguo in the Wei shu, different from other states. Hanguo means a state run by khan.

[13] Niumi is the earliest title of Bokhara in Chinese sources as far as I know. Xin tang shu, Liezhuan 146 recorded that An guo (An state ) was entitled Niumi in the Northern Wei Dynasty and Buhe or Puhe in the Tang Dynasty.  See Chavannes, p. 136, note 7.

[14] The latest English translation of Datang xiyu ji include :  Samuel Beal, Si-yu-ki. Buddhist record of the Western World, (Delhi, 1968 ) and Li Rongxi, Great Tang dynasty record of the western regions, ( Berkeley, Calif., 1996 ). In China the newest edition with extensive critical note was published in 1985. Ji Xianlin and others, Datang xiyu ji jinyi jiaozhu, (Zhonghua shuju, 1985 ).

[15] There are four titles concerning Khwarazm in the accounts of Tang dynasty. They are Huoliximijia in the Datang xiyu ji, Huoxun ,Guoli and Huocimi in the Xiyu zhuan of the Xin tang shu.

[16] According to Feng Chenjuns note, Fadi is entitled Bi and west An in the Anguo zhuan of the Sui shu. In the Xin tang shu it is written in Wudi and Xudi by mistake, for the character of Fa, Xu and Wu look almost same in the Chinese calligraphy. See Feng Chengjun and Lu Junling, p. 14. Also, Samuel Beal, Vol. 1. p. 101, n. 114.  Cai Hongsheng regard Bi in the Sui shu as Baikand. Cai Hongsheng, Tangdai jiuxinghu he tujue wehua (Sogdians and Turkic Culture in the Tang period, Zhonghua shuju, 1998 ) p. 75, note 1. Also see Chavannes, p.243.

[17] This passage has been translated into English. Bretschneiders, Medieval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources, ( London 1888 ), p. 93.

[18] Samojian is Samarkand. See E. Chavannes, Documents, p. 132.  n.  5. Also Samuel Beal, Vol. 1, p. 99, n. 101. Samarkand or Kang  was known well by the Tang people as the chief state of Jiuxin hu (nine-names barbarian , Sogdians ). More information about it can be seen in Bretschneider, pp. 58-61. On the tribute of Samarkandian to China, see, E. Schafer, The Golden Peaches of Samarkend, A Study of Tang Exotics, ( Carlifornia, 1963 ).

[19] According to Xiyu zhuan of the Xin tang shu, An guo recruited the brave and strong man as Shijie, which means warrior. At the mid Tang time, this Sogdian term had appeared in the literature, referring to soilders from foreign land. See, Huang yongnian, Notes on Jiehu, Shijie, and Zazhonghu, Wen shi , ( Zhonghua shuju, 1981 ) Vol. 9, pp. 39-46.

[20] Ouyang Xiu, Song Qi, Xin tang shu, volume 221, Liezhuan 146,  Xiyu, Kang ( Zhonghua shuju, 1975), pp.6243-6244. There is a French translation of this passage. See E. Chavannes, p. 132-135. All identification of the place names in this text are followed that of Chavannes.

[21] This passage has been translated into English and French. See , Bretschneider, Vol. 2, p. 93.  E. Chavannes, pp. 145-146.

[22] E. Chavannes considered it as Schawouschfar, p. 92, n. 1. However, he made a mistake of the location of Jidujuzhe city, the capital of Huoxun. It is not in the north of Oxus, but in the south of it. see Feng Chengjuns note about Documents,  Xitujue shiliao, translation and notes ( Beijing, 1958 ) p. 336.

[23] Some account on Merv was mentioned by Bretschneider, p. 103. It was entitled Malu and Maliwu in the Yuan Dynasty.  It is called Mulu city in the Hou han shu (written in 420-477 AD ), and Mu guo (Mu state) in the Sui shu. It is also seen in the description of Dashi  of the Xin tang shu, called Mulu. See Feng Chengjun and Lu Junling, p. 65.

[24] Wang Qinruo, Yang Yi, Cefu yuangui (Beijing; Zhonghua shuju, 1960), p. 11399. Chavannes gave a brief mention of it, but not translated sentence concerning tribute. See, Chavannes, p. 86.

[25] Tuotuo and others, Liao shi (Beijing; Zhonghua shuju, 1974), p. 356.  A complete translation about Yelu dashi in the Liao shi can be found in Bretschneider, Vol. 1, pp. 211-218. Bretschneider did not refer Huihui guo as Khwarazm directly. He considered that Huershan had some resemblance in sound with Khorazm. On the other side, Feng Chengjun referred Huershan in this text as Khorasan. Xunsigan is Samarkand with rich evidences from literatures of China and the west. See Bretschneider, Vol. 1, p. 21, n. 29. Feng Chenjun and Lu Junling, p. 81.

[26] Bei shi ji has been translated into English with a introduction about Wugusun zhongduan and Liu Qi. Bretschneider, Vol. 1, pp. 25-34.  I would like to translate it again according to recent article about this travel note. Yan Zonglin, Beishi ji: text, notes and commentary, in  Yang Zonglin shixue lunwen ji (Taiyuan;  Shanxi guji, 1998), pp. 350-356.

[27] The identification of these place names can be found in Bretschneider, p. 28, note 49..Molici is probably Merkites, Mokeli is Mekrins, QiliQis is Kirghiz, Naiman is Naimans, Hongli is Qanglis, Guigu may be Uigurs, Tuma is Tumats of Rashid, and Helu , Karluks. 

[28] Ili may be Ili-balik or Eri (nowaday Herat ). Bretschneider, p. 28, note 49.

[29] More details on the political history in Kara khitai, see the translation of  Volume 30 of the Liao shi, Bretschneider, Vol. 1, pp 217-218. But the Liao shi do not mention Yelu dashis betrayal of Jin Taizong.

[30] Bretschneider translated this sentence to they tear flesh with the fingers and swallow it. To my knowledge, the accurate meaning is that they eat only meat killed by their own hands i.e. themselves.

[31] Bretschneider ,  Vol. 1, p. 30, note 57.

[32] Bretscgneider, Vol. 1, p. 31, n. 68.

[33] Brestchneider translated it into dressed simply .The Chinese sentence here is Jiezhuo suzhuang, meaning all wear su clothings. Su refer to white and without adornment .

[34] The record of Diyang ( lamb grow in the land ) constantly appeared in the medieval Chinese texts concerning western region. For instance, Xiyu zhuan of the Jiu tang shu write, There are lambs which grow in the ground, the inhabitant wait till they are about to sprout, and then screen them off by building walls to prevent the beasts which are at large outside from eating them up. The navel of these lambs is connected with the ground; when it is forcibly cut the animal will die, but after the people have fixed the buds themselves, they frighten them by the steps of horses or the beating of drums, when the lambs will yield a sound of alarm, and the navel will be detached, and then the animal may be taken off the water-plant. See E. Hirth, p. 54, p. 260-263. However, Hirth may confuse the record of Shui yangmao ( water wool ) with Diyang. Shui yangmao , in the Hou han shu ( written around 420-477 AD ), refer to some woolen cloth exported from Daqin ( Roman Empire ), which is different from Diyang. The reason for confusion lies in a misunderstanding of the last sentence in this paragraph. In fact, it can be translated that when the lambs will yield asound of alarm, and the navel will be detached in terror, then the lambs look for water and plant ( as the common lamb ).

[35] Record on Hubing  constantly appeared in the Chinese sources since Tang Dynasty. More identification about this western food can be seen in Xiangda, Tangdai changan yu xiyu wenming (Changan and the civilization of Western Regions in the Tang times, Beijing, 1958 )

[36] Wang Guowei, Heida shilue: text, notes and commentary, in his Wang Guowei yishu  (Shanghai; Shanghai guji, 1983), Volume 13, p. 24-25.

[37] The identification of place names in the passage , see Wang Guo wei, p. 25. Beida jinlu means the northern barbarians, Jin people, which is entitled by the Southern Song Dynasty, referring to Jurchen. Naiman refer to Naimans. As for Wugu, Shuli, Salida, and Kangli, Wang Guowei just conclude them briefly as names of Huihui guo.  Data in the north is considered as some tribes of Wulusu (Urasut ) by Wang Guowei. Besides,Mieliqi is no doubt Merkits. Xixia is Tangut.  Kangli may be Kanglis. Salida refer to Sartaghul of the Secret History of Mongols, i.e. Khwarazm. See Feng Chengjun and Lu Junling, p. 41, 52, 100.

[38] Li Shizhen, Bencao gangmu (Beijing; Renmin weisheng chubanshe, 1957-1959), p. 865.

[39] ibid. , p. 1010.

[40] Chen Zhongmian , Tujue jishi , ( Zhonghua shuju , 1958) pp. 662-677.  gave extensive notes on this passage. His book remains  the most valuable research of Chinese sources  on the Turkic people up to now. He gave three possible explanations of the Tiele. First , Tiele can be reconstructed as tiet lak in the Tang pronouciation. It is likely to equal tirk in the Turkic language, refering to supporter ( Stutze, Sule, see Radioff: Versuch eines Vorterbuches der Turk-dialecete, Vol. 3, line 1365 ). This defination right equal the status of Tiele in the Turkic Qaghanate recorded by the Chinese sources. A partir du moment ou les Tou-kiue ( Turcs ) fon drent leur empire et o lis imposrent leur domination lest et louest, ils se serrirent tou-jours (des Hiei-ho ) pour gouverner des rgions sauvages du nord. See E. Chavannes, p. 89. Second, Tura in the Zoroastrianism scriptures has been widely accepted as the ancestor of Turks by the scholars. The majority of the Tiele were Turkic tribes, thus may be entitled Tura generally. Third , it may be a changed pronouciation of Turkler, the plural of Turk.

[41] Dulu river refer to Tula river in this text. It was called Dule water in the Tujue zhuan of the Xin tang shu and Tula , Tuhula and  Tuwula in the Yuan shi. See Feng Chengjun and Lu Junling, p. 96.

[42] Chen Zhongmian associated it with Buku khan, the ancestor of Uigurs. It also may be the Bargut in the Yuan Dynasty, a tribe live in the bank of Bargucin river.

[43] Weihu equal to Huihu  in the Huihu zhuan of the Jiu tang shu, refering to Uigurs.

[44] Bayiegu may be Bayirku. See Chavannes, pp. 88-89.

[45] fuluo may be the Beyrkli tribe of the kipchak, see Chen Zhongmian, Vol. 2, p. 664.

[46] See , Mori Masao, On Chi-li-fa (Eltbr/Eltbir ) and chi-chin (Irkin ) of the Tieh-l tribes, Acta Asiatica (Tokyo ) 9, 1965, pp. 31-56.

[47] The pronounciation of the Hun is quite alike  the Kheounni (khoun ) discussed by Chavannes, Documents, p.321. also a fragmentary account excavated out of Turfan ( Gaocang ) tomb ( dated after 587 AD )  recorded the visit of Qatun, the wife of Khan of the Hun tribe, to Gaocang. See Jiang Boqin, Dunhuang tulufan wenshu yu sichou zhilu ( the new sources from Dunhuang and Turfan and Silk Road, Beijing, 1994 ), pp. 107-108.

[48] Yiwu is called Hami in the Yuan dynasty. See Bretschneider, Vol. 2, pp. 20-21.

[49] There is a specific zhuan in the Xin tang shu on Yanqi. See Chavannes, p. 110-114.`

[50] chavannes, p. 115, note 2.

[51] Qibi may be Kara-kalpak (Karbak )? See Chen Zhongmian, Vol. 2, p. 666. The Jiu tang shu record a general in the Tang army who was named Qibi heli and may origin from this tribe. Also see, Chavannes, p.34, n. 10. According to the sources of Turfan, Gaocang was under the control of Qibi after 605 AD. See Jiang Boqin, pp. 109-110.

[52] Boluozhi may equal to Bourdj, while yizhi as yetia? See Chen Zhongmian, vol. 2, p. 666.

[53] According to Wang Guowei, Tujue zhuan of the Jiu tang shu recorded the ten-arrow tribes ( oqu in Turkic ) of the western Turks. The pronunciation of oqu is alike that of Wuhu. However, the name of on-oq (ten arrows ) is after the presence of Wuhu in the literature. Morever, we can not find more evidence of entitling a tribe arrow in the historical data, thus it may be earlier to say that Wuhu is oq now. Cited from Cen Zhongmian, Vol. 2, p. 666.

[54] There is a record on Hugu in the Cefu yuangui.   the national history ( the Sui shu ) writes, west of Yiwu and the north of Yanqi, nearby the Bai shan live Qipi, Wuhu, Hugu and so. The Qipi is Qimi nowadays. The Wuhu is wuhu, and Huihu later on. The Hugu is Huqisi. Thus, the Tiele tribes once call it Hugu. The reason for transfering it to jiegasi lies in the slow or fast pronunciation of the Barbarian language as well as the difference of translation. The Hugu term themselves as Jijis when speaking speedfully. The official for translation explained Jigasi as yellow hair and red face. It have been called themselves by the Huihu (Uigurs ). Now the envoys of Hugu claim that they have been called as Jiegasi since long time ago. We can not discern which ( Huihu or Hugu ) is right.  In a sum, Hugu  refer to Kirghis (Qirqiz in Turkic ). See Cen Zhongmian, Vol. 2 , p.667.

[55]  Xueyantuo refer to Syr-Tardouch. There is a specific chapter on this tribe in the Jiu tang shu, see Chavannes, pp. 94-96.

[56]  Zhileer may equal to Djaruk ( Caruk according to Barthold )  in Bardjuk. ( Ency. Islam, Fasc. O. 905. ) cited from Cen Zhongmian, p. 668.

[57] Shipan may be Zabender. Cen Zhongmian, p. 668.

[58] Daqi can be constructed as ttnziekiei, equal to Tarniach.

[59] Hezhi is entitled Azhi in the Tang literature. (Duyou, Tong dian, Vol. 199 ). It refer to Adiz. See Chen Zhongmian, Vol. 2, p. 669.

[60] Gejie refer to Khazar. See Zhang Xinglang, Zhongxi jiaotong shiliao huibian ( The collective historical data on Sino-occidental relations, Zhonghua shuju, 1978 ) Vol. 1, p. 128.

[61] Bahu refer to Bolghar. Zhang Xinglang,  ibid.

[62] Biqian equal to Pecheneg. Zhang Xinglang, pp. 128-129.

[63] Hebici may be Kipcak?

[64] Su can be pronouced Sa in the Tang period. Thus suba equal to saba, i.e. sabir. Cen Zhongmian, Vol. 2, p. 670.

[65] Yemo may be Yemek ?

[66] Keda may be Kourtargar. Chen Zhongmian, p. 670.

[67] Four Chinese scholar have identified Deyi sea as Caspian Sea. Chen Zhongmian among them provide most likely proof.  Deyi can be pronouce as Tek ngji. Capsian Sea is called Kuan Denghiz in Mongolian. Kuan means lake. Denghiz is the Turkic title for Capsian Sea. Denghiz equal Tek ngji. See Cen Zhongmian, Vol. 2, p. 671.

[68] Suluhe may be Sarourgour. Chen Zhongmian, p. 672.

[69] Yemiecu ( iet-miet-toiwok , reconstruction by Cen Zhongmian ) may be Kermichions. See Chavannes, pp. 229-233. Chen Zhongmian, pp. 672-673.

[70] Longhu may be Circas. Ibid. On Circassia, see Bretschneider, Vol. 2, p. 90

[71] Enqu refer to Ugur. See Zhang Xinglang, Vol. 1, p. 131.

[72] Alan is called Alanas and Asu in the Yuan Dynasty . It refer to the Alans.  See Bretschneider, Vol. 2, p. 87. Chen Zhongmian, Vol. 2, p. 675.

[73] Beiru may be Bedjenaks. Chen Zhongmian, Vol. 2,  p. 676.

[74] Jiuli, possibly terming Kiou Ijie in the Tang time,  may be Kholas. Ibid.

[75] Dubo may be tubas. See M.A. Czaplicka, The Turks of Central Asia , (Oxford, 1918 ) ,  p. 55, n. 101.

[76] Wei Zheng and others , Sui shu (Beijing; Zhonghua shuju, 1973), pp. 1879-1880.

[77] There is a selected French translation of this chapter. See Chavannes, pp. 170-174. Fulin refer to the Byzantine Empire generally. However the identification varies from person to person. The following are some main arguments. See Chen Zhongmian, Vol. 2, pp. 673-674.

1.       Yule, Greeks named Constantinpolis as Polin, as Londoner called London as city. This title seems form the origin of Chinese appelletion.

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  Quote Gubook Janggoon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Aug-2004 at 19:26
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  Quote hannibal Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Aug-2004 at 06:29
'Big' is one of the most important features of Academic Paper

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  Quote warhead Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Aug-2004 at 23:03

Thats a very informative post. btw do you know where the Tang recorded country of Shi(rock) guo is?

From this web, its the western most country that Tang's border come in contact with. .html

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  Quote ihsan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30-Aug-2004 at 15:53
Hmm, looks like a great article, I have already added this to my small archive of articles about Central Asia, I'll try to read this some time.

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