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Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb

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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb
    Posted: 16-Sep-2013 at 08:48
For some reason I found it a little difficult to find material for this great leader, but at least I was able to find some. Saying that Any further contributions of knowledge on this subject, as with others is welcome. So here we go.

Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb (1137/1138 – March 4, 1193)


The most famous of the Muslim military heroes was Saladin. In the late 12th century he succeeded in uniting various parts of the Middle East and Mesopotamia and in overtaking the Christian armies of the early crusades through a combination of shrewd diplomacy and decisive attacks.

Saladin was born in Takrit, Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq) to a Kurdish family. As a youth, his pursuits tended more toward the religious and scholarly than toward the military, but this changed when he joined the staff of his uncle, a military commander. By age 31 Saladin became commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

In the following years, Saladin used his considerable talents to bring the Muslim territories of Syria, Egypt, northern Mesopotamia, and Palestine under his control. Then, in 1187, he launched a holy war against the armies of the European crusaders, who had conquered Jerusalem 88 years before. In contrast to the European conquest of Jerusalem, Saladin's capture of the city was far more civilized and less bloody.

By 1189 the crusaders occupied only three cities in the entire Middle East. Saladin's conquest sparked the Third Crusade, which was led by the famed military leader Richard I (the Lion-Hearted). The clash between these two great powers ended in a draw, but a treaty was drawn up that allowed Christians to visit holy sites in the area. Saladin died a peaceful death in Damascus in 1193.

Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes. In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by his military genius.
Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.

His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the emir Nureddin, who was the son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem; Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph; and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops in Egypt and vizier of the Fatimid caliphate there. His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan.

Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the weak and unpopular Shi'ite Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunni Islam in Egypt, and became that country's sole ruler. Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain. Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt. This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad, or holy war--the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions. He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works, especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour--more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine. So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months. But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to Saladin's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops.

His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack. Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle. The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest--but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard left the Middle East in October 1192, the battle was over. Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus.

Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his grave. Saladin's family continued to rule over Egypt and neighbouring lands as the Ayyubid dynasty, which succumbed to the Mamluks in 1250.
http://history-world.org/saladin.htm
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  Quote Baal Melqart Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Sep-2013 at 09:23


Definitely a great general. He was shrewd in diplomacy and a very good strategist. I would also think that he had a pretty good moral code compared to the people of his time (both Christian and Muslim). The atrocities that were committed by the Arabs during the conquest of the Byzantine and also the atrocities of the crusaders were unimaginable. Somehow Salahdin didn't follow that example and aimed for more peaceful settlements with his enemies.


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  Quote yomud Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Sep-2013 at 13:00
well i disagree with u about him he wasn't great commander he win his battle  on map and letter not on battlefield   2 thing i can say about him he knew the politic and he wasn't stupid he only enter the battles which he know he will win


Edited by yomud - 21-Sep-2013 at 13:24
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  Quote yomud Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Sep-2013 at 13:40
By age 31 Saladin became commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.
In the following years, Saladin used his considerable talents to bring the Muslim territories of Syria, Egypt, northern Mesopotamia, and Palestine under his control. Then, in 1187, he launched a holy war against the armies of the European crusaders, who had conquered Jerusalem 88 years before. In contrast to the European conquest of Jerusalem, Saladin's capture of the city was far more civilized and less bloody.
sultan nur addin send his army under command of shirkuh to egypt to help them against european  after shirkuh die he become commander of egypt but still he was under command of sultan nur addin for 20 years  just before nur addin attack to Jerusalem saladin betray him and take egypt for him self this break muslem unity and very soon former master and student  take arms agianst each other this buy very high reputation for saladin among the European when nur addin dies he marry with his wife and took control nur addin lands . saladin was good at field but he was very bad in siege 





Edited by yomud - 21-Sep-2013 at 13:46
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  Quote Ollios Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22-Sep-2013 at 01:53
Originally posted by yomud

well i disagree with u about him he wasn't great commander he win his battle  on map and letter not on battlefield   2 thing i can say about him he knew the politic and he wasn't stupid he only enter the battles which he know he will win

It's a general question about him, so being good general should be just criterion.

He took back Jerusalem
Created a big Kingdom (Ayyubids)
He was the reason of why third crusade didn't to much effective

These are create achivements. He is also just one of a few muslim leader who reminds good in West

But I agree he wasn't very good general. If he lived in Spain, he would defeated quickly and would't have great reputation. His the biggest advantage was transportation lack of Europe.




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  Quote yomud Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-Sep-2013 at 14:20
Originally posted by Ollios

It's a general question about him, so being good general should be just criterion.
  well when i look to this 2 battle i could see what is great general means

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Kerak

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Harim

when nur addin was young  christians have soldiers with full armor from feet to head muslems call these armored soldiers as ironmen and they were unstoppable against muslems nur addin should find a way to kill them but in salaindins time muslim have equal guards like christians nuraddin start with small city -army and limited wealth and make such great dynasty but  saladin have egypt the wealthiest and strongest muslim country and he didn't done anything not until nuraddin dies

Originally posted by Ollios

Created a big Kingdom (Ayyubids)
that big kingdom was already created by nuraddins hand he just add palestine to it  when nurddin start it's ruling he should fight not only with christians  but also with muslims which allied them self with christians  but saladin just wait for nuraddin death and took the power i mean everything was prepared  for him he just pick the apple when the time was right

Originally posted by Ollios

He took back Jerusalem
  muslem could take  jerusalem  earlier time if saladin didn't betray  nuraddin .  he took the egypt  and ....

Originally posted by Ollios

He was the reason of why third crusade didn't to much effective . His the biggest advantage was transportation lack of Europe.
yes you may right about third crusade but was the saladin hold them or christians  didn't trust each other ? emperor barbarossa never arrive to holy land he die in turkey the french king betray english king as soon as he return to France he declear war on england richard forced to return to england he he never arrive to home  i think saladin know they are not united  so he just need some time before christians   backstab each other in other hand if u look to Second Crusade u will realaze the only thing stood between
christians   and  kingdom of  edessa  was zangis and they could defeat christians  
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  Quote Sinsot Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Oct-2013 at 10:35
Only can describe him on this words Legendry heroes of Kurds Iranians and Islam though ha was against shia but we musnt forget iran was sunni center and Egypt was shia center
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