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Osirian civilisation

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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Osirian civilisation
    Posted: 29-Jan-2012 at 19:05
In another thread i heard this civilisation was established in the Mediterranean around 6000 BC. Who were these Osirians and where exactly did they live?
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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30-Jan-2012 at 19:11
According to this website the capital of this civilisation was Malta and its people worshipped the Egyptian god Osiris. Other theories link it with Atlantis or the cities lost to the Great Flood. Personally, i've never heard of Osirians before, but perhaps someone else knows more about them?
Mysterious Osiria
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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 31-Jan-2012 at 19:01
Judging by the lack of response, i can only conclude the Osirian civilisation was invented by Europeans bitter at the achievements of the blacks and Semites in Egypt and Mesopotamia when their own ancestors still lived in caves. If this is not the case, feel free to prove me wrong

Edited by Nick1986 - 31-Jan-2012 at 19:01
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  Quote Sidney Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Feb-2012 at 19:51
Hi,

The Osirians were an alien species that first appeared in the British TV sci-fi series Doctor Who in 1975.
So who inspired who?
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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Feb-2012 at 20:03
I'm not very familiar with the older Dr Who (anything pre-1989) other than the Doctor in the 70s wore a long scarf and cat badge. Regarding the Osirians, another member called Seth mentioned them and claimed these ancient enemies of Atlantis " thrived in the Mediterranean." I'm still not sure if they even existed or not as nobody seems to know anything about themConfused


Edited by Nick1986 - 02-Feb-2012 at 20:03
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Feb-2012 at 20:41
Are these the same people, Nick?


1
The Osirian 
Legend
Its African Roots and its Parables for the Present
Leon Dixon2
Introduction 4
CHAPTER ONE 6
Some Historical Background Of The Osirian Myth 6
The Land and its People 6
Ancient Influence of Astronomy and Nature 12
Of Ancient Lore, Legend and Mythology 15
CHAPTER TWO 21
The Osirian Legend 21
The Creation 22
Osiris the Man-God 24
The Travails of Isis 26
Horus the Avenger 29
The Afterlife and the Judgment 31
CHAPTER THREE 34
Of The African Roots Of Osirianism 34
Some Cultural/Theological Comparisons 34
The Reverence of the Mother 37
Some Cultural Comparisons from the Arts 38
The Respect for Elders 39
The Significance of Magic 40
Funeral Customs 41
The Significance Of “The Stool” 42
On the Dogon and Their Cosmogony 43
CHAPTER FOUR 49
Of The Symbolism In The Mythology Of Ancient Egypt 49
Of Humankind’s Primal years 49
Of Ritual and Order 50
On the Triumph of the Younger Brother 50
On Time Reckoning 54
The Temple Builders 55
The Underworld 65
CHAPTER FIVE 68
Some Discussion of Parables For the Present From the Osirian Legend 68
Charity Begins at Home and Spreads Abroad 68
Pass the Torch to a Capable Successor 69
Beware of Something-for-Nothing “gifts” 69
Wisdom Combined With Knowledge  Can Yield Profound Results 70
Single Motherhood 71
The Value And Role of the Sage 73
Good and Great Works are Validated by the Subsequent Generations 74
Knowing Oneself Enables Fulfillment of Potential 74
The Struggle for the Future, and Generational Tension 753
The Settling in of a New Parad i g m 76
Unification Enables Ascension 76
APPENDIX 784
Introduction
The Osirian legend is the bedrock of the ancient Egyptian religious mythology.  A
testament to Osiris’ impact on the ancient Egyptians is given by R. T. Runnel Clark in his 
book Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt, wherein he writes:
1
  “once synthesized, he lived 
on for nearly  three thousand years in the hearts of the people as a symbol of the great 
human drama.”  What is known of the legend is derived  from archeology and the texts 
that have been found.  It evolved over several millennia, stretching back some sixthousand years.  And due to its complexity, this work is presented merely as a primer.
The motivation for this effort was derived from the many conversations about Osiris and 
the ancient Egyptian religion that I have held with several of my associates, as well as 
friends and family.  Most had only scant knowledge of it but expressed an interest and 
curiosity to learn more.  As I had read several works on this subject, I took it upon myself 
to try and layout the essentials of it so as to pique that interest and curiosity  of those 
persons with only a limited understanding of it.  And to provide enough information and 
insight in the process to make them more conversant about it, and to whet their appetites 
to become desirous of learning even more about this ages old mythology whose influence 
has been so profound and far reaching as to still be felt even to this day.
The first chapter discusses some historical background in order to get a feel for the 
geographical and environmental conditions that made it possible for the kind of
civilization to evolve that produced such cosmological and theological concepts.  The 
peopling of the land and their interworkings with that environment and each other are 
also discussed here.
Next is a discourse on the Osirian legend itself.  There  is no systematic or coherent 
structural written record of it.  Apparently the priests or scribes saw no reason for 
producing such an account, or what is more likely (according to several scholars), it may 
have simply been too difficult to harmonized all of the various aspects, components, and 
versions of it that evolved over the years.  However, a careful study of the text and tomb 
records and findings that have been discovered does reveal a certain set of beliefs and 
consistent themes.  Therefore, what is  presented here is a compiled version, organized in 
such a manner as to try and give the lay reader a fair understanding of the Osirian legend.  
Most of the names and terms herein are the ones that have found their way into common 
usage and not the more anc ient and original ones.  A comparison between them is given 
in the appendix.
As a result of the continuing research, discoveries, excavations, etc., carried out, scholars 
are becoming more and more cognizant of the African contribution, influence, and indeed 
origin, of the ancient Egyptian civilization and its concomitant science, philosophy and 
religion.  An example of this can be seen in how the discussion by E. A. Wallis Budge, 5
the former keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the British museum, of the 
location of “the Elysian Fields” evolved.
The Elysian Fields (or Sekhet-Aaru) were a place where the ancient Egyptians believed 
that the spirits of the Blessed dead lived.  It was a region of heaven over which Osiris had 
special control.  Within this region was a place they called “The Field of Offerings” (or 
Sekhet-Hetep) where the blessed souls obtained their supplies of celestial food and drink.  
“Strictly speaking,” wrote Budge,
2
 “they were not fields but islands, intersected by canals 
filled with running water, which caused them to be always green and fertile.  On these 
grew luxuriant crops of wheat and barley, the likes of which were unknown on earth.”
In his book  Egyptian Religion, first published in 1899, Budge argued that they were in
the fertile lands of the Delta in Lower Egypt.
3
  He reiterated these claims
4
 in The Gods of 
the Egyptians, Volume I, which was first published in 1904.  But in 1911, when he first 
published Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, he wrote:
5
Some writers would place these Elysian Fields in the Great Oasis (Al-Khagah [in 
the Libyan desert]), and others in the Delta, and there is much to be said in favor 
of each view, especially when we look at the pictures of the Seket-Aaru in the 
Books of the Dead of the XVIIIth and XIXth dynasties.  But it is more probable 
that the originals from which the idea of the Egyptian Isles of the Blest were taken 
were from the islands in Lake Victoria [a source of the Nile; see chapter one] in 
Central Africa.  Several passages in the Pyramid Texts prove that the abode of the 
Blessed was situated away beyond a large expanse of water, ... (emphasis mine)
Budge gives strong convincing evidence of the African origin of Osirianism in his two 
volume work on the subject.  They are referred to frequently in chapter three which 
discusses this influence.
In Chapter Four the discussion is on the how the ancient Egyptian mythology is grounded 
in astronomy.  This also supports much of what was covered in Chapter One.  Attention 
is given to the orientation of some of the stellar and solar temples, and on some of the 
instruction that took place there.
As mythologies can serve as cultural guides for living, in that they “justify” the mores of 
society, some discussion on parables drawn from the Osirian legend that could have 
contemporary relevancy is included in the final chapter.
Finally, it must be said that most, if not all, of the world’s peoples have their epic legends 
and mythologies.  For those of African descent, this ancient Egyptian mythology, I 
submit, is the wellspring of such legends.  And, I would argue, that an understanding of it 
serves to enhance the spiritual/cultural aspect of African or Black studies.  For it
addresses the prophetic call of the great twentieth century African visionary, thinker, 
liberator, and leader, Amilcar Cabral, to “Return to the Source.”6
Chapter One
 Some Historical Background Of The Osirian Myth
The Land and its People
In  order to understand the Osirian legend one must journey far back into pre-history,
before Egypt was Egypt; even before the indigenous people of  the Great Nile Valley had 
begun to gave rise to their most remarkable civilization.  Geography holds many keys for 
us.  For openers, it reveals that the environmental conditions were such that  humankind 
was able to have its beginning “in the virgin rain forest of East Africa’s valley of the 
Mountain of the Moon, where the Great Lakes gave birth to the River Nile,” as Hunter 
Adams, III writes in his essay “African and African-American contributions to science 
and technology.”  And it is from there that scholars assert that early humankind began to 
fan out and populate the planet.  Again it is geography that reveals the reasons why 
various human traits, characteristics and cultures (races) evolved as the human bodies and 
peoples began to adapt to the environments that housed them.  Geography also informs us 
that as the Nile flows towards the Delta, it parts the parched dry lands into the Arabian 
Desert on the east and the Libyan  Desert on the west.  Thus forming the 600 mile Great 
Nile Valley.
The Nile itself is over four thousand miles long and is formed by the convergence of the 
Blue Nile and the White Nile rivers at Khartoum in the Sudan.  Further north in the 
Sudan at Atbara, another river which bears that name, makes an additional contribution to 
this mighty flow of waters.  The White Nile has its sources in two great lakes located 
deep in the heart of Africa.  One is between Uganda and Zaire, and the other is at the 
intersection of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.  The Blue Nile, which contributes
approximately eighty percent of the volume of the Nile, has as its source  another great 
lake, Lake Tana, located high in the Ethiopian highlands.
Although these great lakes are the sources of the Nile, it is its inundation which creates its 
value to mankind.  Again we turn to geography for an explanation of how it was done.  
The Ethiopian Highlands reach thousands of feet above sea level into the heavens.  And 
clouds floating in from the Indian Ocean are intercepted by these mountains as they travel 
northward, causing them to release their waters.  This results in a ten month rainy season 
which causes Lake Tana to overflow into the Blue Nile.  The Blue Nile rushes into the 
Nile as does the Atbara River further north down stream.  Both of these rivers bring rich 
black silt from the Ethiopian Highlands, making a unique and important contribution to 
the environment for its exploitation by mankind.  First the Blue Nile merges with the 
White Nile forming the Nile River which is joined later by the Atbara.  Without the 
crystal clear waters of the White Nile the desert would drink up the two Ethiopian rivers.  
And alone the White Nile would only be a barren flow of water.  But because of this 7
mixture, they bring rich topsoil to the lowlands, enabling farmers to sow their seeds on 
this fertile land and then wait for the energy delivered by the sun’s rays to produce their 
crops.
This was the Nile’s gift to mankind.  For with this combination of rich black topsoil from
the Ethiopian Highlands, showered by eternal sunshine and watered by Ethiopian rains, 
the indigenous population was able to obtain a year’s supply of food for only a few day’s 
work, and was thus provided with a wealth of spare time which is so essential for the 
development, growth, and advancement of civilization.
6
Though humankind originated in the region of the Great Lakes and migrated from there 
to populate the planet, the lucrative environment of the Great Nile Valley had been a lure 
for settlers for ages.  Groups began to settle here and there in the area, cultivating the land 
and organizing themselves into communities.  Although it has been suggested that settlers 
came from various places such as Mesopotamia, Syria, Iran and from Palestine through 
the Sinai Peninsula, much of the archeological evidence and tradition both indicate that 
the primary flow of the incoming population was from the Ethiopian Highlands in the 
south, into what was later called Upper Egypt, and onward towards the Delta in the 
northern areas, later called Lower Egypt.
7
  Cheik Anta Diop alludes to the possibility that 
Upper Egypt had its share of immigrants also, and that they combined with the original 
inhabitants to later populate Lower Egypt.  In The African Origin of Civilization, he 
writes:
8
It is generally agreed that by 7000 B.C., the Sahara had dried up.  Equatorial 
Africa was probably still a forest zone too dense to attract men.  Consequently, 
the last blacks who lived in the Sahara now presumably left it to migrate toward 
the Upper Nile, with the possible exception of a few small isolated groups on the 
rest of the continent, who either had migrated toward the South or had headed 
north.  Perhaps the region of the Upper Nile.  Whatever the case, it was from the 
gradual adaptation to the new living condition which nature assigned to these 
various Black populations that the oldest phenomenon of civilization came about.  
This civilization then slowly descended the Nile Valley to spread out around the 
Mediterranean basin.  This cycle of civilization, the longest in history, presumably 
lasted 10,000 years.  This is a reasonable compromise between the long
chronology data provided by Egyptian priests [Herodotus and Manetho place the 
beginning at 17,000 B.C.] and the short chronology of the modern—for the later 
are obliged to admit that by 4245 B.C. the Egyptians had already invented the 
calendar [which necessarily requires the passage of thousands of years].
In his book  Egypt Before the Pharaohs, Michael A. Hoffman Sheds more light on this 
discussion.  Using evidence amassed from archeological findings such as pottery,
stonetools, rock paintings, etc. he illuminates the following:
9
...anthropologists have come to believe that man indeed did originate in Africa in 
the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene [i.e. ca. 5 - 1 million years ago] and slowly 
spread out from there, so that by 750,000 years ago he had settled northwest 8
Africa, southern Europe, and much of tropical and subtropical Asia [i.e. the 
habitable world]. ... the valley of the Nile would have been an ideal route of 
migration.  Although that river was still not connected to its Ethiopian sources, it 
did drain all of Egypt and reached well into the Sudan.  Beyond this, to the south, 
others streams would have flowed into closed drainage basins, forming a chain of 
rich lakes and river systems that led into Eastern Africa.  This period was
characterized by abundant and prolong rainfall in Egypt and Nubia, so that we can 
easily envision northeast Africa as rich in tropical and subtropical plants and 
animals.  The shores of the Protonile, and the bordering grasslands, must have 
acted like a giant corridor providing entry to the north for the tropical plants and 
animals.
Hoffman also discusses how the Sahara went through periods of drought and bloom; and 
how populations migrated and shifted according to this geological ebb and flow; and how 
hunting, fishing, the domestication of animals and plants, and farming evolved in this 
geological area while accommodating these climate shifts.  Hoffman asserts that a recent 
find “demonstrates conclusively the importance of the desert peoples in the later
prehistory of northeastern Africa, between about 7,000 and 4,000 B.C.”  The site is called 
Nabta Playa.  It lies approximately 200 kilometers west-southwest of Aswan, and is dated 
between about 7,300 and 4,000 B.C.  He writes:
10
Today, fossil dunes, heavy clays, and solidified root casts bear witness to the 
effects of the Neolithic Subpluvial as its rains reopened the Sahara to extensive 
human occupation for the first time in  30,000 years.  ..., it seems that terminal 
Paleolithic hunting and gathering way of life of Nabta soon gave way to a 
Neolithic farming and herding economy based on the cultivation of barley and the 
domestication of sheep,  goat, and cattle.  This change took place around 6,000 
B.C.  despite variations in rainfall during the Neolithic, settlement persisted at 
isolated spots like Nabta for at least 2,000 years.  
Another interesting observation pertaining to this discussion is found in an article entitled 
“An Ancient Harvest on the Nile” by anthropologist Fred Wendorf and his research 
assistant at Southern Methodist University, Angela E. Close, and Romuald Schild who is 
the associate director of the institute for History of Material Culture at the Polish
Academy of Sciences.  In the book Blacks In Sciences, edited by Ivan Van Sertima, they 
speak to the misconception that farming began about 10,000 years ago in Southwestern 
Asia, just after the last ice age. They write:
11
Our excavations at Wadi Kubbaniya, a desolate region in Egypt’s Western Desert, 
throw all this into doubt.  We have found that, between 17,000 and 18,000 years 
ago—while ice still covered much of Europe—African peoples were already 
raising crops of wheat, barley, lentils, chick-peas, capers, and dates.  They were 
doing it in the flood plains of the Nile, much as people would continue to do for 
another 13,000 years until the classical Egyptian civilization arose, and on into 
modern times.9
In addition to this Sertima himself writes in the “Overview” of the same book, p. 20, 
that:
12
  “University of Massachusetts anthropologist, Dr. Charles Nelson, announced to 
the New York Times  in 1980 that his team had unearthed evidence in the Lukenya Hill 
district of the Kenya Highlands, about 25 miles from Nairobi, that Africans had been 
domesticating cattle 15,000 years ago.”  He adds, same page:  “The picture in Africa is 
not yet complete but certain things we do know.  Apart from the latest findings in Eastern 
Africa by Wendorf and Nelson, we have hard carbon dates for domesticated grains in the 
Sahara agricultural complex as early as 6,000 B.C.  We know too that, as the Sahara 
became drier (5,020 - 2,500 B.C.) Africans were forced to migrate to other parts of the 
continent, taking their crop science with them.”
“The cultures of the late Paleolithic,” writes Michael A. Hoffman,
13
 “spawned in the
adversity of a regional climate and schooled in a tradition of making the best of locally 
available sources, constituted such a varied and ultimately healthy pool. Groups clung to 
old ways, while others moved headlong into a new microlithic [small stone tool]
technology—the earliest of its kind in the world—while others charted a middle course 
between conservatism and innovation.”  He continues:
Broadly speaking, the period after about 30,000 B.C. witnessed marked
environmental deterioration, pronounced technological innovation, and the
regionalization of social groups.  All these factors were related to one another and 
combined to produce a cultural mosaic in the Nile Valley that gave rise to two 
precocious developments: the invention of the world’s first microlithic technology 
and one of the world’s earliest attempts of domesticate plants.
In addition to this, Hoffman states further
14
, p. 164, that:
It was doubtless the diversity of such predynastic peoples that ultimately enabled 
them to develop a prosperous society and outward looking economy that
exploited connections with both the Sahara to the west and the Red Sea to the east 
and plied the Nile with high-prowed sailing vessels from Aswan to the Delta, and 
perhaps beyond.  It was this prosaic pattern of broadly based economic and social 
networks linked with more inexplicable cultural factors like the preference for 
elaborate ornamentation and public display and an unusual fascination with the 
accumulating foods for the afterlife that ultimately laid the foundations for
classical Dynastic civilization.
These peoples descended to the Lower Nile Valley, setting up their isolated village
communities for both protection and to carry out projects and schemes for their mutual 
benefit and advancement.  The ir political units were independent with their own capitals.    
They consisted of enough land to support their own inhabitants, were ruled by their own 
chieftain and worshipped their own deity.  These independent units continued to grow 
and eventually formed larger districts of governments referred to as “nomes.”  As living 
conditions continued to improve, attracting people and making it necessary for more 
cooperation among them, these districts developed into larger units of government and 
over time separated into independent kingdoms.  The northern one containing the Delta in 10
what is called Lower Egypt, and the southern one in what is called Upper Egypt.  These 
are the “Two Lands” often referred to in history and mythology.
15
Although the Nile Valley was fertile, its narrowness necessitated adaptation and required 
the development of expertise in irrigation, dam building, and precision calculations to 
predict the inundations of the Nile river in order to derive the ensuing economic and 
social benefits.  An example of this was the invention of geometry, which was necessary 
in order to delimit property after the boundary lines were obliterated by the floods.
16
  The 
irrigation necessary to prepare the lands for crops and to ensure that the water was spread 
to maximum advantage over as wide an area as possible required patient and diligent 
work by farmers:  River banks had to be cut to divert water into barren areas so that they 
could be brought into cultivation.  All of this required constant co-ordination and 
supervision.  Unification of the Two Lands was a desirability.  There is evidence to show 
that this was begun by a Pre-dynastic king name Scorpion who was the powerful King 
Menes, who some scholars think is the same person as King Narmer, who eventually 
united by conquest the two kingdoms, thus establishing what was later called Egypt’s 
first dynasty.
17
A reason for this continued northward migration is offered by Alexander Moret, who is 
cited by Diop
18
, as writing:
As soon as it could be made fit for cultivation by dint of embanking and draining 
and irrigating, this stretch of earth, repeatedly renewed by the Nile silt, offered a 
wider area, a more productive soil, and  a more favorable habitat for the growth of 
a prolific race than the narrow [rather much narrower] valley of Upper Egypt.  
The result was a precocious material prosperity and intellectual development, ...
The constant interaction of people, necessitated largely for mutual benefit, resulted in the 
development of common folkways, customs, and traditions which produced the culture 
and advanced the philosophies and cosmogonies, all of which were reflective of their 
evolving civilization.  By the time the Two Lands were unified their civilizations were 
already thousands of years old.  We learn of this from Manetho, the high priest of the 
Temple of Isis at Sebennytus in Lower Egypt.  
For nearly three centuries Egypt had been under foreign rule, first by the Persians and 
followed by the Greeks, when Ptolemy I Soter ordered Manetho in 241 B.C. to write an 
account of Egyptian history and religion in order to ascertain knowledge of the secrets 
and wisdom of their “mystery system.”
19
  Manetho, who wrote his history in Greek, as a 
high priest had access to Egypt’s historical archives housed in their temples.  His account 
allegedly covered thirty-six thousand years, and included the first arrangement of
sequential pharaonic reigns.  He designa te d   thirty dynasties which represented three 
hundred and thirty kings.
Manetho begins Dynastic Egypt with the unification of the Two Lands by Menes, which 
he dates around 5,500 B.C.  This still leaves over thirty thousand years of predynastic 
history of which  he wrote.  Manetho’s date of 5,500 B.C. for the First Dynasty has been 11
questioned by scholars.  Initially, Egyptologist Sir William Flinders Petrie proposed a 
date for the beginning of the First Dynasty agreeing with Manetho.  Later he revised it to 
4,326 B.C.   Sir E. A. Wallis Budge proposed a First Dynasty date of 4,400 B .C., close to 
Petrie’s date.  Chronologies using dates close to those are called “long” chronologies.  
Whereas, “short” chronologies use dates close to those proposed by Egyptologist James 
Breasted and Eduard Meyer of 3,400 to 3,100 B.C., all of these dates are derived from an 
analysis of Manetho’s history.  So much of it has been lost that many scholars have 
assumed that several kings ruled simultaneously, thus causing the contraction  of the 
historical ranges of the Dynasties.  A chronology table of the Dynasties (Table I) and a 
table of Dynasty dates of various scholars (Table II) are given for your comparison.
Table 1
A Chronology of Egyptian History (dates B.C. except where indicated)
Dynasty Period Petrie Meyer & 
Breasted
David
Pre-Dynastic 7500? -  5500 5000 - 3100
I Archaic 5500   -  5300 4186 3100 - 2890
II 2890 - 2686
III Old Kingdom 2686 - 2613
IV 4780   -  4500 3430 2613 - 2494
V 2494 - 2345
VI 4275   -  4075 2920 2345 - 2181
VII First Intermediate 2181 - 2173
VIII 2173 - 2160
IX 2160 - 2130
X 2130 - 2040
XI Middle Kingdom 2133 - 1991
XII 3580   -  3370 1995 1991 - 1786
XIII 1786 - 1633
XIV 1786 - c. 1603
XV Second Intermediate (Hyksos) 1674 - 1567
XVI c. 1684 - 1567
XVII c. 1650 - 1567
XVIII New Kingdom (Empire Dynasties) 1587   -  1328 1580 1567 - 1320
XIX 1328   -  1202 1305 1320 - 1200
XX 1202   -  1102 1200 1200 - 1085
XXI Third Intermediate 1102   -    952 1090 1085 -   945
XXII  952   -    749  945  945 -   730
XXIII  817? - 720
XXIV  720  -  715
XXV Kushite or Ethiopian  725   -    664  712  715  -  664
XXVI  664   -    525  663  664  -  525
XXVII Persian  525   -    405  525  525  -  404 
XXVIII  404  -  399
XXIX  399  -  380 
XXX  378   -    342  378  380  -  343
XXXI  343  -  332
Conquest by Alexander  322
Ptolemaic   322  -    30
Conquest by Romans     30
      Roman     30  - 4th 
century A.D.12
Dates by Petrie and Breasted & Meyer are cited by John G. Jackson in Introduction to African Civilization pp. 96 - 97.  
The other dates are cited by A. Rosalie David in The Ancient Egyptian:  Religious Beliefs and Practices.
Table 2
Dynasty Dates Proposed by Several Scholars of Egyptology
I VI XII XVIII
Manetho (3rd Century B.C.) c. 5700 c. 4300 c. 3400 c. 1700
Wilkinson (1836) 2320 1575
Champollion (1839) 5867 4426 3703 1822
Bockh (1845) 5702 4402 3404 1655
Lepsius (1858) 3892 2744 2380 1591
Unger (1867) 5613 4310 3315 1796
Mariette (1876) 5004 3703 3021 1703
Brugsch (1877) 4400 3300 2466 1700
Meyer (1887) 3180 2530 2130 1530
Petrie (1894) 4777 3503 2778 1587
Meyer (1904 - 1908) 3315 2540 2000 1580
Sethe (1905) 3360 2480 2000 1580
Breasted (1906) 3400 2625 2000 1580
Petrie (1929) 5510 4206 3459 1588
Macnaughton (1929) 5598 4151 3398 1709
Petrie (1929) 4553 3282 2586 1587
Macnaughton (1932) 5776 4360 3373 1709
Cited by John G. Jackson in Man, God, and Civilization, p. 219 (from the book A Scheme of Egyptians Chronology by 
Guncan Macnaughton, p. 161).
Ancient Influence of Astronomy and Nature
How can any of the above positions be verified?  Firstly, Heroditus gives corroborative 
evidence of Manetho’s claim of a thirty-six thousand year historical span when he states 
that Egyptian scribes told him that they had astronomical records going back for 50,000 
years.  Even though these figures cannot be checked, it is commonly agreed that Egyptian 
astronomers did have records going back to a remote past.  For even Plato insisted that 
the Egyptians had been charting these stars and planets for at least 10,000 years.  And 
Gerald Massey in  Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, states that:
20
  “The longer one 
dwells in presence of Egypt, the older grows the face of her unveiled antiquity.  Not fifty 
merely, but more like a thousand centuries look down upon us from her summit of 
attainment.”
The efforts to pinpoint the First Dynasty date have employed the uses of a variety of 
fields.  Among the methods that seek a reconciliation of that illusive date that deserves 
attention is the comparative analysis of astronomy, historical records and what is known 
about ancient Egyptian astro-mythology.  It should be noted, however, that the First 
Dynasty date merely marks the time when Menes formed the epochal union of the Two 13
Lands.  The acquisition of Knowledge and the advancement toward civilization had to 
have begun eons before that.
First let us discuss some of the astronomy that we will make use of. The ancient 
Egyptians were in possession of the knowledge of what has been called the Kemetic 
Great year.  This is determined by the revolution of the earth’s magnetic north pole 
around its true north pole, which takes from 25,860 to 25,920 years, i.e. approximately 
26,000 years.  This slow retrograde movement caused the equinoxes to precess counterclockwise against the background of the stars in such a way as to appear to revolve, at 
one time, around the star Sirius.
21
Now some astro-mythology:  The ancient Egyptians worshipped four compass gods 
representing the summer and winter solstices, and the spring and autumn equinoxes.  
They also worshipped two sets of eight polar gods; one set in The North with Ptah as the 
god of the northern pole with seven architects, and one set in The South with Khnumu as 
the god of the southern pole with seven sons.
Originally the ancient zodiac had only the four compass gods.  The eight gods of The 
North were later merged with them to give the twelve gods of the zodiac.
When the Kemetic Great Year (cycle) was divided into twelve arcs, each one was 
designated a “house” that the sun was said to move into as the retrograde precessed.  The 
time it takes to sweep through one of these arcs is from 2,155 to 2,160 years, which is 
known as an “age.”  The zodiac now in use was standardized much later by the Greeks.  
But the one that the ancient Egyptians used had the summer and winter solstices
beginning in Leo and Aquarius, respectively; and the spring and autumn equinoxes 
occurring in Taurus and Scorpio, respectively.  The New Year for the ancient Egyptians 
began at the summer solstice in Leo, so named presumably because the summer heat 
drove the lions from the desert by thirst to the banks of the Nile.  (Incidentally, Aquarius 
was when the Nile overflowed; Taurus was when the plowing season began—the bull 
was instrumental in the plowing; Scorpio was when the certain periodic winds brought 
burning vapors like the venom of scorpions.  Other signs of the zodiac were similarly 
named.)
Similarly, the Great Year began with the age of Leo, supposedly because the sun’s rays 
were most nearly perpendicular to ancient Egypt then.  From astronomy we know that the 
last time it occurred was around 10,858 B.C. Each age is said to be associated with a 
particular god or savior, and that its respective zodiacal symbolism is reflected in the 
mythology (discussed in more detail in succeeding chapters), we find that the gods Atum, 
Shu and Tefnut, which are associated with “the creation” are depicted with lion heads.  
Using 2,160 years, the figure many scholars use, we find the next age, Cancer, beginning 
around 8,696 B.C.  In the mythology we find Khepera, the “self-created one” represented 
by the scarab beetle, the symbol the ancient Egyptians used for Cancer.  Then we have 
Gemini around 6,538 B.C.  Historically speaking this matches the predynastic period 
when ancient Egypt coalesced into two kingdoms Known as the Two Lands.  14
Mythologically the twins Set, the god of Upper Egypt in The South, and Horus, the god 
of Lower Egypt in The North. This is also considered by many scholars to be the dawn of 
history.
The age of Taurus began around 4,378 B.C.  The history of Manetho and the iconography 
of the period  show that Menes instituted the worship of the Apis-Bull.  And that both 
Menes and his successors were staunch devotees of Ptah, the pre-eminent bull deity of 
that epoch.  There is also evidence that the rise of Osiris occurred during this period.  It is 
agreed that it was Menes who unified the Two Lands, thereby forming the First Dynasty.  
This comparative analysis gives us compelling evidence to justify setting its
commencement sometime during the Taurean age.  Charles S. Finch, III, M. D. asserts 
this in his book Echoes of the Old Dark Land.
22
The First Dynasty dates proposed by those scholars who prefer to use the short
chronologies (between 3,400 and 3,100 B.C.) place the beginning of Egyptian civilization 
after that of Sumer, around 4,000 B.C.  This allows arguments to be made that Africans 
were not the originators of the world’s first civilization.  If the above arguments is not 
convincing enough to suggest an earlier First Dynasty date, there is even more evidence 
to which we can turn.  When we compare the archeological evidence of the information 
contained in the Egyptian calendar with the astronomical Sothic cycle  (the 1,460 year 
period it takes for the sidereal and solar years to realign due to the approximately onefourth of a day that the sidereal year lags behind the solar year) we find the Egyptians 
were in possession of a calendar date  no later than 4,241 B.C.  Finch informs us that:
23
  
“Such a calendar, due to the high level of astronomical sophistication flourished  at least
6,200 years ago, before there was a Sumer.” (Italics his)  This makes Egypt the earliest 
known civilization.
Finally, let us consider the astronomical fact that the current Great year began around 
10,858 B.C. and that it takes approximately 26,000 years to complete its revolution.  If 
indeed Manetho did write a history that spanned 36,000 years, as has been claimed, then 
the above figures indicate that Manetho wrote of a time span covered by the previous 
Great Year up to his own time.  It has been argued that these figures are too close to be a 
mere coincidence.
24
  This also implies that his history had to cover events before the
advent of “Egypt,” even prior to “predynastic Egypt.”  This suggests that events were 
being noted and passed on to succeeding generations before the modern historians and 
archeologist say the domestication of plants and animals began; and even before the 
peoples coalesced into the nomes, and later into the two kingdoms, that ultimately led to 
the forming of “Ancient Egypt.”  Consequently, one may argue that perhaps part of 
Manetho’s history is speculative, inferential or extrapolatory.  Or, one may be led to 
conclude that the true depth of ancient Egypt civilization is vaster than we have even 
begun to fathom.
To finish up the discussion on the Great Year:  We have the age of Aries beginning 
around 2,218 B.C.  Scholars assert that this is around Biblical times.  Here we have the 
ram, lamb, and shepherd symbols dominating, supplanting those of the bull.  Around 58 
B.C. the equinoxes precessed into the age of Pisces ushering in the sign and significance 15
of fish and fishermen.  At present we are approaching the dawn of the age of Aquarius, 
which is scheduled to begin somewhere between 2,072 and 2,102 A.D.
Of Ancient Lore, Legend and Mythology
The necessity for the Nile Valley inhabitants to aquire this knowledge has been touched 
on previously.  But again we look to geography to provide us with the explanation of why 
they were able to do it.  Because Egypt was a dry  land that lay under clear nighttime skies 
for months on end, it was ideally suited for observing the heavenly bodies with the naked 
eye.  This they did for thousands of years, discovering remarkable periodic phenomena.  
Finch recounts a salient example of this (p. 116):
25
  “For most of the year at the latitude 
of Thebes in Upper Egypt, Sirius, a star in the southern heaven, is invisible, but appears 
suddenly on the eastern horizon just before dawn at the summer solstice.  This is known 
as the ‘helical’ rising.  Within 20 days after this solstitial rising, the Nile floods begin.”  
He continues:  “The coincidence of all these events left a profound impression on the 
minds of the early Kamite astronomers [Kemet, Chem or Kam, which means the “black 
land,” was the designation the indigenous people called their country], who made Sirius 
the herald of the sun, the announcer of the flood, and the harbinger of the New Year 
[which began for them at the summer solstice].”  It is well known that they had three 
calendars; a solar, a lunar, and a stellar (sidereal) based on the phenomenal Sirius.
From Manetho’s account we learn that, in addition to the geological gift of the Nile, 
Egypt had other blessings that typically flowed from the south.  As immigrants continued 
to pour into Lower Egypt, eventually settling in overtime, tensions began to develop 
between them and the adherents of the culture of the indigenous population, who were 
mainly comprised of southerners or Nubians.  This resulted in a vying for power between 
the blended-in immigrants, mostly Lower Egyptians, and the indigenous population, 
mostly Upper Egyptians.  During all of this, the Lower Egyptians never totally subdued 
the Upper Egyptians.  They mostly wrestled control of Lower Egypt for a time from 
them, while Upper Egypt mostly remained in the hands of the Nubians.  Hence, a 
unification of the Two Lands only really occurred under the auspices of the southerners.  
Un-unified Egypt typically suffered declined (commonly referred to as the Intermediate 
Periods).  The resurgence of past glories and the revival of civilization advancing
activities flowed typically after the Southerners developed a strong enough leader to retake or re-unify the Two Lands.  This unification would usher in a period of peace and 
prosperity, which invariably drew  and brought in new immigrants.  When weak kings 
occupied the throne and/or internal strife developed beyond a certain point, Egypt would 
again become vulnerable for a takeover by the Northerners, pushing the Southerners 
further back into the Southland or hinterlands until they could regroup around another 
leader powerful enough to bring about another unification.  This back-and-forth 
continued with the Blacks, following the path of least resistance, drifting further and 
further south until they eventually lost control of the civilization that they had originated, 
and given so much to for a final time.  After which Egypt’s fortune began to wane until it 
became a mere shadow of its former self.16
It had been previously mentioned how in predynastic times the Kemites (Egyptians) 
organized themselves into scattered communities and nomes, each with their own ruler or 
deity.  At times, one of these rulers would become the king of Lower or Upper Egypt or 
both.  Whenever this occurred, that leader and community or nome would endeavor to 
promote their particular deity to the statue of primacy with respect to other deities; i.e. the 
Lord of Lords, the Great God, etc.  As the cosmogony of the Egyptians evolved, they 
began to view their kings as the son of the Great God, thus making him part divine.  This 
view carried on well into the dynastic eras, with the part divine kings becoming more and 
more mythologized as time passed.  
One such ruler was said to be Osiris, who became the most legendary of them all.  He has 
been identified in later classical sources as a human king who ruled Egypt in an earlier 
period.  It is said that he brought agriculture and civilization to the land and that Egypt 
prospered during his reign.  Early on in Egypt’s  development he became known as the  
god of vegetation (which is why he is depicted as green) and became the personification 
of its rebirth that followed its annual death.  This eventually led to the installation of 
Osiris as the ruler of the dead and the god of the underworld who could, as a result of his 
earthly experience, offer his followers a similar resurrection after their earthly demise and 
grant them eternal life in heaven.
Among the significant consequences that resulted from Osirianism was the elimination of 
cannibalism.  At one time human sacrifice was performed whereby a savior would give 
up his (originally a post menopausal “her”) life for the sake of others, and his body and 
blood would be consumed.  As Osiris was the vegetation god, and hence the god of the 
grape and grain, wine and bread became identified with his blood and body.  And early 
they began to be ritualistically partaken of as such.  Hence, replacing the human
consumption and thus causing Osirianism to be credited for ending cannibalism.
26
In the preface on his book, Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Volume I, E. A. Wallis 
Budge gives a brief discussion of the evolution of Osiris.  He writes:
27
The fundamental belief of the ancient Egyptians belongs to a time when he was 
near to nature. ... Religion was a reality to him long before he could describe it, 
and the spirits he could not see were also realities to him, ... he appealed for 
guidance and help as a matter of course to his father and grandfather, so long as 
they lived, and when they were dead he turned to their spirits for assistance.  So 
long as he was helped out of his troubles, and was successful in all his
undertakings, he attributed his good fortune to the power of his father’s or 
grandfather’s spirit, to that great, First Spirit, Who had made the first  member of 
his own and every other tribe, and everything which was wholly natural and 
personal, was at all times a mixture of fear of spirits in general, and of hope in the 
power of ancestral spirits.  This power developed later in his mind into the 
veritable power of God.  Whom he believed to be incarnate in his great ancestor 
Osiris.17
The Osirian legend that we know today evolved through several Egyptian dynasties.  It 
was mentioned previously how certain kings and priests sought to promote their deities 
(and demote others) as the assumed power.  Among the deities that went through such 
transformation and  transitions that significantly impacted the evolving Osirian legend 
were Horus, Isis, Ra, Set, and Thoth.
When discussing these various gods, one could  easily get the impression that the
Egyptians were polytheistic.  But Budge, who has written extensively on the subject, 
argues otherwise.  He asserts that the French scholar, M. Pierret, “holds the view that the 
[pyramid] text prove that the Egyptians believed in a God who is One, and is without a 
second, and was infinite and eternal.”  Neter is the word that the ancient Egyptians used 
that best captures their sublime concept of God.  Its exact meaning remains a mystery, 
but some scholars assert that it is related to such ideas and concepts as self-existence, 
self-production and the ability to renew life indefinitely.  In other words it refers to a 
being who has the power to generate life and to sustain and maintain it after it has been 
generated.  Other scholars say that the concept of a Neter refers to a causal, governing, or 
fundamental principle of nature.  
With regards to the Egyptian concept of God, Budge also writes that the German scholar, 
Dr. H. Brugsch  accepted “the view, which the Egyptians themselves held, that the gods 
were only names of various attributes of the one God ... [as] he searched through the 
literature ... hymns, prayers, etc.”  And Budge himself states that:  “The fact remains that 
such attributes were ascribed to the gods who were  created by God, and that the
Egyptians arrived as such ideas as those described above is lasting proof of the exalted 
character of their religion and of their conception of monotheism.”  The evidence derived 
from the literature of Egypt proves that monotheism existed in that country over 5,500 
years ago;  “in fact, Egyptian monotheism is the oldest form of monotheism known to 
us.”
28
The priesthoods of the larger districts (cities or nomes) would endeavor to persuade the 
worshipers of local gods that the god of the priest was the being who combined within 
himself the attributes of the great cosmic god who created the heavens and the earth, and 
with the ethical aspects as proclaimed by the elevation to primacy the god of the priests.
In the earliest times, Horus appears to have been an early god chosen in this manner.  
Under the form of the hawk, called Heru, it seems that he was worshipped throughout the 
country generally.  To the predynastic Egyptians the hawk (said to be able to look at the 
sun without blinking) was the personification of the god who made the sky and was 
considered to be the spirit of the heights of heaven.  Later the god Heru (Horus) became 
identified with the face of heaven.  And thus, the sun was called the “right Eye of Horus” 
and the moon was regarded as the “left Eye of Horus.”
It has been discussed previously how civilization moved down the Nile from upper Egypt 
into Lower Egypt.  The evidence shows that Horus was worshipped in both Upper and 
Lower Egypt in the periods immediately prior to the unification of the Two Lands.  
Another god of Upper Egypt was Set (Sat, Seth, or, Sut).  Finch writes:  “To the 18
Egyptians, the South was always the land of beginnings, the origin, the source, the top, 
the chief.”
29
  We find that in earlier times Horus and Set were very closely associated.  
Horus, however, takes on several forms.  One of the earliest forms we know of is Heru-ur 
or “Horus the Elder” and is a twin of Set.  They were equal in every respect.  Heru-ur was 
the “face of heaven by day” and Set was the “face of heaven by night.”  The evidence 
shows that the worshippers Set were mainly in the South, whereas the Horus worshippers 
gravitated towards the North.  These two regions invariably would come into conflict as 
immigrants continued to pour into and blended with the Northerners, and the mythology 
around Horus and Set would reflect this struggle.  In the earliest form the mythology 
records this as the natural “struggle” between night and day, and that Thoth prevented 
either from obtaining the upper hand.  (Thoth is the god of balance, right and truth, the 
scribe of the gods and inventor of all the arts and sciences.  He is depicted as a human 
with the head of an ibis.  It was thought by some ancient writers that the ibis was a bird 
connected with the heart and this bird was dedicated to Thoth as the lord of all knowledge 
and understanding.  The intuitive aspects of which the ancients thought took place in the 
heart.)
There were other worshippers of Horus in Upper Egypt whose temple was in Edfu.  This 
Horus was called Heru-Behutet or “Horus of Behutet (Edfu).”  From the legends they 
were very successful in subduing their adversaries, apparently followers of Set, for miles 
around in both the Delta in Lower Egypt and further south in northern Nubia, establishing 
the primacy of Horus in the process.  In the mythology the relationship between Horus 
and Set went from being a balance between day and night, and a natural duality that was 
a reconciliation of opposites, to a battle between light and darkness, between life and 
death and a battle between the forces of good and evil.  Set eventually became more and 
more vilified, evolving in the mythology to the personification of evil.  Heru-Behutet is 
also a form of Heru-Khuti or “Horus of the two horizons” who, according to budge,  the 
famous sphinx is a monument of.
30
  We also see from the legend that among the
followers of Heru-Behutet were blacksmiths that produced formidable weapons that 
facilitated their many victories.
The most famous of all of the Horus gods is Heru-Sa-Ast-Sa-Asar or “Horus, son of Isis, 
son of Osiris.”  Earlier it was pointed out that according to legend; Osiris was as Egyptian 
king who later became deified because of the remarkable accomplishments during his 
reign.  A. Rosalie David says that some scholars argue that a group of Set worshippers 
routed some Egyptians and put their king, Osiris, to death.  (In the mythology that comes 
down to us, primarily from Greek sources—Plutarch in particular, this is symbolized by 
Set murdering Osiris.  However, Dr. Jacob Carruthers argues in his book MDW NTR that 
there is no reading of the actual text that indicates this.
31
)  Later some followers of Horus 
consolidated their power and moved southward and conquered the indigenous population 
there, and  installed the rulership of Horus.  In the mythology this Horus became the 
avenger of his father, Osiris.  And the living rulers came to be identified with Horus, and 
the deceased rulers were identified with Osiris.  They became somewhat complements of 
each other, with Horus representing the present and Osiris the past.  In the  Book of the 
Dead
32
it is express as: “Osiris is yesterday and Ra (i.e. Horus grown up) is today.”  This 
particular Horus would at one time or another embody all of the Horus gods.19
Evidence suggests that it is possible that Ra worship had been established in Egypt as 
early as the Later Predynastic Period in Annu or An (On in the Bible and called 
Heliopolis by the Greeks), where it seems to have taken over a local deity, Atum.  As for 
the worship of Osiris, scholars have concluded that its beginning is hopelessly loss in 
obscurity.  However, from Egyptian texts we are able to trace it from the Archaic Period, 
at least as early as Dynasty I.  But clearly interrelations and juxtapositions of the gods 
continued.  For this is illustrated by the fact that by the second dynasty, although the king 
at this period had associated with Horus, who had become a “royal god,” he had adopted 
the title “Son of Ra.” With this power in the hands of the Ra priests, Ra  and the
personification of his various forms became the “father of the gods.”  Budge adds further 
that:  “Viewed from a practical point of view, Ra was the oldest of all the gods of Egypt, 
and the first act of creations was the appearance of his  disk [the sun] above the waters of 
the world-ocean; with his first rising time began.”
33
 (Emphasis mine.)  The Egyptians had 
compared the daily course of the sun with the life of man at a very early date.  And with 
this identification, Ra worship became so  entrenched that when priests or rulers tried to 
install their gods over Him, the most they could do was to have their gods identified with 
Ra or an aspect of him. 
After the old kingdoms (Dynasties III - VI) collapsed, the new rulers were seeking for a 
deity who had wide enough appeal that could supplant Ra.  Due to His association with 
funerary ceremonies, divine rituals, and the rites performed at the  kings’ ascension and 
coronation, Osiris was the obvious choice.  At first the funerary rites were only for 
royalty, but as time progressed they were applied for non-royalty also.  This would 
contribute immensely to the widespread appeal that Osirianism would acquire among the 
common people.  But Ra was a god of the living, whereas, Osiris was a god of the dead.  
And as such the worship of Osiris did not rival directly that of Ra (or the other gods).  
The worship of Ra had much in common with the worship of Osiris.  For they both 
symbolized the divine ability to overcome death, and both of them reflected the cycle of 
life, death, and rebirth in the natural phenomenon.  Ra symbolized this through the 
continual rising and setting of the sun.  Whereas Osiris symbolized it through the life and 
death cycle of vegetation as a vegetation god, he also symbolized victory over death 
because of his own resurrection (discussed in Chapter Two).
There were differences between them, however, with respect to the afterlife that would 
ultimately endear Osiris more so to the hearts and souls of the people.  Budge writes
34
:
The heaven of Osiris was believed to exist in a place where the fields were fertile 
and well stocked with cattle, and where meat and drink were abundant; the abodes 
of the blessed were thought to be constructed after the model of comfortable 
Egyptian homesteads in which they had lived during life, and the ordinary
Egyptian hoped to live in one of these with his wife and parents.  On the other 
hand, the followers of Ra, the sun-god, believed in a heaven of a more spiritual 
character, and their great hope was to occupy a seat in a boat of the god [They 
mythologized the heavens as an ocean which the sun, i.e. Ra, traversed in a 
celestial boat.], and arrayed in light, to travel whethersoever he went.  They20
wished to become bright and shining spirits, and to live upon  the celestial meat 
and drink upon which he lived; as he was, so they hoped to be in every respect.  
The materialistic heaven of Osiris appealed to the masses in Egypt, and the 
heaven where Ra lived  appealed to the priests of Ra and other solar gods, and to
royal and aristocratic families, ...
The various waves of religious thought and feeling, which swept over Egypt 
during the five thousand years of her history which are known to us, did not 
seriously disturb the cults of Osiris, for it held out to the people hopes of
resurrection and immortality of a character which no other form of religion could 
give. ... Kings and priests from time to time made attempts to absorb the cult of 
Osiris into religious systems of a solar character [e.g. Horus and Ra], but the y 
failed, and Osiris, the man-god, always triumphed, ...21
Chapter Two
The Osirian Legend
As we have discussed previously, Egyptian rulers and priests were continuously trying to 
establish the primacy of the god they worshipped whenever they took power.  But even 
still, when this was done, they had to take into account the local deities into the system of 
gods that they constructed.  Research shows that as a result, “there must have been 
several schools of the logical thought in Egypt, and each of these priests did their utmost 
to proclaim the superiority of their [own] gods.  In dynastic times there must have been 
great colleges at Heliopolis, Memphis [Lower Egypt], Abydos [Upper Egypt], and one or 
more places in the Delta, ...  Of the theories and doctrines of all such schools and 
colleges, those of Heliopolis have survived in the completest form, ...”
35
The priests of Heliopolis (Annu) were originally worshippers of Tem (or Temu) and later 
Ra.  And as such the prominence assigned to him is as to be expected.  Nevertheless, a 
good understanding of ancient Egyptian cosmology can be ascertained from the Pyramid 
Texts of their era.  We can derive from them that in predynastic times that there were 
eight gods that made up what is called the great company of gods (accounts differ for 
other cities both the number and names).  There were four pairs, of male and female 
counterparts, representing the personifications, aspects, phases, or property of primeval 
matter.  They are:
Nu and Nut; the watery mass of the sky (Nu) and the heaven above it (Nut).
Hehu and hehut; fire (?).
Kehui and Kehuit; the darkness that covers the primeval watery abyss.
Kerh and Kerhet; night (?) or inactive powers of the primeval water abyss (?).
The question marks are there because there is uncertainty as to the exact interpretations of 
the texts.  Budge suggests that these gods were “invented by people in whose households 
women held a high position, ...”  For they were the equals of their male counterparts, as 
he explains, “and not merely the bearers of offspring as were the later goddesses.”  
Notice that the name of the female gods can be obtained by attaching a ‘t’ at the end of 
the names of their male counterparts.  Budge also asserts that the texts seem to indicate 
that three of the pairs seem to be “qualities, or characteristics, or attributes of the fourth 
pair [Nu and Nut] personified, although some would make the four pairs represent the 
male and female elements of the Four Elements, Earth, Air, Fire, and Water, and others 
would  make them stand for the primeval  Matter out of which all things are made, and 
primeval Space, and primeval Time, and primeval Power,”
36
  In later periods the priests 
of Hermopolis (i.e. city of Hermes, which is Greek for Thoth) would place Temu, then 
later Ra, at the head.  One papyrus has Osiris in that dominant role.  But it is the 
Heliopolitan priests that are most often referred to and therefore that is the version that 
will be featured here.22
The Creation
From the texts we learn that for the ancient  Egyptians, in the beginning everything in 
heaven and earth existed “in a quiescent state in the watery mass of Nu.”  Budge cites the 
texts as placing “ in the mouth of the god Neb-er-tcher, the lord of the universe and a 
form of the Sun-God Ra,” as saying:  “I am he who came into being in the form of 
Khepera, ... I was the creator of everything that come into being, ... when I came into 
being myself, the things which I created and which came forth from my mouth were very 
many.”  Here we see Ra raised himself up from the watery abyss of Nu in the form of 
Khepera.  Khepera is depicted as a man with the head of a type of beetle which belongs 
to a class of dung-eaters.  These particular beetles lay their eggs in masses of dung and 
roll them up into balls.  These balls are left to bathe in the sun and in due course young 
living creatures come forth and seek their food.  “At a very early period in their history 
the Egyptians associated the Sun’s disk with the dung ball of the beetle, partly on account 
of its shape, and partly because it was the source of heat, and light, and life to man, even 
as the dung ball was to the beetles.”  To the ancient Egyptians these dung balls were 
made up of dead, inert matter that contained the germs of life in a new form, and the like,  
became attached to the beetle, and the god with attributes of the beetle, among which in 
later days was included the idea of self-production, became one of the most important 
forms of Ra.”
37
Neb-er-tcher or Ra goes on to say:  “I found no place there whereon I could stand.  I 
worked a charm upon my heart (or, will), [and] I laid a foundation in Maa, [and] I made 
every form (or, attribute).  I was by myself, ...” The foundation referred to is probably the 
earth upon which Ra stood as he continued with his  creations.  “From the texts of all 
periods we learn much about the conceptions which the Egyptians had arrived at
concerning Maa, and it is clear that the word primarily meant ‘what is straight,’ and that 
it also came to mean ‘straightness, rectitude, uprightness, right, law, order, regularity, 
justice; and other significations of like character; the goddess Maat, was the
personification of ‘Truth’.”
38
We have seen that the Sun-God has been referred to as Tem (Temu), Ra, and Khepera.  
Upon analyzing their usage in the text, we see that they represented different phases of 
the sun.  Khepera was the rising sun, Ra was the midday sun, and Tem was the setting 
sun.  Later when the priests of Heliopolis became worshippers of Amen (which means 
hidden, or hidden one), that name was to represent the Sun-God between sunset and 
sunrise (or while it was hidden from view).
Of what happens next, the births of Shu and Tefnut, there are several differing accounts.  
One view, current in the VI Dynasty, has the god Tem, rathe r than Khepera, produce 
them by masturbating.  Another view has the widely worshipped sky goddess Hathor as 
the wife of Ra, and they become the parents of Shu and Tefnut.  And still another version 
has Osiris in the role of Khepera.  This version has Neb-er-tcher to say:  “My name is 
Ausares (i.e.  Osiris) [who] is the primeval matter of primeval matter. ...  I brought my 23
own name into my own mouth, that is to say [I uttered it as] a word of power, and I 
forthwith came into being...”
39
Here we see the importance in the minds of the ancient Egyptians that “words of power” 
played and the special significance of names.  For Osiris transforms “himself from the 
essence of primeval matter into the active principle of creation by merely uttering his 
own name.”  Budge also underscores the fact that the ability to create ones own life “is a 
remarkable attribute to ascribe to the god of the dead, and it is only understandable when 
we remember that it was a common belief of the Egyptians that life rose out of death.”  It 
should also be noted that for the ancient Egyptians “no creature, animated or inanimate, 
could be said to have an existence until it possessed a name, ...  Every god and goddess 
and supernatural being were believed to possess a hidden name by, and through, and in 
which he and she lived.  The man who could find out these names was able to command 
the help of the gods who bore them, and the man who could obtain by any means the 
hidden name for himself thought he would be the equal of these gods.  On the other hand, 
to destroy or ‘blot out’ a name was to wipe out of existence the being who bore it.”
40
This particular narrative continues:  “... I made all the forms under which I appeared by 
means (or, out of) the god-soul which I raised up out of Nu, out of a state of inertness (or, 
out of inert mass).”  Here we have the concept of the Soul introduced, which “was in 
existence in a quiescent state in the inactive watery mass of  Nu.”  In this version Shu and 
Tefnut are also produced through masturbating.  “Shu was a god who was connected with 
heat and dryness of sunlight and with the dry atmosphere which exist between the earth 
and sky, and Tefnut was a personification of the moisture of the sky ...”
41
  “Shu and 
Tefnut were supposed to possess but one soul between them, but the two halves of it were 
identified with the soul of Osiris and the soul of Ra ...”
42
  After Shu and Tefnut were 
produced, light was immediately created, darkness was dispersed, and the firmament was 
formed.  Then people were created followed by plants and animals, or vice versa, 
depending on the text.
43
Of what follows next, there are also differing accounts.  One text says that Shu and 
Tefnut gave birth to Seb, Nut, Osiris, Heru-Khenti-a n-Maati (or the blind Horus, i.e. 
when his eyes, the sun and moon are invisible), Set, Isis, Nephthys, and Heru-ur.  The 
latter version is the most famous, so that is the one that will be discussed herein. 
At one point in antiquity Nut had been turned into a cow (The bull was significant in that 
its strength was useful in plowing, and of course the cow was important as the female 
counterpart of the bull) and Ra had mounted her back.  Nut became weary and began to 
tremble whereupon Ra  commanded Shu to hold her up, thus separating Nut from earth, 
personified by the god Seb.  The four legs of the cow came to represent the props holding 
up the sky from the earth at the four cardinal points (i.e. the northern, southern, eastern, 
and western points on the horizon where the sun rose at the summer and winter solstices, 
and the vernal or spring and autumnal equinoxes, respectively).  However, while they 
were together, Seb and Nut (the sky goddess) were consorts and Nut had become 
pregnant. 24
From this point, most scholars refer to the version given by the Greek writer Plutarch.  
Here we find that Nut was the wife of Ra. And after he discovered her condition he 
cursed her and declared that she would not give birth on any day of the year.  But Thoth, 
who was very fond of Nut (some accounts say he was in love with her), played a table 
game with Selene, the goddess of the moon, and won from her one-seventieth of her 
illuminations.  This added up to five days, which were attached to the end of the year, 
which before then contained three-hundred and sixty days.  These five days were 
observed by the Egyptians  as the birthdays of their gods.  On the first of the days Osiris 
was born.  And at the moment of his arrival a voice was heard proclaiming “the lord of 
all the earth (or creation) is born.”  On each of the subsequent days the  following gods 
were born: Horus-the-elder (Heru-ur), Set, Isis, and Nephthys.  One account has it  that 
the father of Osiris and Horus-the-elder was Ra, Thoth was the father of Isis, and Seb was 
the father of Set and Nephthys.  And that Set was born neither at the right time nor place, 
but forced his way through a wound on his mother’s side.  Isis and Nephthys were born in 
the marshes of Egypt.  Of Osiris and Isis, one account says that they had a mutual 
affection and “enjoyed each other” in their mother’s womb, and as a result Horus-theelder was born.
44
This myth is obviously complicated as these complications resulted when so many priests 
tried to elevate their gods and reconcile the traditional legends and mythologies with their 
evolving theologies and cosmologies.  Scholars have determined that the Egyptian priests 
were adamant in their conservatism.  For once a god or story became part of the lore, it 
was virtually never dropped, only reconciled.
Most writers proceed with the mythology wherein Seb is the father of the five gods, so 
we will continue in that vein.
Osiris the Man-God
In due course Osiris decided to leave heaven and go to earth (recall that his father, Seb, 
was the earth-god) and live there in the form of a human where he became king of Egypt.  
He “devoted himself to civilizing his subjects and to teaching them the craft of
husbandman; he established a code of laws and bade men worship the gods.  Having 
made Egypt peaceful and flourishing, he set out to instruct the other nations of the 
world.”
45
  In his absence the care of Egypt was turned over to Isis, who ruled the country 
with the assistance of Thoth, whom Osiris had besought to assist her, exceedingly well.
Nephthys gave birth to a son.  Some accounts say that Set was the father and others say 
he was begotten by Osiris.  The account that has Osiris siring the child seems more 
plausible because we find that it was Isis who raised him.  From Plutarch’s account we 
learn that Nephthys, who was in love with Osiris, deceived him into “enjoying” her.  
When Anubis was born Nephthys removed him (the text says she “exposed it as soon as 
it was born”) fearing the anger of Set.  Both Isis and Set became aware of their “unlawful 
commerce” because of a certain flower left behind by Osiris.  When Isis learned of all 
this she “made it her business to search the child out ... and accordingly, after much pains 
and difficulty, by means of some dogs that conducted her to the place where it was, she 25
found it and bred it up; so that in the process of time it became her constant guard and 
attendant, and hence obtained the name Anubis, being thought to watch and guard the 
Gods, as dogs do mankind.”
46
  Hence, the Egyptians depicted Anubis as a man with a 
dog’s (or jackal’s) head.
Some insight into this particular aspect of the myth can be obtained when one realizes 
that the Egyptians referred to the extreme limits of their land as “Nephthys,” and spoke of 
her as being a goddess rather than in terms of her as a woman.  Now Osiris was 
apparently at one time a water god or the god of some arm of the Nile.  So when the 
overflow of the Nile was very great, it extended to the remotest parts of the boundaries of 
Egypt causing it to flower.  This part of the legend can thus be seen as referring to this 
phenomenon of nature.
47
While Osiris was away, Set plotted his murder. And the above story offers us a reason 
why.  Others say that Set himself was so much in love with Isis and that his desire for 
her, given her unwavering and undying love for Osiris, was the reason he wanted  to get 
rid of him.  And still another version was that Set was simply envious of Osiris’ power 
and wanted to be king of Egypt himself.  Perhaps it was all or some combination of these 
reasons.  But at any rate, Set, according to the version obtained from  Plutarch,  did 
conspire to murder Osiris along with seventy-two other accomplices and an Ethiopian 
queen named Asso, who happened to be in Egypt at that time.  They secretly took Osiris’ 
measurements and made a very beautifully ornamented chest that was a work of art, 
beauty, and craftsmanship that fitted Osiris’ body exactly.  Set displayed it at a banquet 
and every one there admired it tremendously.  So Set, as if in jest, offered it to anyone 
who could fit in it exactly.  Everyone tried to fit in it, but of course they all failed.  When 
finally Osiris tried, and of course did fit in it, they immediately closed it up, nailed it shut 
and poured melted lead all over it. They then carried it to the Nile and let it float to the 
sea.  (Again, a couple of observations of Jacob Carruthers should be noted: first that the 
Egyptian texts themselves offer no evidence of Set murdering Osiris; and second that the 
war with Horus was over property rights.)
The death of Osiris was said to have happened when the sun was in the constellation 
Scorpio in the twenty-eighth year of his reign.  Other accounts say he was twenty-eight 
years old when it happened.  The number twenty-eight is significant in that it represented 
the number of days it took the moon to complete its cycle.  It was the Pans and Satyrs, 
who first knew of what had happened and began to spread the news.  (From this we get 
the expression “Panic Terrors,” and the word panic.)  As soon as Isis heard of what had 
happened, she immediately went into mourning.  She then set out to search for the chest 
bearing Osiris’ body.  She searched everywhere and asked everybody as to the
whereabouts of the chest.  She chanced upon some children who told her which mouth of 
the Nile that the chest was set out to sea.  From this the Egyptians looked upon children 
as being endowed with the ability of divining.  It was actually during this interval that Isis 
became aware of Anubis and endeavored to retrieve him.26
The Travails of Isis
Isis’ Quest for Osiris’ Body
In due course Isis receives more detailed news as to the whereabouts of the chest.  It had 
been carried by waves to Byblos (not in Phoenicia, but the papyrus swamps of Egypt
48
where it came to rest on some branches of a Tamarack (swamp tree).  In a short time the 
tree had grown large and beautiful, enveloping the chest completely.  The king of that 
area of the country, amazed at the size of the tree, had it cut down and made the part of 
the trunk that contained the chest into a pillar to support the roof of his house.  
Supposedly some demons made all of this known to Isis.  After which she immediately 
went to Byblos and sat silently by a fountain an spoke to no one except the queen’s 
women who happened by.  These she “saluted and caressed in the kindest manner 
possible, plaiting  their hair for them, and transmitting into them part of that wonderfully 
grateful odour, which issued from her body.”
49
  The queen became intrigued by this
stranger who could do all of these wonderful things and invited her to her house.  The 
queen, after becoming better acquainted with Isis, got her to nurse one of her sons.  Isis 
nursed the child by letting it suck her finger, rather than her breast.  (After all Isis was a 
goddess.)  Isis endeavored to give the child immortality by nightly placing it into a fire to 
consume its mortal parts.  While this was being done she would change herself into a 
swallow and mourn for Osiris.  
One night the queen happened by and thinking her child was left in the fire, screamed 
out; and thereby deprived it of the immortality which otherwise would have been
conferred upon it.  Isis then transformed herself back and proceeded to tell the queen of 
her situation and requested the pillar which contained the chest.  After her request was 
granted, Isis cut out the trunk, removed the chest and wrapped the remainder of the trunk 
in fine linen, poured perfume over it and gave it back to the king and queen.
The Birth of Horus
Isis then took the Chest containing Osiris’ body back home.  Plutarch says that:  “No 
sooner was she arrived at a desert place, where she imagined herself to be alone, but she 
presently opened the chest, and laying her face upon her dead husband’s embraced his 
corps, and wept bitterly; ...”  Later he adds that, “Isis intending a visit to her son Orus 
[Horus], who was brought up at Butos, deposited the chest in the meanwhile in a remote 
and unfrequented place; ...”
50
  Here we have the mention of Horus the son of Isis and 
Osiris.  But what of his conception and birth?  There is a hymn to Osiris from the XVIII 
Dynasty that is quite illuminating in this regard.  A section of it speaks of how Isis, his 
sister and wife, conceived Horus with the power of certain words which Thoth had taught 
her to use:
51
Thy sister protected thee, and she drove away thy foes, ... and uttered the words of 
power with all the skill of her mouth; her tongue was trained, and she committed 
no fault of utterance, and she made [her] decree and [her] words to have effect, 27
Isis, the mighty one, the avenger of her brother.  She sought thee without
weariness, she went round about through this land in sorrow, and she set not to 
the ground her foot until she found thee.  She made light with her feather, she 
made air to come into being with her wings, and she uttered cries of lamentation 
at the bier of her brother.  She stirred up from his state of inactivity him whose 
heart was still (i.e. Osiris),  she drew from him his seed, she made an heir, she 
suckled the babe in solitariness, and the place wherein she reared him is unknown, 
and his hand is mighty with the house of Seb [the earth].” (Emphasis mine.)
In another text Isis says:  “I Isis, conceived a man child, and I was heavy with Horus, I,
the goddess bare Horus, the son of Isis, within a nest of papyrus plants (or ‘Island of 
Ateh’).  I rejoiced over  him, for I saw in him one who would make answer for his 
father.”
52
  Perhaps Horus was conceived at the time when Isis laid with the body of Osiris 
at the desert place.
The Scattering of Osiris’ Body
At any rate, from Plutarch we learn that Set discovered the chest accidentally while he 
was hunting.  Upon realizing that it contained the body of Osiris, he tore it up into 
fourteen pieces.  (Fourteen is the number of the days representing half a moon cycle.  
However, some accounts use fifteen as it is half a month of a solar calendar.)  He then hid 
them in different places throughout the land.  When Isis heard of this she set out to 
recover the pieces of Osiris’ body.  Whenever she found a member of his body she buried 
it and built a tomb over it.  She was able to find all of his body parts except one, the 
phallus, which had been eaten by fish.  Isis then fashioned a model of representative of it 
in imitation of it in an ithyphallic symbol.  “Isis consecrated the phallus made in imitation 
of it, and instituted a solemn festival to its memory, which is even to this day observed by 
the Egyptians.”
53
The Wanderings and Sorrows of Isis
One would think that the above was enough for any one woman to go through, even if 
she is a goddess.  There are texts which give “a clearer idea of the troubles which Isis 
endured after the death of Osiris.” In one of them Isis narrates about her “wanderings and 
sorrows.”  Apparently Set, not content with murdering Osiris, places Isis and Horus “in 
some place of restraint.”  But Thoth, the great god, the prince of law both in heaven and 
earth,” came to her and said, “Come, O thou goddess Isis, it is good to be obedient, for 
there is life for him that will follow the advice of another.  Hide thou thy son the child 
[Horus], and this is what shall happen:  his limbs will grow, and will become enclosed 
with two-fold strength, and he shall avenge him [Osiris] and take possession of the rank 
of the prince of the Two Lands.”  
Isis took Thoth’s advice, hid Horus and left the “house at eventide.”  Seven scorpions 
appeared to accompany and help her.  Isis commanded them to show her the way in 
which she should go.  When they arrived at their destined country, she went, Isis 
narrated, “to the habitations of the women who belonged to the overlord of  the district, 28
and the chief woman who had seen me coming along shut her doors in my face, and was 
angry with me in her heart because of those (i.e. the seven scorpions) that were with me.”  
The scorpions “took counsel on the matter” and collectively put their poison on the tail of 
one of their group who stung the son of the “noble lady,  ...”  The lady’s “heart ..., was 
sad, ... and although she went round about through her city uttering cries of lamentation, 
none came to her call.”  Meanwhile a swamp woman  had taken Isis in.  When Isis heard 
of the noble lady’s plight she sent for her and told her that she could help her:  “I can 
drive the evil out of thy son by one of my utterances, which my father taught me.”  The 
noble lady heeded Isis’ call and “then Isis laid her hands upon the child to restore to life 
him that was without breath, ...  At dawn Isis uttered the appropriate words in the 
appropriate manner, following which came the exclamation, ‘The Child liveth and the 
poison dieth’.”
54
The above story reveals a compassionate side of Isis which would latter cause problems.
The Death and Revival of Horus
In the meantime, those who were tending to Horus let it be known that “Horus liveth for 
his mother.”  Set then found him, and in the form of a scorpion stung him to death.  The 
gods informed Isis of what happened, saying to her, “Isis, Isis, come to thy child Horus, 
O thou whose mouth is wise, come to thy son.”  Then “came Isis like a woman who was 
smitten in her own body.”  The text has Isis saying:  “I went away to the city of Am, and 
the people thereof saluted me according to their wont, and I passed the time in seeking 
food and provisions for the buy; but when I returned to Horus, I found him, the beautiful 
one of gold, the boy, the child, inert and helpless.”  The text goes on to say that people 
from the swamp where Horus was hidden came to mourn with Isis, and to see what they 
could do.  But none could help.  “Then came Nephthys shedding tears, and she went 
about the Papyrus Swamps uttering cries of grief” and the scorpion-goddess, Serqet, 
whom Nephthys brought with her, said “What is it? What hath happened to the child 
Horus”?  Apparently Isis could not help Horus herself.  Nephthys and Serqet told Isis to 
“pray to heaven,” to Ra.  She then “sent forth a cry to heaven ... and the Disk [i.e. the 
Sun, or Ra] stood still ...  And Thoth came, and he was provided with magical powers and 
possessed the great power which made [his] word to become Maat [i.e. law], and he said:  
‘O Isis, Thou goddess, thou glorious one, who hast knowledge how to use thy mouth, 
behold, no evil shall come upon the child Horus, for his protection cometh from ... Ra’.”  
Isis feared that it was too late but she begged Thoth to come anyway and do whatever he 
could.  “Thereupon Thoth besought Isis not to fear, and Nephthys not to weep, for he 
said, ‘I have come from heaven in order to save the child for his mother,’ and he straight 
way spoke the words of power which restored Horus to life, and served to protect him 
ever afterwards in heaven, and in earth, and in the Underworld.”
55
Isis the Sorceress
From the above discussions it is easy to see why Isis was worshipped as the “faithful and 
loving wife,” and as the “tender and loving mother.”
56
  For Isis “had made a vow never to 
marry again” and had spent her life “administering justice among her subjects, and had 29
excelled all other princes in her works of charity towards her people. ... Isis discovered 
many medicines, and was greatly skilled in the art of physic.”  She made the lame to walk 
and the blind to see.  She turned no one away.  She is said to have discovered medicine 
that can raise the dead to life.  And in addition to this, she passed knowledge on to her 
son, Horus, so that he could benefit mankind.
57
But Isis also had a cunning and devious side to her (i.e. an enchantress or sorceress 
nature).  One text contains the following story:  “Now Isis was a woman who possessed 
words of power; her heart was wearied with millions of men, therefore she chose the 
millions of gods, but she esteemed more highly the millions of spirits. And she meditated 
in her heart saying, ‘cannot I by means of the sacred name of God make myself mistress 
of the earth and become a goddess of like rank and power to Ra in heaven and upon 
earth’?”  
Isis observed that  Ra was getting old and had spittle from his mouth dribbling on the 
earth.  She mixed this with dirt and made a sacred serpent which she laid on the path that 
Ra took on his daily trip (i.e. the sun’s path across the sky).  When the snake bit Ra, the 
poison spreaded quickly throughout his body, causing him great pain.  He cried out to the 
other gods, but none could help him.  Isis came to him and asked, “what happened”?  
When he told her he had been bitten by a snake, she said that she could help him with her  
“words of magical power.”  According to the text, Isis said to Ra, “O tell me thy name, 
holy Father, for whosoever shall be delivered by that name shall live.”  Ra proceeded to 
relate many of the great things he had done, for example the creation and so forth.  But 
Isis said, “What thou hast not said is thy name.  O tell it unto me, and the poison shall 
depart; for he shall live whose name is revealed.”  Then the poison began to “burn like 
fire” and Ra said, “I consent that Isis shall search into me, and  that my name shall pass 
from me to her.”  Ra then hid himself from the other gods.  “And when the time had 
arrived for the heart of Ra to come forth, Isis spake unto her son Horus, saying, ‘The god 
hath bound himself by oath to deliver up his two eyes (i.e. the sun and the moon).’  Thus 
was the name of the great god taken from him, and Isis, the lady of words of magical 
powers, said ‘Depart, thou poison, go forth from Ra. ...  Let Ra live’!  These are the 
words of Isis, the mighty lady, the mistress of the  gods, who knew Ra by his own 
name.”
58
Horus the Avenger
In due course Horus had grown into maturity.  He had been well reared and nurtured by 
his mother, Isis, who had taught him that his duty was to avenge the murder of his father 
and had encouraged a warrior spirit in him.  The time had come for Horus to fulfill his 
destiny.  Osiris had appeared to him in a form that he could recognize and encouraged 
him to take up the battle with Set to avenge him.  And it is under this form of “Horus, the 
avenger of his father, that he appealed so strongly to the imagination of the Egyptians.”
59
  
Set had “escaped punishment because Osiris had, at the time of his death, none to avenge 
his cause.”
60
  After Osiris had instructed Horus in the use of arms he asked him, “What 
he thought was the most glorious action a man could perform?” to which Horus replied, 
“To revenge the injuries offered to his father and mother.”
61
  Osiris was pleased.30
The Battle Between Horus and Set
The battle that ensued between Horus and Set lasted “many days,” which stretched into 
centuries according to some accounts.  (Jacob Carruthers, in his book MDW NTR,  
presents the argument that this struggle was one over inheritance between the deceased 
king’s oldest brother and the king’s son.
62
)  The tide of this epic battle swung back and 
forth, until eventually Horus sought and received guidance from Thoth.  After which the 
struggle inclined in his favor, rendering him victorious.  He took Set prisoner, and turned 
him over to Isis to watch.  Isis felt sympathy for Set, who was her brother, and set him 
free.  This is her compassionate  nature, which was referred to earlier, coming to fore at a 
most inopportune time.  Horus became so outraged that he turned on his mother with the 
fury of a “panther from the south, ” and tore the royal emblems from her head. (Some 
accounts say he tore off her head.)  When Thoth saw this he replaced them with a helmet 
in the shape of a cow’s head.
63
  (Other accounts say he replaced her head with the head of 
a cow.)
While Set was free  he publicly accused Isis of being a harlot and Horus of Illegitimacy 
and a trial had to be held by the gods.  (This would be consistent with the “inheritance 
theory” of their struggle.)  Therein Thoth, who became their advocate, proved that Horus 
was the rightful heir to Osiris’ throne.
64
  Some accounts say that Thoth acted as judge, i.e. 
he “weighted their words,” and decided that Horus spoke the truth.
65
  There followed two 
other battles in which Horus won.  In the great (perhaps the decisive?) battle they  first 
fought as men, and then in the form of bears in which they fought for three days and three 
nights.
66
The Reuniting of the body of Osiris
Recall that Isis had buried the dispersed members of Osiris’ body wherever she found 
them.  From the texts we see that Horus collected and reunited them with the help of Isis, 
Nephthys, and his four sons (who became the gods of the four cardinal points of the 
earth).  By performing a number of magical ceremonies wherein he “made use of several 
words of power,” Horus was able to make Osiris a “complete man, endowed with all his 
members,” and restored life and breath to his body.  After Osiris had been brought back 
to life, it was time for his ascent into heaven.
67
However, Osiris’ troubles with Set were not over.  In order to prevent his entry into 
heaven, Set gathered together the “Seban fiends and prepared to destroy his body by their 
means,” but was foiled in their endeavor by Thoth.  Having failed at this attempt, Set 
proceeded to make some very serious charges against Osiris.  They were of such nature 
that Thoth, “the spirit and intelligence of the creator of the world, ... the great mastermind 
of the universe” decided that the matter should be tried by the gods in the “great Hall of 
the Aged god in An” (i.e. Heliopolis).  Set was allowed to present his charges, to which 
Osiris replied.  After the “weighing of the words,” Thoth rendered the verdict “in favor of 
Osiris, and he became the god of truth, and of those who spoke the truth.  Moreover, 31
Osiris, having been declared true of word, or true of voice, by Thoth, went up into 
heaven, an reigned there as King.”
68
But there was some difficulty in getting Osiris up into heaven.  And in order to overcome 
the difficulty, a divine ladder had to be built by the gods, which  was set up from earth to 
heaven by Horus and Ra.  (Earlier versions, when he was viewed as a benevolent god, 
say Set instead of Ra.  This undoubtedly derived from the aspect of the mythology when 
Horus and Set were viewed as a complementary duality, or perhaps the harmonizing or 
reunification of the two.)  With their help Osiris entered into heaven.  Ra was on one of 
his sides and Horus on the other, Isis was in front of him, and Nephthys was behind him, 
as the gods welcomed him in.  And when Osiris entered into heaven, he went in “as a 
‘living being,’ not merely as one about to begin a second state of existence with limited 
powers and faculties which he possessed on earth, but as one who felt that he had the 
right to rule heaven and the denizens thereof.”  Osiris “was very different from the gods 
whose heaven he entered, for he was at one time as inhabitant of earth.”  Because he was 
the first man to rise from the dead, “he became the type and symbol and hope of every 
dead man, and the other gods in heaven seem to have thought it right to set apart for him 
a place in the Other World where he could live with those who died believing in him and 
rule over them.”
69
The Afterlife and the Judgment
The Egyptians believed that “because the human body of Osiris rose from the dead, the 
body of every man could rise from the dead also.”  And they believed further, that Osiris 
was beyond a doubt the only god who could grant them everlasting life, not only because 
he had risen from the dead but because he too had lived as a human and knew first hand 
of their experience.  They knew that it was impossible to live a perfect and divine life as 
Osiris had done, for unlike Osiris they lacked “the  divine body, soul, spirit, and nature, 
which has brought about the resurrection of  his human body, soul, spirit, and nature.”
70
(Emphasis mine)  But Osiris was a just and merciful god and if they tried to follow his 
teachings and lived a decent life, they believed that Osiris might look kindly on them at 
their judgment.
Special preparation of Osiris’ body had been made.  Anubis had taken special care in 
embalming it and swathed it in “linen swathing which were woven by Isis and
Nephthys.”  And Horus had performed “words and ceremonies which Thoth taught Isis,” 
that resurrected Osiris.
71
    The Egyptians believed that if their priests performed for them 
these same rituals, and if they could successfully pass their judgment trials, then if Horus 
, who had done so much for his father , would present them to him for acceptance that 
“Osiris would favorably receive” them.
72
It was also clear to the Egyptians “that not every man was fit to be raised from the dead 
to life immortal, and at a very early period men felt that good and evil deeds of man 
ought to be taken into account somewhere and by someone who had power to punish the 
wicked and reward the just.”
7332
The Negative confessions
The hall of Maat is where this judgment took place.  It was a long hall wherein two rows 
of twenty-one gods sat along the walls.  (These forty-two gods probably represented 
nomes, i.e. districts of cities, in Egypt.)  The deceased had to learn their names and offer 
prayers before they entered.  After their entrance into the hall of Maat, they addressed 
each of the gods by their names and declared that they had not committed the offense that 
that particular god was in charge of.  The procedure went somewhat as follows.
Hail (name of the particular god), who cometh forth from (name of the city, 
district, or the nome of the god), I have not:
( 1) done iniquity.
( 2) committed robbery.
( 3) stolen with violence.
( 4) committed theft.
( 5) killed men.
( 6) made light the bushel of corn.
( 7) acted deceitfully.
( 8) robbed the property of god (?).
( 9) uttered falsehood.
(10) stolen food.
(11) cursed.
(12) attacked any man.
(13) slain the cattle of god.
(14) used deceit (?).
(15) stolen grain (?).
(16) acted the part of the spy (or eavesdropper).
(17) slandered.
(18) been angry without cause.
(19) lain with another man’s wife.
(20) abused myself.
(21) made any man angry.
(22) attacked any man.
(23) been a man of wrath.
(24) been deaf to the words of truth.
(25) stirred up strife.
(26) made one to weep.
(27) acted impurely, nor lain with men.
(28) eaten my heart.
(29) cursed any man.
(30) done deeds of violence.
(31) acted hastily.
(32) pierced (?) my skin and I have not taken violence (?) with the god.
(33) made loud my voice in speaking.33
(34) acted deceitfully, I have not acted wickedly.
(35) cursed the king.
(36) fouled the water.
(37) made loud my voice.
(38) cursed the god.
(39) acted insolently.
(40) worked for honors (?).
(41) increased my possessions except through my own goods.
(42) treated with contempt the god of my city.
These declarations are known as the “Negative Confessions.”  The renderings of the 
words for certain sins are not always exact,” according to Budge
74
, “because we do not 
know the precise idea which the framer of the remarkable document had.”
75
The Weighing of the Heart
Next came the weighing of the heart of the deceased, which was to the Egyptians 
“symbolic of the conscience,” against the feather of Maat, which was “emblematic of 
Right and Truth.”  These two were placed in the Great Balance Scale where the weighing 
was done by Anubis.  Thoth recorded the results and presented them to the gods for 
ratification.  If the weighing was unfavorable, the deceased was devoured by a crocodile 
headed beast, The Great Devourer, Who was waiting for the outcome.  Otherwise the
deceased was approached by Horus, who took the left hand of the deceased in to his right 
hand and led “him up to the shrine wherein Osiris is [was] seated.”  Horus then presented 
the deceased to Osiris and announced the favorable outcome of the weighing. The 
Deceased then proclaimed his final confessions in an address to Osiris.  In addition, he 
offered Osiris gifts of fruits and flowers, and asked for permission to receive his favor.  
This being granted the deceased had to pass through the rest of the ha ll of Maat by 
pronouncing the names of each of its parts.  When this final ordeal was completed, Thoth 
bid him to “come forward.”
7634
Chapter Three
Of The African Roots Of Osirianism
Some Cultural/Theological Comparisons
When analyzing the religion of the ancient Egyptian, one has two main sources of
materials.  They are the “Magical, Religious, and Mythological Texts written by the 
Egyptians” for themselves and the accounts of these three areas in addition to the “Gods 
of Ancient Egyptians written by Greek and Roman historians and philosophers … for the 
use and information of their countrymen.”
77
  Of the former, the writers, i.e. the priests, 
assumed “the existence of the same beliefs in their readers, as well as a knowledge of the 
essentials of the “native Religion of Ancient Egypt,” and therefore did not document 
certain details of information.
78
  One has to glean this information from the analysis of
these texts.  By the time the Greco-Roman writers arrived on the scene, the dynastic 
periods were over.  And as they did not possess knowledge of the essentials of the ancient 
religion, they were unable to fully grasp the information that they were given by their 
contemporary Egyptian priests.  However, much valuable information can be ascertained 
from their writings that can be substantiated by the Egyptian texts.
The evidence shows that the fundamental beliefs of the ancient Egyptian religion are of 
indigenous origin, that is, they are Nilotic or Sudanic in the broadest sense.  And the 
understanding and explanation of it cannot be elucidated in any other way except by “the 
evidence which is afforded by the Religions of the modern peoples who live on the great 
rivers of East, West, and Central Africa.”  And that the “central figure of the ancient 
Egyptian  Religion was Osiris, and the chief fundamentals of his cult were the belief in 
his divinity, death, resurrection, and absolute control of the destinies of the bodies and 
souls of men.”
79
From the writings we also gather that the worship of the Sun-God in one form or another 
(e.g. Ra, Temu, Khepera, Horus) “was the form of Religion accepted by the pharaohs, 
and the priesthood, and a limited aristocracy from the middle of the Vth Dynasty
onwards. ...  These astute theologians, either by force or persuasion, succeeded in making 
the official classes and priesthood believe that all the indigenous great gods were forms 
of Ra, and so secured his supremacy.  Meanwhile, the bulk of the people clung to their 
ancient cult of the Moon [“It is certain, however, that just as at one time the star Orion 
was regarded as his (Osiris’) abode in the sky, and Sothis (Sirius) that of Isis, so at one 
period Osiris was identified with the moon.”
80
], and to their sacred beasts and birds, etc., 
and worshipped the spirits which dwelt in them, wholly undisturbed by the spread of the 
foreign and official cult of the Sun-God, which appealed so strongly to the great mixture 
of peoples in the Egyptian Delta, ...”  Consequently, it is apparent “that the existence of 
the cult of Ra in Egypt does not affect the inquiry into the indigenous Religion of Egypt 
in any way.”
8135
“The general evidence derived from the Religion of Ancient Egypt showed that all the 
Great fundamental beliefs centered in Osiris and his cult, ...  With the cult of Osiris was 
bound up all that was best in the civilization of Egypt during the Dynastic period.”  
“Early in the Dynastic Period his priest cleverly succeeded in incorporating in his
worship all that was best in the local cults, and the ideas of morality, justice, and 
righteousness which they grouped about it appealed quickly to the people all over Egypt.  
The spread of the cult was rapid, both in Upper Egypt and in the Delta, because no other 
cult offered to its adherents the hope of the resurrection and immortality.  Among the 
tribes of Egypt in general the cult of Osiris took the place of the cult of ancestral spirits, 
but the people lost nothing by the exchange, for Osiris became the divine ancestor of 
them all.”
82
The evidence indicates that Osiris was an African and the birthplace of his worship 
“seems to have been Upper Egypt.”  As stated earlier, the worship of Osiris was very 
ancient.  So ancient that is impossible to discuss its origin.  But Cheik Anta Diop cites 
Diodorus of Sicily as writing:
The Ethiopians say that the Egyptians are one of their colonies which was brought 
into Egypt by Osiris.  They even allege that this country was originally under 
water, but that the Nile, dragging much mud as it flowed from Ethiopia, had filled 
it in and made it a part of the continent. ...  They add that from them, as from their 
authors and ancestors, the Egyptians get most of their laws.  It is from them that 
the Egyptians have learned to honor kings as gods and bury them with such pomp; 
sculpture and writing were invented by the Ethiopians.  The Ethiopians cite 
evidence that they are more ancient than the Egyptians, ...
83
Diop himself writes: “we may even add that the legend pinpoints the birth of Osiris and 
Isis in Upper Egypt:  Osiris born at Thebes and Isis at Denderah.”
84
  Of the birth of Isis 
Budge writes, that in Denderah “Nut brought forth the goddess in the form of a darkskinned child,... gave birth to her brother Osiris in Thebes, ... to her sister Nephthys in 
Het-Seshesh.”
85
  All were born in Upper Egypt, as was Horus-the-Elder, and Set,
although on different days as the texts state.
The African origin of the gods are clearly evident as one other part of the legend 
indicates.  Recall that the gods Shu and Tefnut were produced by masturbation by the 
Sun-God Temu (or Ra).  Here we see the influence of the Heliopolitan priests.  In the 
legend they have, in late dynastic times, the “races” divided up into four classes; The 
Egyptians, the Semites, and the Libyans were created by Horus and Sekhet [the female 
counterpart of the god Ptah, the opener of the day]; and the Nubians or the Nehesu, were 
created by masturbation by Ra.  Hence, we see that both the gods Shu and Tefnut, and the 
Nubians were created by masturbation is indicative and suggestive of its antiquity.  For in 
the later periods the concepts of creation took on a more refined, sophisticated and 
enlightened form which reflected the evolving and advancing civilization.  The above 
connection also indicates that the origin of the gods Shu and Tefnut is a product of the 36
Nubians.  Budge writes:  “the legend as to the origin of the gods Shu and Tefnut is ... 
likely to have been the product of some indigenous dark-skinned race ...”
86
Budge in his two volume work on Osiris unequivocally argued that upon examination of 
the texts, tomb deposits, and excavations of the Predynastic, Archaic, and Early Dynastic 
Periods prove “beyond all doubt that the indigenous Religion of ancient Egypt was unlike 
any of the Asiatic Religions with which it had been compared and that all its
fundamentals remain unchanged throughout the dynastic period.”
87
  He underscores his 
point further by stating that it was “clear that the general character of the Religion of the 
dynastic Egyptians was identical with that of the Religion of the Primitive Egyptians. ...  
The evidence derived from the Egyptian texts also supplied information about several 
beliefs and characteristics of the Religion of all periods.”  And he adds that:  “All these 
characteristics seemed to indicate that the Egyptian Religion was of African rather than 
Asiatic origin.”
88
Several of the characteristics of the Egyptian Religion that many Egyptologists had 
difficulty understanding could be explained through comparative analysis with African 
religions.  One such characteristic was the “belief in the existence of the Dual Soul, and 
the extraordinary ideas as to its functions and capabilities which underlie ... ancient 
Egyptian psychology and eschatology in general.”  Professor G. Maspero, “was disposed 
to explain them by references to the beliefs of Modern African peoples in the Sudan and 
West Africa.”
Of this particular aspect of the Egyptian religion Budge explains:  “We have seen that the 
texts speak of man having more than one ‘soul,’ and that the Egyptian, like the modern 
African, thought that he possessed three at least, the Ka, or Double, the Ba, or HeartSoul, and the Khu (Spirit-Soul). ...  It appears, then that the Khu is the Spirit, or SpiritSoul of a man, which it was impossible to injure or kill, and that it was the vital principle 
of a man and was immortal.  The Ka perished if offerings were nor provided for it, and 
the Ba (Heart-Soul) might, it was thought, also die, but the Khu was ‘imperishable’.”  He 
adds:  “When the body died there could be raised from it by means of words,  holy or 
magical, and ceremonies performed by priests, a Spirit-body called Sahu, which the Khu 
(Spirit-Soul) could inhabit at pleasure. The Ka, Ba or Heart-Soul, and Shadow dwelt in 
the tomb with the body, or wandered about outside it and away from it, when they desired 
to do so.”
Of West African beliefs Budge writes:  “the belief into dual-soul, i.e. the soul of the 
body, and the soul, or, as we may call it the ‘Spirit-Soul,’ is well-nigh universal.  The 
soul of the body, the Egyptian Ba, is mortal, but the Spirit-Soul, the Egyptian Khu, is 
immortal.  Nothing is soulless to the African, and even matter is thought to be a form of 
soul, of a low order it is true, which souls of higher nature can make use of.”  He adds;  
“... it seems to me that actually the Egyptian and the African only know of the Dual-Soul, 
i.e. the Body-Soul and the Spirit-Soul.”
Budge states that among the people of “the Sudan and Western Africa exactly parallel 
beliefs exist, and we are driven to conclude that the eschatological ideas of the Egyptians 37
were not peculiar to themselves, but belonged to the indigenous peoples of those parts of 
Africa.”
89
In explaining his views on the relationship between the ancient Egyptian religious beliefs 
with those of modern Africa, Budge had this to say:
90
During subsequent visits to the Sudan I became convinced that a satisfactory 
explanation of the ancient Egyptian Religion could only be obtained from the 
Regions of the Sudan, more especially those of the peoples who lived in the 
isolated districts in the south and west of that region, where European influence 
was limited, and where native beliefs and religious ceremonies still possessed life 
and meaning.  I then began to read systematically the books of all the great 
travelers in the Sudan, beginning with the Travels of Ibn Batutah, and ending with 
the recent publications like Mr. Ward’s View from the Congo.  The notes made in 
the course of this reading formed a large mass of material which seemed to me to 
be of great value for the comparative study of the Egyptian and modern African 
religious beliefs.  It may be objected that the modern beliefs and superstitions of 
the Sudan and Congo-land and Dahomey are survivals of ancient Egyptian
religious views and opinions, but the objection seems to me to possess no validity.  
The oldest and best form of the Egyptian Religion died more than 3,000 years ago 
[i.e. around 1,000 B.C.], and many of the most illuminating facts for comparative 
and illustrative purposes are derived from Religions of peoples who live in parts 
of Africa into which Egyptian influence never penetrated. ...   Modern Sudani 
beliefs are identical with those of ancient Egypt, because the Egyptians were 
Africans and the modern peoples of the Sudan are Africans.  (Emphasis mine.)
The main point to be  ascertained from the above quote is that the Africans did not inherit 
their religious ideas from the Egyptians but rather they both were derived and evolved 
from the same indigenous peoples.  And that is what explains their similarities.
When discussing the Dual-Soul, mention was made of the heart-soul.  To the Egyptians 
the heart was the source of “wish, longing, desire, lust, will, courage, mind, wisdom, 
sense, intelligence, manner, disposition, attention, intention, etc., and it is clear that the 
heart was regarded as the seat of life, and as the home of the passions, both good and bad, 
and as the seat of the pleasures derived from eating, drinking, and the canal appetite.  
There appears to have been a soul which was connected with the heart.”
91
  “Among 
modern African peoples the heart of both man and beast is regarded as the source of all 
life, emotion, passion, movement, and strength, and in the case of man the heart is often 
identified with the soul.”
92
  Also we note that at the ancient Egyptian “weighing of the 
heart” at the judgment the deceased addressed his heart, referring to it as his “mother” 
and the “seat of his being” and prays that “nothing and no one oppose him in judgment.  
... and that his heart may not be departed from him.”
93
The Reve rence of the Mother38
Notice the reference that is made to the heart as “his mother,” and the equating of “his 
mother” to the “seat of his being.”  In both ancient Egypt and Africa the mother was held 
in high esteem.  And great reverence was paid to her.  There is an ancient Egyptian text 
that reads:  “Give thy mother no cause to be offended at thee, lest she lift up her hands to 
God, who will hear her complaint and punish thee.”  We also observe that both cultures 
trace their descent matrilineally, “probably because there can never be any doubt as to a 
man’s parentage on his mother’s side.”
94
Of Africa and her regard for the mother W. E. B. DuBois wrote the following in
Darkwater:
95
The land of the mother was and is Africa.  In subtle and mysterious ways, despite 
her curious history, her slavery, polygamy, and toil, the spell of the African
mother pervades the land.  Isis, the mother, is still titular goddess, in thought if 
not name, of the dark continent.  Nor does this all seem to be solely a survival of 
the historic matriachate through which all nations pass,  – it appears to be more 
than this, – as if the great black race in passing up the steps of human culture gave 
the would, not only the Iron Age, the cultivation of the soil, and the domestication 
of animals, but also, in particular the mother-idea.
DuBois proceeded to quote another author who wrote:  “No mother can love more 
tenderly and none is more tenderly loved than the Negro mother.”  Effects of this 
reverence for the mother is manifested among present day African-Americans wherein  
no other insult is more caustic than a put down of one’s mother, and wherein people are 
judged in terms of how they treat their mother.
Some Cultural Comparisons from the Arts
In speaking of contemporary descendants of Africa, one often hears reference made to 
their love for music and dance; so much so that many are inclined to think that these traits 
are genetically endowed.  Evidence of this love for music and dance can be found as far 
back as one chooses to look.  Ibn Khaldun, the fourteenth century Tunisian born Arab 
historian made the following remarks as a result of observing Africans throughout the 
continent:  “They are found eager to dance whenever they hear a melody.”
96
It is reasonable to expect that any characteristic that is clear to a people will show up as 
an attribute of their deity.  From the writings of Diodorus we find that Osiris “was a 
patron of dancers and musicians of all classes, both male and female.”  He wrote that 
when “Osiris passed through Ethiopia, a company of satyrs were presented to him, ...  For 
Osiris was a man given to mirth and jollity, and took great pleasures in music and 
dancing. ...  Therefore the satyrs, who are naturally inclined to skipping, dancing, singing  
and all sorts of mirth, were taken in as part of the army.”  Budge says of this information 
obtained from Diodorus that it:39
... is both interesting and valuable, for it not only describes the love of Osiris for 
music, and singing, and dancing, and the pleasure which he took  in watching 
buffoons, who Diodorus called “satyrs,” but it throws light on the cult of Osiris, 
and on one of the most important features of the African religion and the character 
of the African.  All Nilotic peoples are greatly addicted to dancing, and they never 
seem able to perform any ceremony without dancing; they dance at weddings and 
they dance at funerals, and dancing among many tribes constitutes an act of
worship of the highest and most solemn importance.
97
We find from reading the text that an Egypt priest brought to King Assa, of the IVth 
Dynasty, a pigmy from Punt (i.e. the Sudan)  “who knew how to dance the ‘dance of the 
god [Osiris],’ and was said to come from the ‘Land of the Spirits’.”  This indicates that 
Osiris had a special dance, and that “Egyptians” were surprised and/or impressed that that 
the Sudani pygmy knew it!  It has also been noted that every important god of the West 
Coast African had “his own dance, which was sacred to him, and is known only to the 
initiated,”
98
It is also interesting to note the significance of the drums to African dance.  For “the 
dance is always performed to the sound of drums.”
99
In his book  Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Volume I, Budge has a chapter entitled 
“Osiris and Dancing” wherein he gives numerous similarities between modern Africans 
and the ancient Egyptians with respect to their regard for music and dance.
Parenthetically:
When one muses over the titles conferred to several of Twentieth Century African 
America’s most laudable goddesses of song, one cannot help but notice the 
uncanny similarities to the titles that were given to Isis, herself a goddess renown 
for her soulful utterances; such as “The lady of heaven” (Billie Holliday  – “Lady 
Day”), “The divine one” (Sarah Vaughn), “The Queen and  Lady of the lands of 
the South” (Dinah Washington  – “Queen of the Blues”), and “The queen of the 
Earth”  (Aretha Franklin – “Queen of Soul,” recall that the African believed that 
everything contained a soul.)
100
The Respect for Elders
Another Trait that is commonly found in African cultures is the high respect and regard 
for the aged, which “was a characteristic of the Egyptian, and it is found among a large 
number of modern African tribes at the present day.”  A maxim found in the pyramid text 
of Ani says:  “Sit not down when another is standing up if he be older than thou, even if 
thy rank in life be higher than his, ...”  Of the African’s deep respect for the aged Budge 
writes:40
The aged must only be addressed in terms of flattery and adulation.  Any
disrespectful deportment or reproachful language towards such persons is
regarded as a misdemeanor of no ordinary kind.  And there is nothing which a 
young person so much depreciates as the curse of an aged person and especially 
that of a revered father.  This profound respect for aged persons, by a very natural 
operation of the mind, is turned into idolatrous regard for them when dead.  They 
are not divested of their power and influence by death, but, on the contrary, they 
are raised to a higher and more powerful sphere of influence, and hence the 
natural disposition of the living, and especially those related to them in any way 
in this world, to look to them and call upon them for aid in all emergencies and 
trials.
101
The Significance of Magic
The Africans and the ancient Egyptians also had the belief in magic as a common
characteristic in their religions.  In both cultures the magicians, were sometimes the kings 
themselves, but were most often a high official such as a priest.  They both believed that 
the world was governed by the “gods and spirits” and that the priests (magicians) could 
hold communication with the spirits of these gods and could influence them.  The kings 
in both cultures often believed they held their positions due to the influence of the priest, 
“who posed as interpreters of the divine will, and the acts and policy of the chief were 
often directed by them.”  In primitive times the chief or king was the strongest and 
bravest in the land.  He was “the most fearless hunter and fiercest fighter  and was in fact 
the embodiment of physical strength.”  [The Zulu king T’Shaka (1785  - 1828), was a 
prime example of this.]  The priest, on the other hand, the man of “occult” powers was 
“the incarnation of intelligence, agility of mind, thought, cunning shrewdness and 
foresight, and when Egyptians had acquired the art of writing, he added to his powers the 
ability to read and write, and he possessed a thorough knowledge of the sacred books.”  
And this condition existed among many communities of West Africa  at the turn of the 
twentieth century.
102
These “magicians” were known by many titles, which include priest, witch doctor, 
shaman, medicine-man, etc.  Some of the feats ascribed to them are legion and legend.  
They include:  telling the future, interpreting  dreams and omens, casting good and evil 
spells, casting out devils, concocting potent medicines, curing the sick, raising the dead, 
rendering themselves invisible, changing themselves into the form of animate and
inanimate things, such as animals etc.
In the Osirian legend, when Horus is stung to death by a scorpion, Thoth gave Isis the 
potent and magical words of power that enabled her to restore his life.  This knowledge 
of these words and of how to properly utter them and of how to correctly perform the
ceremony was “transmitted to her priest” by Isis, “and by its use they were enabled to do 
away the effects of the reptile’s poison in the human body, and so preserve the lives of 
many Egyptians.”
10341
The Westcar papyrus gives an account of a remarkable feat performed by the priest 
Tchatha-em-ankh during the reign of Seneferu, of either the IIIrd or IVth Dynasty.  It 
says that he “divided the water of a lake into two parts, and placed one part upon the 
other, in order to allow a singing woman, who was rowing the royal boat with the king in 
it, to recover a jewel which dropped from her into the water as she rowed and sang.”
104
Along with the similarities between the “magician” etc., that the two cultures had in 
common, were also the charms, amulets, and other symbols.  Two of the most noticeable 
are the flail and scepter which several pictures and sculptures of Osiris depict him 
carrying.  They are not only amulets, but they are also symbols of power and authority.  
The flail, which is used in thrashing wheat, can be seen as symbols carried by African 
leaders of modern times, most notable was Jomo Kenyatta, the first president of postcolonial Kenya.
105
Funeral Customs
There are many customs and ceremonies surrounding the ancient Egyptian funeral and 
burial preparations that can be made clearer when they are compared to their counterparts 
among several of the African peoples.  An example of this can be seen in the significance 
attached to the importance of the umbilical cord and the jawbone, especially the lower 
jawbone.
In the “Liturgy of Funeral Offerings” found in “the pyramid of Unas, a king of the VIth 
Dynasty” is the phrase:  “I have come, I have brought to him the jawbones in Re-stau.”  
One chapter in the  Book of the Dead  points out that both the god and the  deceased are 
provided with jawbones.”  And another chapter reads:  “Horus hath avenged thee,  he 
hath destroyed the jawbones of thine enemies.”  Scholars have been unable to find in the 
Egyptian text anything that explains “the allusion to the jawbones in  any one of these 
passages.”  However when we examine the funeral costumes of some modern Sudani 
peoples we gain some insight.
In Uganda when a king died an official took the body and removed the lower jaw, placed 
it in a wooden dish, and put it in a specially built house designed by a chief appointed to 
be its guardian.  Also the Baganda and other African peoples cut out the jawbones and 
preserve them with honor.  Further insight into the special significance given to the lower 
jawbone is obtained from the Eastern Ewe people who believe “that the lower jaw is the 
only part of the body which a child derives from its mother.”  Here the reference to the 
mother should be underscored.
The rise of Osirianism, which prohibited the mutilation of the human body caused the 
“custom of cutting out jawbones” to become obsolete.
106
Of the umbilical cord, the Book of the Dead contains the following passage:  “I have done 
away my impurity, I have destroyed the evil things in me.”  The question was asked:  
“What does this mean?”  The answer given was:  “It is the cutting off of the umbilical 
cord of Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant before all the gods, and driving away all of the 42
evil things before all the gods, and driving away of all the evil things which belong to 
him.”  Another question:  “What does this mean?’  The answer:  “It is the purification 
[which takes place] on the body of his birth.”  Again the texts offer no insight into the 
significance of the umbilical cord.  However, King Mtesa of Uganda and the queen 
mother informed an interviewer that when a king dies, his umbilical cord is attached to a 
beautifully covered wooden frame and kept in a receptacle called a Balongo.  And that 
when “its owner dies his spirit enters the wooden frame, and lives there with the cord 
forever.  If the frame be destroyed the spirit departs.”  Further investigation reveals more 
important facts about the preservation of the lower jawbone and umbilical cord of the 
king in Uganda.  “The cord seems to be to the afterbirth what the lower jawbone is to the 
person to whom it belonged”  that is, the ghost of the person attaches itself to the lower 
jawbone after death, and the ghost of the afterbirth attaches itself to the bit of the cord. ...  
The jawbone and the umbilical cord must always be  kept together to fulfill the
requirements of the ghosts after the death of the king.”
107
The Significance Of “The Stool”
Another characteristic of interest is the role and significance of the stool in customs and 
traditions in Osirianism and several of the other African peoples.  The war god, Kibuka, 
of the Baganda, sits on a stool that has a basin fitted into it where his lower jawbone is 
kept along with his genital organs.  In the  Book of the Dead we find that the stool on 
which Osiris sits is made to resemble a tomb and represents a “sepulchral coffer,” (i.e. a 
burial vault and/or receptacle of sacred articles) that undoubtedly contains sacred parts of 
Osiris’ body such as his “genitals and lower jawbone, as was the case of Kibuka.”
108
The stool has special  importance in parts of West Africa as well.  Although the meaning 
may differ somewhat, the fact that it is the stool upon which such significance is 
conferred is noteworthy.  The “Legend of the Golden Stool” of the Ashanti is well known 
among those who are familiar with the traditions of West Africa, and is well worth the 
mention here.  In his classic two volume work, World’s Great Men of Color, J. A. Rogers 
writes:
109
According to Ashanti tradition, the Golden Stool had descended from the skies, 
having been conjured thence by a celebrated magician, servant of Onyame, god of 
the sky who had commanded the wizard to make the Ashanti a powerful nation.  
One day, in the presence of a great multitude the Stool dropped from a great black 
cloud and fluctuated slowly down until it came to rest on the knees of the king.
It was firmly believed to be the fountainhead of health, wealth, coverage, and 
strength and to be linked to the destiny of the nation. ...
So sacred was it regarded that not even the king himself dared sit on it.43
On the Dogon and Their Cosmogony
Circumcision and excision have apparently been practiced in Africa and ancient Egypt 
since time immemorial.  Scholars have for years tried to determine the ancient beliefs 
behind it; religious, health, fetish, phallic worship, or what?  Fortunately for us there is a 
people in West Africa that can help shed some light on these as well as other practices, 
customs, and traditions of ancient Egypt.  This elucidation comes to us due to the 
patience and persistence of the French ethnologist, Marcel Griaule (1989 - 1956).
Griaule began studying the Dogons of Mali, West Africa in 1931.  The Dogons are often 
referred to as “Cliff Dwellers,” because they retreated to the hills and cliffs of Mali to 
avoid the onslaught of the European’s colonial designs.  They were never conquered as 
the Europeans could never overcome the relentless defense and bombardments of rocks 
from those heights that the cliffs blessed them with.
110
  Thus, they retained their old ways 
and culture until time and technology finally allowed the Europeans to penetrate their 
midst.
For sixteen years Griaule studied, investigated, and queried the Dogons.  Finally the 
priests held a council and decided that he was serious and worthy enough for them to 
reveal to him their knowledge and wisdom.  Of which Griaule and his associate
Germaine Dieterlen, who joined him in 1937, write in their classic work on the Dogons, 
The Pale Fox:
111
It is a consciously composed lore of master ideas which may not be placed within
the reach of just anyone at any time.  Certainly it constitutes a form of “slight 
knowledge” – a Bambara expression – sometime available to the average man.  It 
conceals statements and coherent systems reserved for initiates, who alone have 
access to the “deep knowledge.”  The myths present themselves in layers, like the 
shell of a seed, and one of their reasons for being is precisely to cover and conceal 
from the profane a precious seed which appears to belong rightly to a universal, 
valid body of knowledge.
The Dogon priest appointed one of their elders, the blind sage Ogotemmeli, to instruct 
him and to report to them each day on the proceedings, as Griaule was to later learn.  The 
lessons lasted thirty-three days and led, as the Dogon priest knew it would, “to months 
and years of intensive work.”
112
These lessons were published in a book by Griaule entitled  Dieu d’Eau (God of Water) 
and later translated into English as  Conversations with Ogotommeli.  From it we learn 
that Amma (notice the similarity to Amen), whom the Dogon called God, created the 
heavens and the earth.  The earth which lay flat and faced upward was feminine.  
“Amma, being lonely and desirous of intercourse with his creation, approached it.  That 
was the occasion of the first breach of order of the universe. ...  At God’s approach the 
termite hill rose up, barring the passage and displaying its masculinity.  It was as strong 
as the organ of a stranger, and intercourse could not take place.  But God is all-powerful.  
He cut down the termite hill, and had intercourse with the excised earth. (emphasis mine)  44
But the original incident was destined to effect the course of things forever; from this 
defective union there was born, instead of the intended twins, a single being, the  Thos 
aureus, or jackal, symbol of the difficulties of God.”
113
Here we are reminded of the birth of Anubis, regarded as the jackal headed offspring of 
Osiris and Nephthys; where Osiris is considered as a water god (or Nile god) and 
Nephthys is considered as the remote parts of the land.
The Dogon believed that under the ideal circumstance, twins would have been born, an 
androgynous pair, one predominantly male and the other predominantly female.  But due 
to the difficulties presented to Amma by the termite hill, and the need to excise it, only a 
single birth occurred.  Later when things settled down to normal Amma had “intercourse 
with his earth-wife, and this time without mishaps of any kind, the excision of the 
offending member having removed the cause of the former disorder.  Water, which is the 
divine seed, was thus able to enter the womb of the earth and the normal reproductive 
cycle resulted in the birth of twins.  Two beings were thus formed.  God created them like 
water.  ...  
“These spirits, called Nummo [sometimes spelled Nommo], were thus two homogeneous 
products of God, of divine essence like himself, conceived without untoward incident and 
developed normally in the womb of the earth.  Their destiny took them to Heaven, where 
they received the instructions of the ir father. ... the pair were born perfect and complete; 
they had eight members and their number was eight [the same number that occurred in 
one version of the ancient Egyptian creation], which is the symbol of speech [recall the 
importance of the ‘word’ in ancient Egyptian mythology].
“They were also of the essence of God, since they were made of his seed, which is at 
once the ground, the form, and the substance of the life-force of the world, ...  This force 
is water, and the Pair are present in all water: they are water [or moisture as was 
Tefnut?], the water of the seas, of coasts, of torrents, of storms, and of the spoonfuls we 
drink.”
114
The Nummo pair saw that their mother, the earth, was naked, due to the excision by 
Amma and brought some fibres from the plants created from the “heavenly regions.”  
These fibres were full of water and words and placed over the earth’s genitalia.  Since 
they contained water, the Nummo were always present.  With the words, the earth now 
had its first and most primitive language.  The jackal, desirous of possessing this speech, 
“laid hands on the fibres in which language was embodied, that is to say, on his mother’s 
skirt.  His mother, the earth, resisted this incestuous action.  She buried herself in her 
womb, that is to say, in the anthill, disguised as an ant.  But the jackal followed her.  
There was, it should be explained, no other woman in the world whom he could desire.  
The hole which the earth made in the anthill was never deep enough, and in the end she 
had to admit defeat.  This prefigured the even-handed struggles between men and
women, which, however always ends in the victory of the  male.”
11545
As a consequence of this “incestuous act” the jackal acquired the gift of speech which he 
ever afterwards was able to reveal to diviners the designs of God.  This “act,” to the 
Dogons, was the reason for “the flow of menstrual blood.”  As a result of this defilement 
of the earth, Amma decided to “create living beings directly.”  He modeled a womb and 
made a male organ of damp clay and they developed and separated until a human pair 
arose out of the “lumps of the earth.”  At this point the Nummo pair intervened.  They 
realized that twin births would not always happen and that might cause “errors” like those 
of the jackal to occur, which would not have happened had he not been alone.
116
The Nummo pair drew on the ground outlines of a male and female, but the man took 
both of them for himself, and then the same thing was done for the woman.  Thus, both 
man and woman were born with both male and female souls [another form of dualsouls?] with “two principles corresponding to two distinct persons.  In the man the female 
soul is located in the prepuce; in the woman the male soul was in the clitoris.”  The 
Nummo knew that “each person  would have to merge himself in the sex for which he 
appeared to be best fitted.”  In order to rectify this situation, the man was circumcised 
“removing from him all the femininity of his prepuce.”
With his prepuce removed “the man then had intercourse with the woman, who latter 
bore the first of two children of a series of eight, who were to become the ancestors of the 
Dogon people.  In the moment of birth the pain of parturition was concentrated in the 
woman’s clitoris, which was excised by an invisible hand, detached itself and left her. 
...”
117
  
Thus, we see a cosmological explanation for the practice of circumcision and excision.
Of the eight offspring, mentioned above, from the first man and woman who became the 
ancestors from which the “eight Dogon families” descended, the first four were male and 
the later four were female.  This is conceptually familiar to the ancient Egyptian concept 
of their “Oldest Company of the Gods” found in the temple of Heliopolis, mentioned in 
the previous chapter.
118
It has also been mentioned previously that the cosmology of the Dogons was embodied in 
layers containing “deep knowledge.”  In  The Pale Fox by Griaule and Dieterlen, a much 
deeper insight into this cosmology is obtained.  There we learn that the eight ancestors of 
man were also Nommo (spelled Nummo in  Conversions with Ogotommeli).  The forth 
visited the earth and created disorder in the process and was changed into a pale fox (the 
jackal mentioned above) as punishment, and thus loses much of his divinely born
characteristics, gifts, and abilities.  The third Nommo, the twin of the fourth and father of 
mankind, was sacrificed to atone for his brother’s misdeeds.  He was emasculated.  His 
umbilical cord became alive and “changed into a tree,  the kilena.”  Amma stretched the 
Nommo’s two arms to a fork in the tree and executed him.  The Nommo was sacrificed 
standing up because the Dogon believed that in this manner “the death agony inflicts the 
greatest suffering.”  They believe that:  “The man who dies lying down does not see 
(experience) much  suffering.”  The reason for this sacrifice, we must remember, was to 46
bring order and organization to the world.  And according to a Dogon maxim,  “If you 
wish to organize the world you must experience great suffering.”
119
Amma  then had the Nommo’s body divided up into sixty parts and spread them
throughout the earth and universe in order to purify them.  When this purification was 
accomplished, Amma recollected the Nommo’s body parts and resurrected him.  The 
kilema tree, which also died, is resurrected through vegetation.
120
Of some of the noteworthy results of the Nommo’s sacrifice in Dogon philosophy, 
Griaule and Dieterlen write:
121
Amma’s deed is currently recalled during sacrifices:  the jaw and teeth of the 
[symbolized with animals] are saved so that the species may reproduce.
The role of dispenser of spiritual principles that was conferred of the victim 
presently devolves upon every individual after death; one successively gives 
portions of one’s life force to a certain number of descendants, and this allotment 
may span five generations ...
When a child is born, it receives a part of its spiritual principles from an ancestor 
who becomes its guardian and of whom the child itself is the living testimony ...
And later on they write:
122
For man as an individual, the sacrifice and resurrected signify the development of 
a being from the fetal to the adult stage.  This development includes the evolution 
of the child who, until circumcision (male and female), is considered to be of 
e ither sex—the Nommo Anagonno sacrificed as a androgyny; then, after the 
operation, the child fully realized its masculine or feminine being—the mixed 
couple of the resurrected Nommo.  Similarly, from a psychological and moral 
perspective the child will leave the ignorance of infancy behind and attain, with 
maturity, full awareness of himself, of other, and of the world, acquired through 
instruction and initiation ...
In their present day sacrifices the stages of the Nommo’s sacrifice are recalled:
123
– the  chick (or small hen) slaughtered before the actual sacrifice, which has a 
divinatory value, represents the emasculation;
– the victim’s blood represents the blood at sacrifice;
– the throwing of the liver on the alter, the resurrection;
– the division of the body is recalled by the dismemberment of the victim and the 
regulated distribution of the pieces of meat to the participants, the consumption 
of which constitutes a communion of all the members of the group.47
Thus, the Dogon say that the Nommo “showed  man the first example of
Sacrifice”:  its value as a gift, its power, its extension, and its effect; for it seals all 
relations between people.
From the above discussions we see cosmological reasons for the practice of circumcision 
and excision unobtainable in the ancient Egyptian texts.  We also see similarities between 
the “Pale Fox” (or jackal) and Anubis.  Furthermore, like Osiris, the Nommo suffers 
death and his body is dismembered and scattered only to have it recollected and
resurrected.  We also gain some insight into the reverence paid to ancestors, especially 
those recently departed.  And there is the similarity between the eight Dogon ancestors 
and the “company of eight gods” of the Egyptians.  We even see the preservation of the 
jaw of the deceased practiced.
The Dogon had an incredibly complex and precise knowledge of the Sirius A and B star 
system  Their knowledge of this star system astonished astronomers, especially when 
they “confirmed the 50-year orbit the Dogon have given for another star  circling Sirius.  
It is even more amazing when one realizes that Sirius B is invisible to the naked eye,  and 
that this is the star that “the Dogon say ... , is the most important star in the sky.”  For 
them it “is the egg of the world, the beginning and ending of all things seen and 
unseen.”
124
The star Sirius had a very significant role in the ancient Egyptian cosmology as well.  In 
the aforementioned article, Adams writes:
125
In the book The Sirius Mystery, Robert Temple presents a massive amount of 
evidence, based on eight years’ research, which strongly suggest very close
cultural and physical lineages between the Dogon, the ancient Egyptians, and the 
Sumerians.  He convincingly demonstrates the striking similarities between many 
aspects of their mythologies.
Recall that Budge asserted that the reasons for the similarities between religious beliefs 
of ancient Egyptians and several modern Africans were that they emanated from the same 
source of indigenous people.  A similar explanation for the similarities between the 
Dogon and the ancient Egyptians is presented by Diop who wrote:
126
  “No matter where 
we collect legends on the genesis of a Black African people, those who still remember 
their origins say they came from the east ... Dogon and Yoruba legends report that they 
came from the east ...”  See Figure 1.48
Figure 1
Migrations of Ancient Africans
(See Precolonial Black Africa by Cheik Anta Diop, p. 218.)49
Chapter Four
Of The Symbolism In The Mythology Of Ancient Egypt
Gerald Massey is one of a few Egyptologist who has delved into the depths of the ancient 
Egyptian mysteries to seek to understand its insights and wisdom from a cultural
anthropological perspective.  In what he considers his seminal work,  Ancient Egypt the 
Light of the World, Volumes I and II, Massey, who is also a spiritualist, discusses the 
origin, evolution, and the symbolism, and meanings of the mythologies and legends that 
evolved.  This work is considered a primary source by many scholars and is referred to 
often.  Massey’s work delves into yet another arena in which we can learn much of, and 
from, the mythology of the ancient Egyptians.  This we seek to do in this chapter.
Of Humankind’s Primal years
In the beginnings of mankind, due to his mental capacity, he began to contemplate the 
wonders of nature, and characteristically of a true scientist, he “wondered why” and 
sought to make sense of it all.  In the early years, man’s lifestyle was akin to that of the 
animals, perhaps only slightly above.  Man was not aware then of the role of the male in 
procreation, and was awestruck by the life-giving ability of the female.  This naturally 
gave rise to a reverence of the female, and the assignment of female symbols to aspects 
of nature that similarly dealt with life producing activity.  As life was highly valued, 
female deities would become dominant, with the earth itself being the “Great Mother.”
Similarly, attributes of animals and plants that transcended those of man were noted, and 
those plants and animals that possessed these gifted aspects were used symbolically as 
representations of them.  In time a type of sign language evolved as man expressed his 
understanding in various forms such as rock paintings, carvings, etc.  Also, as language 
had not yet evolved, man used dance to communicate his thoughts, much akin to the way 
bees do.  He used pantomime and gestures to express himself.
Language itself took a long time to evolve.  It began to emerge as a product of the 
hunting and gathering activities of the first species of genus Homo over two million years 
ago. Richard Leakey, the paleontologist son of paleontologists Mary and Louis Leakey, 
discusses this evolution of language and its effect on human culture in a chapter entitled 
“The Art of Language” in his book  The Origin of Humankind.  He states “that the 
evolution of spoken language as we know it was a defining point in human prehistory.”
127
  
And that language was “the engine of human brain growth.”
128
  That it enabled man to 
impose order, which according to  “the archeological record” was a “glacially” slow
process.
Leakey asserts that evidence from art and upper Paleolithic burial rituals indicate that 
fully modern language and consciousness, which fed each other, existed perhaps 35,000 
years ago.
129
  Clearly with the advent of spoken language, I submit, there rose the desire, 50
which gave rise to the need, to recall events, activities, and how to accomplish certain 
tasks, etc.  Those individuals who best mastered this ability would surely attain a priestly 
status.  And I would suggest that the latter day African griot is in keeping with this 
tradition.
Of Ritual and Order
In those primal years man was as promiscuous as other social animals.  And one of the 
dire consequences of that activity was the death of young girls due to their inability to 
handle the sexual act with adult males.  Because of this the women introduced rites of 
passage at puberty, making it taboo to have sex before then and only after young virgin 
girls had been excised (i.e. the opening rite of introcision which made penetration
possible) and boys circumcised.  And only circumcised boys were allowed to have sex.
130
  
Thus one of man’s earliest rituals was instituted, which was also a major step toward 
civilization.
This also introduced the concept of two types of women:  the virgin, or the one who 
conceives; and the mother and nurturer, or the one who gives birth.  Through the 
evolving Egyptian mythology and legends they would take on various forms, e.g. mother 
and daughter, or two sisters, most notably, Isis and Nephthys.
In addition to this, when a young girl reached puberty and began to menstruate, this 
signaled the arrival of her time to be able to produce life.  Hence, blood began to take on 
mystical and mythical qualities.  All children were  viewed as the offspring of the mother 
and family groupings were centered around her.  In time, clans would form wherein 
group marriages were the norm, which set the stage for the evolution of family
relationships that we now have.
In those times the bloodline of the mother was key and she would become a Eucharist 
whereby she would be sacrificed and her flesh would be eaten and her blood drank so that 
her essence could be passed on.  Later, as man became knowledgeable of the role of the 
male in procreation, it would be the male symbol of the god or supreme leader who 
would be sacrificed.  Osirianism, a cult of vegetarianism, would eventually cause this 
human sacrificing to be replaced by the eating of bread and the drinking of wine as the 
symbolic representation of the flesh and blood of the sacrificed god.
On the Triumph of the Younger Brother
We also have in those earliest of times the eldest son being the dominant male figure and 
he was also the consort of the mother.  Obviously there was no concept of incest then.  
All this was done to keep the bloodline in tact.  Later this would take the form of the 
eldest son and daughter mating.  The Great Mother, “she who existed with no one before 
her, the only one mightier than all of the gods, who were born of her. ”
131
  In this earliest 
of periods she was called Sekhet-Bast, and in one of her aspects was the goddess of 
passion.  She would also be symbolized as Apt in Nubia, a form which “preceded Hathor 
...as Mother-earth ... and who was ‘mama’ or mother of the Inner Africans.”
13251
Deep within equatorial Africa lies the two Great Lakes that give birth to the White Nile.  
It is in this region that humankind began to evolve.  From these beginnings, the wee 
folks, the pygmies, the dwarfs were observers of nature and the heavens, and the world 
around them.  Their primary food came from the abundance of papyrus reeds which 
formed the “great oasis” about the Great Lakes.  This was like a paradise or heaven on 
earth, which they called Uat and later imaged as the “isle of the blessed.”  That which 
produces life was symbolic of a mother.  And Uat, “was divinized in the goddess Uati as 
a mother of all things fresh, flourishing, and evergreen.”
133
For most locations on the earth, the stars in the universe fall into one of three categories:  
1) non setting stars that circulate around a pole star, 2) rising and setting stars, 3) and non 
rising stars that cannot be seen from that location.  See Figure 2.  However, at the 
equator, where the universe seems to revolve around the earth’s axis, all stars rise and fall 
except two, and the heavens seem to revolve around these two pole stars:  one at the 
southern extension of the earth’s axis and the other at the northern.  The southern region 
was the domain of  Set, and the northern region was that of Horus.
In Equatoria the nights and days were evenly divided. And time, such as it was reckoned, 
was in regard to this turn around which divides this first great circle.  This phenomenon 
would be represented as the twins Set and Horus.  Set was considered the power of night 
or darkness, and symbolized by a black bird (crow); and Horus, the power of day or light, 
by the golden hawk.
134
‘Tanga’ means thigh and ‘nyika’ means water.  Hence, we get Tanganyika which means 
the Lake of the Thigh.  The ancient Egyptians referred to Equatoria as the highest point, 
which they called Apta.  This was also looked upon as a birthplace and was symbolized 
by the water-cow (hippopotamus),which they called Apt.  The thigh was a symbol that 
denoted birth.  And Apt, divinized as another form of the great mother, is said to have 
given birth to Set and Horus near Tanganyika, at the mount of the earth.
135
For the Equatorians the heavens or sky rested upon the earth.  The sky, viewed as 
celestial waters, was symbolized as two great lakes; one in the south and the other in the 
north.  The stars were thought to rise vertically with there being two fixed poles or pole 
stars.  The land of Tanganyka was just south of the equator, and to the ancient Egyptians 
the south was considered the “land of the first time” and Set, the first born of the twins 
(the southern pole star was observed first) was traditionally considered the inventor of 
astronomy, who erected the pillar of the pole star.
136
The White Nile flowed northward. And so did the  migration of some of the Equatorians.  
(As they approached the equator the second pole star became visible to them.)  With their 
northward migration the heavens they had “fixed” in Apta began to rise up.  This they 
imaged as Shu, the breathing force divinized as a male god uplifting the female god Nu 
or Nut, which means “up-heaven.”
137
  As this  heaven rose the northern pole, which in52
Figure 2
P
 region 1
region 2
A
region 2
A
region 3
region 3
If you are located on the earth at ‘A’, the tangent lines correspond to your horizontal views.  The stars in 
region ‘1’ would contain the non-setting stars from your point of view.  Region ‘2’ would contain the stars 
that rise and set.  The stars in region ‘3’ would be unviewable to you.  The polestar is located along line of 
the axis of rotation, for example at ‘P’. 53
Equatoria remained forever fixed on the mount, began to ascend, while the southern pole 
sank.  As the southern pole sank, the heavens or constellation configured with it
disappeared.  This was mythologized as a great flood, a deluge, a drowning of a paradise 
lost.
In other words, Set falls from heaven as Horus rises.  The primacy of the god Set 
suggests that mankind had its beginning slightly below the equator, where there would be 
but a single pole star.  As mankind traveled to the equator, two pole stars would be 
apparent.  Which they would mythologize as twins, with Set being the first born.  At this 
stage the twins would symbolize balance and complementarity, i.e. Horus and Set got 
along in harmony.  As the trek proceeded northward, the second son, Horus, would be 
seen as triumphing over, or conquering, the first son, Set. 
Set was identified with the night, darkness, drought, and dryness. Horus was identified 
with the day, light, moisture, and rain.  “In Central Africa the year is divided into two 
seasons of rain and drought.  The winds of the north and south follow suit.  The wind 
from the north in the rainy season is warm and wet and beneficent; on the other hand, the 
wind that comes up from the South Pole is witherly dry, the wind therefore of Sut [Set], 
the power inimical to man and animal in physical nature. ... Thus Sut versus Horus 
imaged the south versus north.  Sut was deadly as the drought; Horus was right as 
‘rain’.”
138
   Over time this would be characterized as a struggle between the forces of  
good and evil.  
An aspect of the struggle is mythologized in the death of Osiris, by Set being helped by 
an Ethiopian queen in his murder.  Harold P. Cooke in his book Osiris: A Study in Myths, 
Mysteries and Religion shares the following:
139
The conspiracy and tyranny of Typhon [Set] means the power of drought getting 
the better of and destroying the moisture that both generates and augments the 
Nile:  and his helper, the Queen of the Ethiopians, signifies the south winds from 
Ethiopia; for when these prevail over the Etesian winds (which drive the clouds 
towards Ethiopia), and hinder them from dissolving into rains and swelling the 
Nile, then does Typhon take possession and burn; and at that time he has
completely mastered the Nile, which through weakness is contracted and shrunk 
up within itself; and drives it out, hollow and humble, into the sea; for the shutting 
up of Osiris in the coffer probably means nothing else than the concealment and 
disappearance of the water; for which reason they say that Osiris vanished in the 
month of Athyr [“when the sun is passing through the scorpion”
140
], at which
time, the winds having entirely ceased, the Nile recedes, the country is laid bare, 
and night lengthening, darkness is increased, and the power of light wastes away 
and is subdued, ...
The aspect of Set as the power of drought and dryness also assigns to him the dessert as 
his domain.  And the redness of the dessert caused Set to be depicted as red in
complexion.  Set comes to be cast as the “treacherous opponent of Horus,” the betrayer of 54
his brother, Osiris.  And as he was also the deity over the least liked and harmful forces 
of nature he became the personification of evil.   
On Time Reckoning
Among the first periods of time that early man recognized was the menses of women and 
the inundation of the Nile.  In time the menses would be associated with the moon cycles.  
But the inundation’s of the Nile was noticed early on to occur following the helical rising 
(i.e. just before sunrise) of the star Phact in the southern heavens.  This was before the 
northward trek, after which the inundation’s was observed to be announced by the star 
Sirius, also of the southern constellation.  
Early man was an avid stargazer.  “In these early times,” writes astronomer J. Norman 
Lockyer in his book  The Dawn of Astronomy, “the stars would be the objects which 
would first commend themselves to the attention of temple builders, for the reason that 
the movements and rising- and setting-places of the various planets by night, and of the 
sun by day, would appear to be so erratic, so long as the order of their movements was 
not known.”  He adds further, “It is clear in the first place that no one would think of 
orientating a temple to the moon, as there is so little constancy about its path in the sky, 
and, therefore, in its place of rising and setting.”
141
  
And so it was by the stars that man developed some of the early methods of reckoning 
time, erecting temples, and fostering myths.  This stellar orientation would be followed in 
turn by the lunar and the solar.
As the Equatorians migrated northward toward the Nile Valley, there appeared in the 
northern skies seven non-setting stars, with one of them serving as the pole star.   The  
old pole star would give way to a new one as the Great Year proceeded through the 
precession of the equinoxes.  And when a change would occur, it too would be
mythologized as a great flood, as was the case of the disappearance of the southern pole 
star.  Also, as Set had been the god of darkness, he was assigned the northern  night-time
constellation as his domain.
This precession of the equinoxes has another effect on the stars.  It causes their  apparent 
stability to only last about two to three hundred years.  In myth the ancient Egyptians 
would declare in one of their legends that:  “... the children of Nut, that is the stars, have 
failed in keeping proper time, and been the cause of confusion and strife.”
142
  And Thoth, 
the moon god, superseded Sut, the star god.
The moon has a cycle of 29 &1/2 days. Supposedly the month had been assigned 28 days 
because of its divisibility.  From which we get a 7-day week.  In the mythology it is said 
that Horus and/or Osiris rises for fourteen days and then decays for fourteen days, and 
Osiris’ body is cut up into fourteen pieces.  There are thirteen, twenty-eight day months 
in a year.  As 13 was the number of Set, when the 28 day month was replaced by the 30 55
day month, Set’s prominence was overthrown along with it, and 13 was viewed as an 
unlucky number.
There is a question as to what kind of year the Equatorians brought into the Nile Valley.  
The belief among some scholars is that it originally consisted of 360 days composed of 
twelve 30 day months.  Perhaps the divisibility of 360 played an important role in the 
decision also.  Which is 5 & 1/4th days too short.  The inundation of the Nile was of 
crucial importance to the ancient Egyptians for the obvious agricultural reasons.  But its 
regularity was not absolutely certain.  And besides it occurred earlier in the northern 
regions than it did in the southern.  These inundations were determined early on by the 
helical rising of the star Sirius.  But due to the precessions of the equinoxes, the time of 
its occurrence would shift.  And here too, the difference in latitude of various locations 
would matter.
When the ancients discovered the solstices and the equinoxes, they we able to devise a 
calendar that is, with the exceptions of a few alterations, still with us to this day. (Julius 
Caesar named the month of July after himself.  And being the important person that he 
was, it naturally had to have 31 days.  Augustus Caesar, not to be outdone, also
designated a 31 day month to bare his name – August.)  As we have seen in the 
mythology, it was Thoth who was responsible for having the five extra days added on to 
the 360 day year.  
The Temple Builders
Stellar Temples
When the French astronomer, Jules Janssen observed a total solar eclipse in 1868, he 
noticed a yellow line in the spectrum of light from the sun which he attributed to a 
heretofore unknown chemical element.  Janssen’s discovery was later confirmed by
Joseph Norman Lockyer, who suggested the name of “helium,” from the Greek  helios –
the sun.
143
  Lockyer became interested in the astronomical influence on the orientation of 
temples and has written the book mentioned earlier addressing that effect on the design 
and layout of ancient Egyptian temples.  This section draws mainly from his work.
Among the temples Lockyer discusses are those of Thebes, Karnak, and Denderah in 
Upper Egypt.  Of these, the southern most temple was the one at Thebes.  It was 
dedicated to the goddess Amen-t, the wife of Amen.  Recall that Amen means “hidden,” 
and we also note that the underworld of the ancient Egyptians, through which the sun and 
deceased souls must pass, was called Amenta.  This points to the significance of the 
night-time, and hence, to that of the stars.  The star to which “The Temple of Amen-t” 
was dedicated was Phact.  Lockyer writes the following with regards to this star:
144
This star, although so little familiar to us northerners, is one off the most
conspicuous of the stars in the southern portion of the heavens, and its heliacal 56
rising heralded the solstice and the rise of the Nile before the heliacal rising of 
Sirius was useful for that purpose!  (emphasis his)
Lockyer offers probable dates for observations of this and other stars:
145
As a matter of fact, there is distinct evidence of the cult of the southern stars 
coming down the [Nile] river in the region we can get at; a Centauri, e.g., seems 
to have been observed at Gebel Barkal before [i.e. south of] Thebes – Sirius is too 
modern to be considered – and above all there is the remarkable series of temples, 
apparently oriented to Canopus before 6000 B.C., which came down no lower 
than Edfu. (emphasis mine).
... The south-star temples to Phact at the summer solstice, and a Centauri at the 
autumnal equinox, begin about 3799 B.C.
The temple at Karnak was dedicated to the god Khons and the star Canopus.  Lockyer:
146
The setting of Canopus marked the autumnal equinox about 5000 B.C.  We have 
found the first temple at Karnak was possibly built as late as 2000 B.C., when the 
utility of observations of Canopus from this point of view had heretofore ceased; 
but [he argues that there is] ... evidence that the worship was introduced from the 
south, where it had been conducted when the condition of utility held.
At Denderah there were two temples of interest.  The larger one dedicated to the goddess 
Hathor and to the star a Ursae Majoris, which the Arabians called Dubhe.  And the lesser 
one dedicated to Isis and to the star Sirius.  These two temples are at right angles to each 
other with the larger one oriented 71° 30´ North of East and the smaller one 18° 30´ 
South of East.
Lockyer analyzed the orientation of these temples, inscriptions, and calculations and 
tables of the star positions to arrive at projected dates for their erections.  Reasoning that 
the temples were oriented to observe risings of stars, he discounted the candidacy of 
circumpolar ones.  From astronomy it was determined that  a Ursae Majoris had the 
proper declination to be observed by the temple of Hathor in 5000 B.C.  But it became 
circumpolar at Denderah in 4000 B.C.  And this would render this temple useless for any 
further observation of this particular star’s  rising.  However, there was another star,  g
Draconis, which Lockyer offers as being the  non-circumpolar star that was chosen to 
replace the role of a Ursae Majoris at the temple of Hathor.
Lockyer notes that this was near the reign of Pepi I who was found to be discussed in the 
crypts as probably the one who restored the temple to observe g Draconis, the
replacement star.  The dates offered for this period is around 3300 to 3200 B.C.  This 
would be around the times of “the Hor-Shesu, the dimly-seen followers of Horus or sun-57
worshippers, before the dawn of the historic period.”  Thus Hathor,  who was
“personified” as  a Ursae Majoris, was rehabilitated.
147
The importance of the star Sirius to the ancient Egyptians has been discussed previously.  
Its facility in heralding the inundation of the Nile near the summer solstice, which
marked their new  year’s beginning was an important function for the priests, astronomers 
and agriculturists and others.  And just how long their ceremonial observances of this 
phenomenon “went on before the dawn of history we, of course, have no knowledge.”
148
  
Using methods similar to the ones he used for determining the dates when the temple of 
Hathor was built, and drawing also from the works of other scholars, Lockyer says, “... it 
seems abundantly clear that the rising of Sirius at the solstice was carefully watched 
certainly as early as 3285 B.C.”
149
  He also arrives at 700 B.C. as a date that Sirius could 
be observed at the temple of Isis rising at the same time as the sun rose.  This type of star 
rising is referred as a cosmical rising.  At the earlier date Sirius rose heliacally.  He cites 
an inscription found in the temple that translates: “She [i.e. her Majesty Isis] shines into 
her temple on New Year’s Day, and she mingles her light with that of her father Ra on 
the horizon.”
150
  The mingling refers to the fact that the star Sirius and the sun, i.e. Ra, 
were rising at the same instant of time.  The temples were so constructed to allow the 
light of the star to shine into the sanctuary in such a way as to illuminate an object placed 
there.  It is also noticed that sometimes both Hathor and Isis are “referred” to as Sirius.
Lockyer:
151
We are, then,  astronomically on very firm ground indeed.  We have got one step 
into the domain of mythology.  I assume it is agreed that we have arrived at the 
certain conclusion that the goddess Hathor or Isis personified a star, Sirius, rising 
at the dawn; and that the temple of Isis at Denderah was built to watch it.
The  dates in the above discussion recall the questions concerning the antiquity of the 
ancient Egyptian civilization.  I would only reiterate that it is one thing to infer the time 
when Menes united the Two Lands establishing the First Dynasty, and quite another to 
infer the antiquity of the ancient Egyptian civilization.  It has been noted that the ancient 
Egyptian civilization is much older than the uniting of the Two Lands by Menes,
establishing the First Dynasty.
In a television series entitled “History’s Mysteries,”  broadcasted on The Learning
Channel, a program was aired called “Secrets of the Pyramids.”  In it they discussed how 
the three pyramids were laid out in correspondence with certain stars. 
According to Egyptologists, the pyramids were built during Egypt’s IVth Dynasty, which 
they put about 2500 B.C.  The two largest were aligned with each other, whereas the 
smaller one was slightly offset.  By analyzing astronomical data and using computer 
simulation of the constellation Orion as it appeared in 2500 B.C., they were able to show 
that the shaft of the king’s chambers pointed to the star Orion, the star of Osiris known as 
the Deliverer who came with wine because it rose when the grapes were ripe.  And they 
showed that the shaft from the queen’s chamber pointed to Sirius, the star of Isis.  58
In the astro-mythology of ancient Egypt the Nile corresponded to the Milky Way.  They 
reasoned that the three pyramids corresponded to the three stars in Orion’s belt.  By using 
computer simulation, again, and the knowledge of the precession, they were able to show 
that the pyramids were in perfect alignment to match the arrangement of the constellation 
Orion as it was oriented around 10,500 B.C.
They suggest that the pyramids were built by relying on knowledge and information 
inherited from an earlier, perhaps lost, civilization; and in particular for the precision, 
scientific knowledge, and mathematics embedded in the construction of the Great
Pyramid.  If this seems far fetched, consider the following quote of Charles S.  Finch, 
taken from his introduction of Gerald Massey’s Ancient Egypt Light of the World:  
“Recent work with the patterns of water damage affecting the Great Sphinx of Giza, for 
example, suggests that it may be as old as 9,000 years instead of the 4,500 years  
customarily given.”
152
  There are estimates by some investigators that place that illusive 
date more anterior than that.  It has been suggested that what happened 4,500 years ago 
was a restoration of the Great Sphinx.  It is well known that this was done with some of 
the temples.
The above discussions shows the stellar relationship of Osiris with the star Orion.  It is 
well known that in the early times he was a moon god.  Perhaps it was when the southern 
pole star disappeared from view as the Equatorians migrated north, and Set, a preeminent star god, was superseded by Osiris that stellar worship was surplanted by lunar 
worship.
As the ancient Egyptians became more knowledgeable of the sun’s movements, they also 
became aware of its regularity in determining the summer solstice.  Because of the 
precession, the positions of the stars were always changing.  But the sun was consistently 
much more precise in its ability to predict when the Egyptian new year was to begin.  
This rising significance of the sun was expressed in the mythology by solar worship 
becoming dominant.
Solar Temples
There is little doubt that the stars were the first observed heavenly bodies.  This speaks to 
the primacy of stellar worship.  However it would make no sense to orient a temple to the 
moon.  Its path was just too “irregular.”  The same thing would be true with the planets.  
But the years of observing ecliptical stars would cause the secrets of the sun’s annual 
journey to gradually reveal themselves.  The value of a star for predicting the beginning 
of the Egyptian year would last for only a few centuries.  But once the sun’s behavior was 
figured out, its value for determining the solstices and equinoxes was virtually
everlasting.  (It is not entirely permanent because there is a  gradual change between the 
angle of the ecliptic and the equatorial plane of the earth, called the obliquity, caused by 
the gravitational attraction of the planets.  Since 5000 B.C. it has decreased about 1°3´).   
And with this, the shift to the sun’s reverence was as inevitable as it was eminent.59
The solar temples were oriented to either a solstice or an equinox.  Among the temples 
oriented toward a solstice are the ones at Thebes, Karnak and Abydos, in Upper Egypt, 
and one in Annu or Heliopolis (City of the Sun), in Lower Egypt.  Of those three 
neighboring cities in Upper Egypt, Diop writes:  “ ... for all Egyptians without exception, 
the sacred region par excellence was the Thebiad in Upper Egypt.”
153
  There are
pyramids oriented toward equinoxes in Bubastis, Sais and Tanis, in the Pyramid Plains of 
The Delta, and one in Memphis, in Lower Egypt.  The Sphinx of Gizeh, in Lower Egypt, 
watches for the rising sun at an equinox.  And the temples there are similarly oriented.  
Lockyer writes:
154
  
We have either  Temples of Osiris pointing to the sunset at the equinox, or 
Temples of Isis pointing to the sunrise at the equinox, but in either case built in 
relation to the Pyramids.  As an indication of the importance of the considerations 
with which we are now dealing, I may mention that it is suggested by them that 
the building near the Sphinx is really a crypt of a temple of Isis or Osiris.  This is 
a view which may change the ideas generally held with regard to its age to the 
extent of something like a thousand years. ...  However this may be, the important 
thing is that when we pass from Thebes, and possibly Abydos, to the Pyramids at 
Memphis, to Sais and Tanis, we find a solstitial orientation changed to an
equinoctial one.   There is a fundamental change of astronomical thought.  
(emphasis his)  
What was the reason for the shift in astronomical thought?  We know that the inundation 
of the Nile began at or near the summer solstice in Upper Egypt.  And this caused for 
both celebrational ceremonies and the agricultural preparation.  It is also known that the 
rise of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers took place at or near the spring equinox.  
Consequently, this may very well have dominated the thought that went into the making 
of the Babylonian calendar.  Among the immigrants into Lower Egypt were the peoples 
from this area.  It is also well documented that the Egyptians had colonies throughout this 
region as well as the Mediterranean.  And as cultural influence and sharing always takes 
place when peoples encounter, trade, and interact with each other, this may be, as 
Lockyer states, “a valuable hint as to the origin of the equinoctial cult at Gizah and 
elsewhere, which in all probability was interpolated after the non-equinoctial worship had 
been founded at Annu, Abydos, and possibly Thebes.”
155
Inside the Temples
Great care went into the construction of the Egyptian temples, which sometimes took 
decades to build.  Their uses were ceremonial, worship, academic, and for the initiation 
into their “mysteries.”  Within their walls were the priests, the master craftsmen, sages, 
astronomers, scholars, scientist, mathematicians, scribes, disciples, and initiates.  They 
were depositories of the knowledge of the Egyptians, their learning, and their wisdom.  
They housed their tremendous libraries that were later destroyed by unenlightened
invaders. 60
The Thebiad contains what has been described as “the most extraordinary group of
architectural ruins anywhere in the world.”
156
  In particular, there were two related
temples of Amen-Ra, one at Thebes and the other at Karnak.  Lockyer describes the 
temple at Thebes as “beyond question the most majestic ruin in the world” and the  great
temple at Karnak as “one of the most soul-stirring temples which has ever been
conceived or built by man.”
157
The temple at Thebes has a sort of stone avenue in the center that opens towards the 
north-west, and is about five hundred yards long.  With regards to this axis, Lockyer 
writes:
158
The whole object of the builder of the great temple at Karnak ... was to preserve 
that axis, ... absolutely, straight, and true. The axis was directed towards the hills 
on the west side of the Nile, in which are the tombs of the kings.  From the southeastern outlook through the whole of the temple, and we see at the very extremity 
of the central line a gateway nearly six hundred yards away.  This belonged to a 
temple pointing towards the south-east. ...  [These two] temples [are] in the same 
line back to back, the chief one facing the sunset at the summer solstice, the other 
probably the sunrise at the winter solstice.
... It seems to be a general rule that from the entrance-pylon the temple stretches 
through various halls of different sizes and details, until at last, at the extreme end 
what is called the sanctuary, ... the Holy of Holies, is reached.  The end of the 
temple at which the pylons are situated is opened, the other end is closed. ...
From one end of the temple to the other we find the axis marked out by narrow 
apertures in the various pylons, and many walls with doors crossing the axis.
In the temple of Amen-Ra there are 17 or 18 of these apertures, limiting the light 
which falls into the Holy of Holies or the Sanctuary.  This construction ... limits 
the light which fell on its front into a narrow beam, and ... carries it to the other 
extremity of the temple—into the sanctuary, so that once a year when the sun set 
at the solstice the light passed without interruption along the whole length of the 
temple, finally illuminating the sanctuary in most resplendent fashion and striking 
the sanctuary wall. ...
...We find that a narrow beam of sunlight coming through a narrow entrance some 
500 yards away from the door of the Holy of Holies would, provided the solstice 
occurred at the absolute moment of sunrise or sunset according to which the 
temple was being utilised, practically flash into the sanctuary and remain there for 
about a couple of minutes, and then pass away.  The flash would be a crescendo 
and diminuendo, but the whole thing would not last above two minutes or
thereabouts, ...
In order to evaluate the age of the great Temple of Karnak, Lockyer took under
consideration many key factors, including; the latitude of Karnak, the temple’s61
orientation, the height of the hills, the path the sun would have to travel,  refraction, and 
the obliquity of the ecliptic.  He determined that the year when these considerations could 
be met was 3700 B.C.  And he declared, “this is therefore the date of the foundation of 
the shrine of Amen-Ra at Karnak, so far as we can determine it  astronomically with 
available data; but,” he adds, “about these there is still an element of doubt, for, as far as I 
learn, the recent magnetic readings have not been checked by astronomical
observations.”
159
It should be noted that similar type observations were made with stellar temples with 
regard to rising and setting stars, in particular the one dedicated to Hathor in Denderah.
The various temples and cities emphasized different sets of gods.  This evolved over the 
years as the form of worship evolved from stellar, to lunar, and to solar.  But the term 
“god” does not really capture what is truly meant in the ancient Egyptians cosmology.  
They used the term “Neter,” often translated as “god,” which actually refers to something 
more like a fundamental  principle of nature, or a sort of causal agent.  An analysis of the 
“apparent” differences of the use of Egyptian gods is offered by Isha Schwaller de Lubicz 
who, under the direction of her husband and teacher, R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz, lived for 
fifteen  years among the temples and tombs of Luxor and Karnak, in order to try and  
“penetrate the secret symbolism of the hieroglyphs.” Isha has written a two volume work 
of a fictionalized account, based on her research, of an Egyptian initiate progressing 
through the stages of initiation to attain “self knowledge and cosmic wisdom.”
160
  She 
explains in her works that if one were to focus on the principles underlying the concepts 
of the gods, i.e. the Neters, of ancient Egypt, then one would readily see the commona lity 
of the concepts running throughout the differing expressions of their cosmology. 
Isha explains that there are two parts of the temple; the outer temple where the beginning 
initiates are allowed to come, and the inner temple where one can enter only after proven 
worthy and ready to acquire the higher knowledge and insights.  Her saga of Her-Bak 
takes place between the Twentieth and Twenty-First Dynasties in the Thebiad in the 
Temple of Mut in Thebes, and the Great Temple of Amen-Ra in Karnak.  Isha reveals her 
discovery of the wisdom acquired by the Egyptians over the millennia through the 
instructions that Her-Bak undergoes and the conversations he has with the sages and 
masters of the temple.  One of the concepts that the Egyptians held was that man  was the 
microcosm of the universe  – the macrocosm.  This is the reason for the saying: “know 
thyself.”  Their spiritual aspect of this concept held that within man (which they
symbolized as a five-pointed star) is the divine essence of the Creator and the  Heavens.  
And this finds expression in their teaching:  “The kingdom of heaven is within you; and 
whosoever shall know himself shall find it.”
161
Below are some of the teachings, proverbs, and maxims gleaned from her works, many of 
which relate directly to these concepts, and are reflections others:
From the Outer Temple
162
· The best and shortest road towards knowledge of truth [is] Nature.62
· For every joy there is a price to be paid.
· If his heart rules him, his conscience will soon take the place of the rod.
· What you are doing does not matter so much as what you are learning from doing it.
· It is better not to know and to know that one does not know, than presumptuously to 
attribute some random meaning to symbols.
· If you search for the laws of harmony, you will find knowledge.
· If you are searching for a Neter, observe Nature!
· Exuberance is a good stimulus towards action, but the inner light grows in silence and 
concentration.
· Not the greatest Master can go even one step for his disciple; in himself he must 
experience each stage of developing consciousness.  Therefore he will  know nothing 
for which he is not ripe.
· The body is the house of God.  That is why it is said, “Man know thyself.”
· True teaching is not an accumulation of knowledge; it is an awaking of consciousness 
which goes through successive stages.
· The man who knows how to lead one of his brothers towards what he has known may 
one day be saved by that very brother.
· People bring about their own undoing through their tongues.
· If one tries to navigate unknown waters one runs the risk of shipwreck.
· Leave him in error who loves his error.
· Every man is rich in excuses to safeguard  his prejudices,  his instincts, and  his 
opinions.
· To know means to record in one’s memory; but to understand means to blend with 
the thing and to assimilate it oneself.
· There are two kinds of error: blind credulity and piecemeal criticism.  Never believe a 
word without putting its truth to the test; discernment does not grow in laziness; and 
this faculty of discernment is indispensable to the Seeker.  Sound skepticism is the 
necessary condition for good discernment; but piecemeal criticism is an error.
· Love is one thing, knowledge is another.
· True sages are those who give what they have, without meanness and without secret!
· An answer brings no illumination unless the question has matured to a point where it 
gives rise to this answer which thus becomes its fruit.  Therefore learn how to put a 
question.
· What reveals itself to me ceases to be mysterious—for me alone:  if I unveil it to 
anyone  else, he hears mere words which betray the living sense: Profanation, but 
never revelation.
· The first concerning the ‘secrets’:  all cognition comes from inside; we are therefore 
initiated only by ourselves, but the Master gives the keys.
· The second concerning the ‘way’:  the seeker has need of a Master to guide him and                  
lift him up when he falls, to lead him back to the right way when he strays.
· Understanding develops by degrees.
· As to deserving, know that the gift of Heaven is free; this gift of Knowledge is so 
great that no effort whatever could hope to ‘deserve’ it.
· If the Master teaches what is error, the disciple’s submission is slavery; if he teaches 
truth, this submission is ennoblement.
· There grows no wheat where there is no grain.63
· The only thing that is humiliating is helplessness.
From the Inner Temple
163
· An answer if profitable in proportion to the intensity of the quest.
· Listen to your conviction, even if they seem absurd to your reason.
· Know the world in yourself.  Never look for yourself in the world, for this would be 
to project your illusion.
· To teach one must know the nature of those whom one is teaching.
· In every vital activity it is the path that matters.
· The way of knowledge is narrow.
· Each truth you learn will be, for you, as new as if it had never been written.
· The only active force that arises out of possession is fear of losing the object of 
possession.
· If you defy an enemy by doubting his courage you double it.
· The nut doesn’t reveal the tree it contains.
· For knowledge ... you should know that peace is an indispensable condition of getting 
it.
· The first thing necessary in teaching is a master; the second is a pupil capable of 
carrying on the tradition.
· Peace is the fruit of activity, not of sleep.
· Envious greed must govern to possess and ambition must possess to govern.
· When the governing class isn’t chosen for quality it is chosen for material wealth: this 
always means decadence, the lowest stage a society can reach.
· Two tendencies govern human choice and effort, the search after quantity and the 
search after quality.  They classify mankind.  Some follow Maat, others seek the way 
of animal instinct.
· Qualities of a moral order are measured by deeds.
· One foot isn’t enough to walk with.
· Our senses serve to affirm, not to know.
· We mustn’t confuse mastery with mimicry, knowledge with superstitious ignorance.
· Physical consciousness is indispensable for the achievement of knowledge.
· A man can’t be judge of his neighbor’ intelligence.  His own vital experience is never 
his neighbor’s.
· No discussion can throw light if it wanders from the real point.
· Your body is the temple of knowledge.
· Experience will show you, a Master can only point the way.
· A house has the character of the man who lives in it.
· All organs work together in the functioning of the whole.
· A man’s heart is his own Neter.
· A pupil may show you by his own efforts how much he deserves to learn from you.
· Routine and prejudice distort vision.  Each man thinks his own horizon is the limit of 
the world.64
· You will free yourself when you learn to be neutral and follow the instructions of 
your heart without letting things perturb you.  This is the way of Maat.
· Judge by cause, not by effect.
· Growth in consciousness doesn’t depend on the will of the intellect or its possibilities 
but on the intensity of the inner urge.
· Every man must act in the rhythm of his time ... such is wisdom.
· Men need images.  Lacking them they invent idols.  Better then to found the images 
on realities that lead the true seeker to the source.
· Maat, who links universal to terrestrial, the divine with the human is
incomprehensible to the cerebral intelligence.
· Have the wisdom to abandon the values of a time that has passed and pick out the 
constituents of the future.  An environment must be suited to the age and men to their 
environment.
· Everyone finds himself in the world where he belongs.  The essential thing is to have 
a fixed point from which to check its reality now and then.
· Always watch and follow nature.
· A phenomenon always arises from the interaction of  complementaries.  If you want 
something look for the complement that will elicit it. Set causes Horus.  Horus 
redeems Set.
· All seed answer light, but the color is different.
· The plant reveals what is in the seed.
· Popular beliefs on essential matters must  be examined in order to discover the 
original thought.
· It is the passive resistance from the helm that steers the boat.
· The key to all problems is the problem of consciousness.
· Man must learn to increase his sense of responsibility and of the fact that everything 
he does will have its consequences.
· If you would build something solid, don’t work with wind: always look for a fixed 
point, something you know that is stable ... yourself.
· If you would know yourself, take yourself as starting point and go back to its source; 
your beginning will disclose your end.
· Images are nearer reality than cold definitions.
· Seek peacefully, you will find.
· Organization is impossible unless those who know the laws of harmony lay the 
foundation.
· It is no use whatever preaching Wisdom to men: you must inject it into their blood.
· Knowledge is consciousness of reality.  Reality is the sum of the laws that govern 
nature and of the causes from which they flow.
· Social good is what brings peace to family and society.
· Knowledge is not necessarily wisdom.
· By knowing one reaches belief.  By doing one gains conviction.  When you know, 
dare.
· Altruism is the mark of a superior being.
· All is within yourself.  Know your most inward self and look for what corresponds 
with it in nature.65
· The seed cannot sprout upwards without simultaneously sending roots into the
ground.
· The seed includes all the  possibilities of the tree. ... The seed will develop these 
possibilities, however, only if it receives corresponding energies from the sky.
· Grain must return to the earth, die, and decompose for new growth to begin.
· Man, know thyself ... and thou shalt know the gods.
The initiates spent years in the temples, decades even and sometimes lifetimes.  The 
Egyptians priests took great care in the selecting and accepting candidates into their 
temples.  George G. M. James has listed the attributes that the Neophyte was required to 
manifest:
164
1? Control of thought, and
2? Control of action, or Justice (the unswerving righteousness of thought and action).
3? Steadfastness of purpose, which was equivalent to Fortitude.
4? Identity with a spiritual life or the higher ideals, or  Temperance an attitude attained 
when the individual had gained conquest over the passional nature.
5? Evidence of having a mission in life, and
6? Evidence of a call to spiritual Orders of the Priesthood in the Mysteries:  the
combination of which was equivalent to  Prudence of a deep insight and graveness 
that befitted the faculty of Seership.
7? Freedom from resentment, when under the experience of persecution and wrong, i.e. 
courage.
8? Confidence in the power of the master (as Teacher), and
9? Confidence in one’s own ability to learn; both attributes [i.e. 7 & 8] being known as 
Fidelity.
10?Readiness or preparedness for initiation.
(Emphasis James’, who asserts that the italacized words are the four virtures of Plato.)
There has always been this principle of the Ancient mysteries of Egypt, James points out:
“When the pupil is ready, then the master will appear.”
The Underworld
The phase of the Egyptian mythology that give s rise to their eschatology is the advent of 
their Underworld.  The ancient Egyptians refer to this place as Amenta, from “Amen” 
which means ‘hidden’ and “Ta” which means ‘earth’.  Amenta is the nether world where 
the sun makes its nightly journey through  a path that Ptah, the pygmy, and his seven 
helpers opened up.  It is through here where the spirits of the deceased must also pass.  
And it is also here where the stellar and solar myths merge.66
In the stellar mythos heaven or paradise is located at the northern pole-star, “the top of 
the mount.”  In the solar mythos, “the top of the mount” was situated at the point where 
the sun rose at the vernal equinox.  When Ptah created a pathway for the sun, or Ra, 
through the earth, where the sun set was considered “the gateway of the west,” and where 
the sun rose was likewise considered “the gateway to the east,” also looked upon as the 
mount where Ra’s daily path was launched.  For in the stellar myth, the sun passed 
around the earth.  Whereas in the solar, it passed through the earth.  “In the  mythology, 
Amenta is the subterranean country of the sun by night.  The dawn and sunset were its 
gates of glory.”
165
When someone died, that person’s soul entered Amenta through the gateway of the west.  
“The chief object of the deceased on entering Amenta is the mode and means of getting 
out as soon as possible. ...  Before the mortal Manes [body of the deceased] could contain 
the ultimate state of spirit in the image of Horus the immortal, he must be put together 
part by part as was Osiris, the dismembered god. ... Every member and part of the Manes 
in Amenta has to be fashioned afresh in a new creation.  The new heart is said to be 
fashioned by certain gods in the nether world, according to the deeds done in the body 
whilst the person was living on the earth.”
166
  There was a double judgment.  One in Maat 
of Amenta, and the other in the Great Celestial Hall of Maat above. For Amenta was a 
place where the Manes had a last chance to make restitutions and try and get things right.  
If found guilty there, the deceased suffered a second death.  “They went no further, but 
were extinguished in the tank of flame or annihilated on the highways of the damned.”
167
  
For the Egyptians, salvation was for the  soul to not suffer a second death.  There were 
three worlds in which life was to be lived; on earth, in  Amenta, and in heaven.  The 
books of the divine words of Thoth contained the knowledge of how things were to be 
done, and life was to be lived, on earth and in Amenta.  This “truth” was made known by 
Horus.  The knowledge of this was all-important.  “There was no life for the soul except 
in knowing, and no salvation but in doing, the truth.”  As Thoth says:  “The wickedness 
of the soul is ignorance.  The virtue of a soul is knowledge.”   It is knowledge that 
provides the light that enables one to find his way in the dark.
168
The concept of Amenta is much too complicated to cover here, if anywhere.  But it is 
here where it is judged whether one’s life on earth followed “the way” enough to be
permitted to continue the journey to the next phase.  The successful ones were allowed to 
pass through the gateway of the east, where they proceeded to the Great Celestial Hall of 
Maat to face the judgment with Osiris.  After the success of which, the Manes ascended 
to the very “summit of the mount, up which the spirits climbed to reach the region of 
eternal rest among the stars that never set.”
169
This is an account of a set of challenges, tasks, and trials that the Manes or Spirits must 
undergo after they have entered ‘the gateway of the west’; and proceeded through
Amenta; and to emerge from the night of the nether world into the light of day at ‘the 
gateway of the east’.  For the righteous souls, Amenta was a lower paradise, imaged as a 
land of gold due to the night sun.  However, the difficulties of successfully making it to 
the gateway of the east was insurmountable for mere mortals.  The help of a higher 67
power, or Neter, was needed.  And it was Horus who provided The Way, just as he had 
done for his father Osiris.  The Book of the Dead,  which gives an account of this sojourn 
is a misnomer.  It is readily seen from the fact that it is an account of such a journey of a 
deceased soul to “emerge with the sun at dawn.”  The proper name of the account is, in
actuality, The Coming Forth By Day.68
Chapter Five
Some Discussion of Parables For the Present From the Osirian Legend
In the preceding discussion we covered how humankind had begun in the Equatorial 
region around the Great Lakes of Central Africa.  We pointed out how civilization began 
there as well and its evolution paralleled the human evolution.  As humans acquired 
language, and with it, the ability to remember and recall much better.  The first teachings 
were, of course, oral.  Oral culture began to grow and flourish.  It was also discussed how 
the early Equatorians followed the flow of the Nile northward, eventually populating the 
entire Great Nile Valley.  In the first phase of culture, they learned from the practical, 
from their natural surroundings.  They emphasized it, developed ritual around it, that 
gradually evolved into a primitive symbology.
The second phase the ritual and symbology passed into mythology.  It evolved from the 
observation of terrestrial to noticing periodicity in the heavens.  In the first form of the 
mythological phase was stellar, as the regularity of the stars was the easiest to determine.  
The stellar mythos passed into the lunar, then the solar.  Temples were erected to observe 
the rising and setting of the stars to forecast the inundation of the Nile, which was so 
important for agriculture, among other things.  In time, the secrets of the behavior of the 
moon and sun were revealed.  And with it a better method of predicting the
commencement of the new year, which for the Egyptians began at the summer solstice 
when the mighty Nile began to overflow.
The final phase of the evolution of Egyptian culture was the establishment of their 
eschatology.  Throughout it all were the lessons drawn from the principles of nature, i.e.
the Neters, of the phenomena of both the terrestrial and the astronomical.  Included in the 
discussion were some proverbs of the Egyptian’s teachings and some of the
characteristics the priests looked for in potential candidates for initiation.  
It is well known that the mythologies the world over, since time immemorial, have played 
a vital role in mankind’s quest to understand reality and his own essence.  They evolve 
over the years, centuries, and millennia, in an ever changing and expanding effort to 
address current needs.  We have seen this with the Osirian Legend as discussed in the 
prior sections of this work.  But  that was for then, and this is now.  How does the Osirian 
Legend speak to us in our times?  And what are its parables for the present?  Some of 
these concepts will be explored presently.
Charity Begins at Home and Spreads Abroad
We recall that the father of Osiris was Seb, the earth god.  Hence, Osiris had a natural 
affinity for conditions on earth.  After a while, Osiris decided to take his divine
knowledge and go there and bring civilization to mankind. Thus, the Kemites had Osiris 69
as their ancestor, master-teacher and sage.  Only after he had successfully accomplished 
his objectives in Kemit did he decide to try and spread civilization to the rest of the earth.
The lesson here is that one (or a people) should endeavor to secure his home base first.  
For only then will he be in a position to help anybody else.  Too often people try and help 
others without, doing this, only to ultimately lose out as a result.  One can easily get used 
up or be taken advantage of, and end up vulnerable by not heeding B. B. King’s warning:  
“Don’t make your move too soon.”
Pass the Torch to a Capable Successor
Before Osiris struck out to spread civilization to other lands, as he had done in Kemit, he 
turned over the reins of authority and power to his capable wife, Isis, who also had the 
counsel of Thoth to call on.  Thus, Osiris did not simply up and leave, figuring his work 
was done in Kemit.  He knew that in order to sustain and maintain what he had 
accomplished, the land must be left in the hands of a competent successor.  The legend 
plainly reveals that Isis was more than equal to the task.  Her wisdom was such that 
Kemit was able to withstand all of the schemes of would be usurpers, in particular Set.
In striving to build institutions, which for many may be a life’s work, one must be 
vigilant in the development of successors.  For there have been many worthwhile
programs that have gone awry or simply  faded into oblivion, all because the successors, 
or the next generation if you will, were not sufficiently prepared with enough knowledge 
and insight to carry on the desired objectives, let alone take things to another level, which 
is ideally what should happen.
Beware of Something-for-Nothing “gifts”
During Osiris’ absence, Set tried many schemes to take over the land.  And according to 
some of the texts, he also tried to win over Isis’ heart.  But try as he may, he failed on 
both accounts.  Isis was too wise and vigilant for him to take over the land, and her love 
for Osiris was too great for him to win over her heart.
Set realizing that his only recourse was to get rid of Osiris, devised an ingenious plan.  
Set resorted to a tactic that has been employed with more than a fair amount of success 
throughout the ages.  He set a trap for Osiris, and baited it with a ‘gift’, a ‘prize’, a 
‘reward’, which in effect was essentially ‘something-for-nothing’.  This stratagem was, 
and probably always will be, the type of plan that even a “god” will fall for.  And 
unsuspectingly, with his guard down, Osiris did just that.
Individuals, as well as groups or organizations, especially, those that are community 
based, often fall victim to these “gifts,” just as Osiris did.  In almost all cases these gifts 
will be offered by someone of organization feigning friendship (some of them may
actually mean well).  Only those who are close to you can get you to let your guard down.  70
Remember that Set was the twin brother of Osiris.  These enticements can come to 
organizations in the form of grants or services rendered.  When they come with certain 
strings attached, one should beware.  If they can lull the organization into a state of 
dependency or complacency, its people should beware.  For there are always those who 
could like to either usurp or sabotage what you have.
Let us assume, for the sake of argument, that Set had good intentions for Kemit.  (Recall 
that he was not always considered evil.)  It is also reasonable to assume that Set had a 
different direction and vision from that of Osiris and Isis.  This gives yet another reason 
why one should carefully groom one’s successor, lest such a result occur.  In addition to 
this, oftentimes people and other organizations actually mean well. but their lack of 
insight and understanding of certain realities involved in the situation, along with the 
arrogance and self-righteousness that they often possess, causes their well-meaning 
efforts to do more harm than good.  And unless one is very careful and vigilant, the 
program can suffer irreparable damage.  
Wisdom Combined With Knowledge  Can Yield Profound Results
The aspect of the legend that deals with the birth of Horus can convey a higher principle.  
We can view Isis as analogous to that state of wisdom attained as a result of knowledge 
acquired; and Osiris as being analogous to that state of wisdom that results when
knowledge and understanding has been internalized to the point where creativity can flow 
naturally from one’s own insight and inner vision. (Recall the Dogon distinction between 
‘common knowledge’ and ‘deep knowledge’.)  That later state is reached only after one 
has worked diligently at it for a while.  This is reminiscent of Isis’ tireless search for 
Osiris.  And again, only after she had not only found him, but had taken custody of his 
body could she unite with him and “draw from him his seed.”  One can accomplish many 
great things and perform many wondrous tasks by applying the knowledge one has 
acquired, as symbolized by the work Isis did before the time of Osiris’ death.  But in 
order to be creative, to produce paradigm shifting results, one needs to be able to draw 
from deep within one’s own self.  To do this one has to move beyond the level of merely 
acquired knowledge.  That knowledge and its uses must be virtually second nature to you 
for you to generate this kind of thought, but what is more important, to act upon it to the 
point of accomplishment.  Which the conception and  birth of Horus can be viewed as 
symbolizing.
Osiris is killed and sent away from Isis.  Symbolically, we have the situation where we 
have knowledge with out wisdom.  This happens when wisdom dies, is lost, lies dormant, 
or when one has had wisdom denied him.  But just as Isis loved Osiris profoundly enough 
to go to great pains to seek him out, true knowledge will do the same in order to quench 
its thirst for wisdom.  When Isis did find Osiris, she “drew from him his seed,” which 
enables it to become creative and produce profound results.  Here, Horus is symbolic of 
the “profound result” that is produced when knowledge is united with wisdom.71
This part of the legend is metaphoric of the condition Africa’s descendants, as a group, 
find themselves in today.  Many have aquired much knowledge.  But they have had the 
wisdom and understanding that they need in order to fulfill their potential, indeed their 
destiny, separated from them.  The sages and wise ones among them have diligently 
sought it out to “draw from it its seed.”  And like Isis, they too produce “Horuses” whose 
missions are to set things aright.  But it is a long and arduous process, for these Horuses 
must be patiently prepared and nurtured with care, just as Isis did for her charge.
Single Motherhood
After Isis conceived Horus, she birthed and raised him alone.  Thus, she became, 
mythologically speaking, “the first single head of household.”  And there is much in her 
character and experience that many of today’s single parents could learn from.
Parental Vision and the Accompanying Responsibility
Isis was well aware of just how special her child was; that he was a child of destiny, and 
had a mission in life to fulfill.  And she raised and nurtured him in such a manner as to 
instill in him a sense of purpose.  This means that Isis had a vision of what her child was 
to become, which guided her directions in his rearing.  Parents are apt to be the first to 
recognize their child’s attributes, and having done so, their mission is set.  Their
responsibility becomes to raise their child in such a way as to insure that it receives the 
best possible nurturing that they can provide for it, so that when the child’s time comes, it 
can rise to the occasion and fulfill its potential.
It Takes a Night of Nurturing to Prepare for the Day of Reckoning
Isis did not have it easy, just as no parent does.  Recall that Set had locked her up and she 
had to call upon Thoth for help.  Now Set was no ordinary person (god).  He was her 
brother and the uncle (double uncle at that) of Horus.  Which illustrates how sometimes 
one has to beware of even those who are closest to him; those whom one ought to be able 
to have confidence and trust in and to rely on.  That is, one (or a people) must be ever 
vigilant, especially with a clearly identified adversary, particular those who are close to 
him.
African Americans have a historical parallel to this.  For they have been “locked up and 
separated” (physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually) from their ancestral
culture.  And complicit in this are those whom they befriended and many who claim to be 
their friends, as well as some of their own kith and kin.
Thoth’s advice to Isis was to escape and hide the child, and he further reiterated the 
child’s destiny.  Why hide the child?  Clearly, if there is a known adversary (in this case, 
Set), one should not expose one’s child (i.e. budding plans or embryonic programs, 72
projects, and institutions) before he can fend for himself, that is, before he is ready.  
(Recall:  “Don’t make your move too soon.”)
For African Americans, they must escape from the “Locked Up” (mental, etc.) , and go in 
retreat and prepare themselves to fulfill their potential; much like an athletic team does 
when it holds a closed practice to prepare for a formidable adversary (task).  This is the 
night of nurturing referred to that must be made “in the still of the night” to ready oneself 
for the challenges of the dawning day.
The Role of the Extended Family
Even if one does everything right, there is no guarantee that everything will go right.  Set 
finds out where Horus is, after hearing of him from “loose lips.”  And in the form of a 
scorpion, Set stung him to death.  Similarly, many African-American Horuses have been 
ferreted out and anesthetized into a mental and spiritual death.  While Isis was out 
securing provisions for Horus and tending to the needs of other people as well, her son 
gets killed.  Mothers cannot always protect their children against the forces aligned 
against them.  They cannot be with them at all times.  Hence, there will be those times
when children are vulnerable to negative influences, especially when they are out from 
under the aegis of their parents.
Nothing is as painful to a parent, especially the mother, as the death of a child.  Here we 
find Isis, whose words and wisdom were able to help virtually everybody else, unable to 
use any of her abilities to help her own child.  Although many came to see what they 
could do, none could help her.  It was her sister Nephthys, loyal, faithful, reliable 
Nephthys, who flew to her assistance with the scorpion goddess, Serqet, with the insight, 
constructive advice, and words of words of wisdom that helped her in this darkest of 
hours.  Here Nephthys is symbolic of the extended family and her actions are
demonstrative of how it can be a vital supporting entity.  (It should also be remembered 
that it was Isis who searched for, found and raised Anubis, the son of Nephthys.)
Isis was told by Nephthys and Serqet in effect to lift her voice to the heavens so that Ra 
(and his entourage) would hear a mother’s cries.  When Isis heeded her sister’s advice, 
the sun stood still at the place where Horus was.  And then came Thoth who “besought 
Isis not to fear, and Nephthys not to weep.”  And he “spake the words which restored 
Horus to life.”
170
Here we have a situation that has an incredible parallel to situations in today’s life.  Many 
of our homes are headed by single females.  And like Isis, many are experiencing great 
difficulties raising their children, especially their sons.  And what is even more like Isis, 
many of them have had the tragic experience of losing their sons to the “sting of
scorpions,” which people “close to them take the form of.”
The actions and experience of Isis are instructive in how to deal with these situations in 
which the young have been mentally, psychologically and spiritually “stung to death.”  73
First of all we find that it was through her sister (extended family) that she realized what 
she had to do.  Also, we note that Nephthys did not wait for Isis to call upon her.  As soon 
as she realized that Isis was in dire straits, she went straight to her aid.  This is what 
sisters (brother and the extended family) should do.  Often the ones who are entangled in 
trouble’s web cannot see their way clearly enough, and need assistance from those close 
to them who are not as emotionally enthralled.  Nephthys beseeched Isis to transcend 
herself, that is to “lift her voice to the heavens” for help.  (Note:  The extended family can 
help, but the ultimate responsibility and work fall on the parents.)  And when she did, the 
help she needed came forth in Thoth.  Notice that it was always Thoth whom Isis could 
count on to set things aright and save the day.
The Value And Role of the Sage
It was Thoth that the Egyptians, writes Budge,
171
 “held to be both the heart and tongue of 
Ra, that is to say, he was the reason and the mental powers of the gods, and also the 
means by which their will was translated into speech. ...  In every legend in which Thoth 
takes a dominant part we see that it is he who speaks the word that results in the wishes 
of Ra being carried into effect, and it is evident that when he had once given the word of 
command that command could not fail to be carried out by one means or another.”  And 
it was Thoth who taught man, i.e. the priests, how to use words of power.  Budge 
expounds:
172
  “To words uttered under certain conditions the greatest importance was
attached by the Egyptians, and in fact the whole efficacy of prayer appears to have 
depended upon the manner and tone of voice in which the words were spoken.”  (Notice 
the similarity with respect to the goddess of song, especially those referred to earlier: i.e. 
Billie, Dinah, Sarah, And Aretha.  They too were able to “utter words” with the proper 
tone, phraseology, style, etc. to produce the desired effect.  To which “the greatest 
importance was attached by” their fans.)
Budge summarizes:
173
  The character of Thoth is a lofty and a beautiful conception, and 
is, perhaps, the highest idea of deity ever fashioned in the Egyptian mind, ...  Thoth, ... as 
the personification of the mind of God, and as the all-pervading, and governing, and 
directing power of heaven and of earth, forms a feature of the Egyptian religion which is 
as sublime as the belief in the resurrection of the dead in a spiritual body, and the doctrine 
of everlasting life.”
It is through the symbolism of Thoth that we find the key.  He can be regarded as a 
metaphor of our great sages, mentors, and teachers both past and present.  But in order to 
gain any benefit from their insight one must first seek help from the correct sources, i.e. 
“lift one’s voice to the heavens.”  That is to say, one must seek “Thoth” (i.e. the wisdom 
of wise elders and ancestors) where he is, lest one ends up with a “false prophet.”  When 
this is done and the time is right, Thoth will appear, just as it is stated in the maxim of the 
ancient Egyptian Mysteries:  “When the pupil is ready, then the master will appear.”
Often in the process of “seeking Thoth,” one also finds Maat, who was often regarded by 
the Egyptians as his female counterpart.  For Thoth (the lord of knowledge and74
understand) and Maat (the goddess of truth, justice, and righteousness) were inseparably 
connected; and Maat, writes Budge,
174
 “was the highest conception of physical and moral 
law and order known to the Egyptians.”  When one finds such sages and mentors 
(Thoths) and imbibes of their wisdom and insight (draw from them their seed) then a 
form of enlightenment (Maat) evolves that puts one more in tune with reality and oneself.  
This  enables one to make more enlightened decisions and to take truer actions, which 
usually yields positive, and sometimes profound, results.
After Isis received help from Thoth, Horus was revived.  She then proceeded with the 
long, arduous task of child-rearing; in particular, the raising of Horus to fulfill his destiny 
of avenging the murder of his father.  The legend picks up when Horus is grown, and 
Osiris “appeared to him in a form he could recognize and encouraged him to take up the 
battle with Set to avenge him,” and he instructed Horus “in the use of arms.”  This was 
the final preparation of Horus for the great battle with Set.  Again:  “When the pupil is 
ready, then the master will appear.”
Good and Great Works are Validated by the Subsequent Generations
When the battle began, it swayed back and forth for quite sometime, but Horus eventually 
emerged the victor.  He avenged his father’s murder and caused Osiris to be placed in 
heaven among the other gods with a special significance reserved just for him.
The symbolism here points out that it is the son, or a subsequent generation, that avenges 
the father, or validates the work of a prior generation.  A contemporary example of this is 
the re-emergence of the popularity of Malcolm X among the young.  They are the ones 
who brought his name back from “oblivion,” and caused his memory and teachings to be 
“resurrected.”  Because of the youth of this generation (or his “sons”), Malcolm “lives” 
again, and is now held in as high esteem as our other ancestral leaders and sages, i.e. he 
has been given his “special place in heaven” among the other “gods.”  Also, just as Osiris 
had his body dismembered and scattered, Malcolm had his character attacked and his 
image torn asunder.  And also like Osiris, it was Malcolm’s “sons” who reassembled his 
image and brought the pieces of his character back together.
Knowing Oneself Enables Fulfillment of Potential
According to some accounts the struggle between Horus and Set lasted years, centuries 
even.  It is said that the reason this battle lasted so long, a virtual stalemate, inclining 
sometimes to Set and sometimes to Horus, was that Horus had not yet begun to ‘know his 
true self’.  He had been relying on acquired knowledge he had been taught.  All of which 
was crucial and  necessary, but not sufficient for the task at hand.  Horus had not yet 
obtained the wisdom and understanding to turn inward so that he could use his own 
unique inner insights in order to intuit strategies, and summon his inner strengths so that 
he could amass the wherewithal to conquer his adversary.  It was after he had sought and 
received guidance from Thoth that Horus understood that he had to tap into his inner 75
resolve and self (i.e. this is yet another illustration of need to “know thyself”) in order to  
reach his maximum potential.  And only after having done so was Horus able to finally 
subdue his formidable foe.
175
This episode of the legend clearly illustrates the adage, “If you do what you’ve always 
done, you’ll get what you always got.”  In the ever advance of time and civilization, there 
inevitably comes a point when new approaches, methods, etc. have to be created to meet 
the current challenges.  And it is usually the Horuses among us, who following the 
dictates of the Thoths, are the ones who obtained these insights.
The Struggle for the Future, and Generational Tension
Recall the conflict between Isis and Horus during the battle with Set.  This is symbolic of 
the tensions between the generations as the struggle for the future wages.  For both 
generations have their world views, preferred approaches, techniques, tactics, and
strategies for addressing societal ills that often generate these tensions.
Now Isis had raised and nurtured Horus from birth for the expressed purpose of “ushering 
in a new  era” by avenging his father’s death.  But the unknown future can be foreboding, 
and when the day of reckoning came and Isis stood face to face with this foreboding 
unknown future, the great goddess blinked.  To see Set, who after all was her brother, in 
chains was too much for her too take.  This particular price for atonement for the past and 
ushering in the future was too much for her to pay.  And out of compassion she released 
him.  This action can be viewed as symbolic of a desire of some, in this case  some 
members of the older generation, to cling on to certain aspects of the old order, even 
though they too had striven to bring about its down fall.  Or perhaps this act can be 
viewed as excessive caution; or maybe it is indicative of hesitancy or residua l resistance, 
or anxieties and nervousness that many people possess when confronted with the
vanishing of an old era and the onset of a new one.
Horus had given his all in the battle with Set.  He had fought long, hard, and valiantly.  It 
was a strenuous and arduous effort.  And when he found out that Set had been released 
after all that he had gone through,  Horus went into a rage like “a panther from the 
south.”  When one takes into account the ancient Egyptian’s love for the mother, one gets 
an appreciation for the depth of the outrage that caused Horus to attack Isis, his own 
mother, “the mother of all mothers,” especially when one reflects upon how much Isis 
had gone through with and for Horus, and his obvious love for her.
The tearing off of the roya l emblems from Isis’ head (some accounts say Horus cut off 
her head) analogizes the uncompromising, and in some cases brutal, attacks that
proponents of the unfolding revolution, symbolized by Horus, level at the old guard.  
Again, it is Thoth who intervened in Isis’ behalf and gave her a new helmet (or replaced 
her head with a cow’s head).  This is indicative of how it is the sages who are the ones 
that reveal to the “keepers of the old faith” how to regard, cope, and deal with the new 
order.  It was the old ideas, ways, etc. that came under attack, and many of them will 76
have to be replaced with new ones that reflect the new day that is dawning, or perhaps 
ones that reflect the sun that has already risen.  Symbolically, the old royal emblems 
(head) will have to be replaced by a new helmet (head).
The Settling in of a New Paradigm
Even though Set had lost the battle, the war was not totally over.  Set still refused to 
accept defeat and devised new schemes.  He proceeded to slander Isis and Horus in order 
to get the rest of the gods to deny Horus and Osiris their just due and rightful places.  
This is reflective of how some elements of the old guard never give up, and will 
sometimes resort to all manner of name calling, character assassination, and other tactics 
in order to hold on to their ebbing power and influence.  (Recall the argument that this 
struggle was over the right to inheritance.)  And once again it was Thoth who interceded 
and convinced the gods of the correctness of the words and claims of Horus and Osiris, 
just as it is the sages who enlighten the “pundits of power” on the validity of the new 
order and the ideas it is rooted in.
Osiris, as the Lord of the Underworld, can be view as the prevailing paradigm of the 
older order on the verge of being replaced by the new order established by Horus.  For 
the deceased to be received by Osiris, they will have their deeds measured against his 
standards.  Likewise, the works of man are evaluated in the light of the existing
paradigms.  Osiris is given his  place among the gods of the spiritual world and Horus 
lives to be the lord of the living.  When one recalls that Osiris was viewed as ‘yesterday’ 
and Horus represented ‘today (or the future)’, then it is seen how this symbolically 
accounts for the changing of the guards, or the establishment of new paradigms and the 
accompanying “deification” of their exponents and champions, as inevitably happens in 
an ever changing world.
Unification Enables Ascension
The unification of the body of Osiris can be viewed several ways.  Normandi Ellis writes 
in her book Awaking Osiris:
176
  “In psychological terms Osiris represents the recollection 
of the diverse aspects of oneself into a unified whole.”  On a sociological level this can 
symbolize the unification of varied individuals into a group and/or varied groups into a 
whole all working together for their mutual benefit.  Afrocentrically the reunification of 
the body of Osiris can be seen as a metaphor for the desired reunification of Africa’s 
descendants which has had members torn from their motherland and scattered all over the 
globe.  With the tombs or temples built by Isis, wherever she found a part of his body, 
symbolic of the collective will and wisdom of each constituency of Africa’s descendants 
to make a statement of their presence by creating a culture and life for themselves 
wherever they happened to be.
The phallus of Osiris, the transmitter of his essence, could not be recovered as it was 
eaten by fish.  Isis, consequently, decided to fashion one herself.  Fortunately, before 77
Osiris’ phallus was lost, Isis had been able to “draw from it his seed,” which allowed her 
to produce an heir and avenger for him.  Before African cultures and civilizations were 
attacks and dismantled, their wise ones and sages had been able to draw from them 
enough of their essence to produce some Horuses among their heirs to wage the battles to 
set things aright.
According to Ellis
177
 the war lasted years (some accounts say centuries).  It was so fierce 
and horrible that “the gods wept and looked away, all but Thoth who ... was unafraid of 
the truth. ...  As the battle waged on even the warrior gods lost strength and they were no 
more than two angry mists entwined,”  All of this can be viewed as a metaphor of the war 
that the “Horuses” among Africa’s descendants have waged, are waging, and will wage 
for the purpose of avenging the honor of their ancestors, and the restoration of their 
stature in the world order.  These Horuses too have grown old and weary of battle and 
have seen their strength wane.  They will pass on to become Osirises and the struggle will 
be continued by younger Horus warriors.  These battles have likewise been fierce on all 
levels; physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, etc.  They have similarly been ugly and 
horrible enough to make some people, “leaders” and governments, like the gods, look 
away; that is all except the sages and wise ones who, like Thoth, were unafraid of the 
truth.  And it will be the sages and wise ones who, like Thoth, will play a prominent and 
pivotal role in ensuring things get set aright.
In the meantime, the African world can be likened to Osiris, longing to be unified in 
order to ascend into his rightful place in heaven.  For like Osiris, only until such unity, or 
at least some semblance of it is attained will the African world achieve its longed for 
ascension.  This takes place when smaller sub-units coalesce and in turn begin to 
network, forming even  larger units in the process.  The extent to which this dynamic 
continues to expand and fortify is the extent to which the desired unification necessary 
for the desired ascension takes place.78
APPENDIX
The Ancient Egyptians left their records in hieroglyphs wherein vowels, for the most 
part, were not  present.  Consequently, to verbalize the names and terms vowels were 
inserted.  The common usage we are all familiar with comes down to us mainly through 
Greco-Roman sources.  With Plutarch being primary among these.  Below is a table of 
the terms and names given in their original, verbalized original, and commonly used 
forms.
Original Verbalized  Common
KMT Kemet Egypt
Wsir Wosir, Asar, Ausar Osiris
Ast Aset, Auset Isis
Hr Hor, Heru Horus
Stkh Setekh Set, Sat, Seth, Sut
Djhwty Djehewty, Tehuti   Thoth
Nbthwt Nebethewet, Nebt-Het   Nephthys
Inpw Inpu, Inpew, Anpu   Anubis
                                                                
Notes
Introduction
1
 See R. T. Runnel Clark, Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt, p. 98.
2
 See E. A. Wallis Budge, Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Volume I, p. 97.
3
 See E. A. Wallis Budge, Egyptian Religion: Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life, p. 185.
4
 See E. A. Wallis Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, p. 103.
5
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Volume. I, p. 98.
Chapter One
Some Historical Background of the Osirian Myth
6
 See John G. Jackson, Man, God and Civilization, p. 215.
7
 See The Ancient Egyptians by A. Rosalie David, p. 13.
8
 See Cheik Anta Diop, The African Origan of Civilization: Myth or Reality, p. 22.
9
 See Michael A. Hoffman, Egypt Before the Pharaohs, p. 51.
1 0
 See Michael A. Hoffman, Egypt Before the Pharaohs, pp. 218 - 219.
1 1
 See Ivan  Van Sertima, Blacks In Science, p. 56.
1 2
 See Ivan  Van Sertima, Blacks In Science, p. 20.
1 3
 See Michael A. Hoffman, Egypt Before the Pharaohs, p. 82.
1 4
 See Michael A. Hoffman, Egypt Before the Pharaohs, p. 164.
1 5
 See The Ancient Egyptians by A. Rosalie David, p. 14.79
                                
1 6
 See Cheik Anta Diop, The African Origan of Civilization: Myth or Reality, p. 23.
1 7
 See The Ancient Egyptians by A. Rosalie David, pp. 14 - 16.
1 8
 See Cheik Anta Diop, The African Origan of Civilization: Myth or Reality, p.87.
1 9
 See Stolen Legacy by George G. M. James, p. 50.
2 0
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt The Light Of The World, p. 581.
2 1
 John G. Jackson in his book Christianity Before Christ, pp. 183-184, cites the English scholar George R. 
Goodman from an article in The Freethinker, Vol. LXXXV, p. 182, entitled “The Age of Unreason.”
2 2
 See Charles S. Finch, III, M. D., Echoes of the Old Dark Land, pp. 117 - 126.
2 3
 See Charles S. Finch, III, M. D., Echoes of the Old Dark Land, p. 118.
2 4
 Also see Charles S. Finch, III, M. D., Echoes of the Old Dark Land, p. 123.
2 5
 See Charles S. Finch, III, M. D., Echoes of the Old Dark Land, p. 116.
2 6
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Volume. I, p. 9 and Finch, pp. 181 - 182.
2 7
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Volume. I, pp. xxvii - xxviii.
2 8
 See Gods of  the Egypt ians, Volume I by E. A. Wallis Budge, pp. 74, 140, 141, and 145.
2 9
 See Finch, pp. 96 - 97.
3 0
 See Budge, Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, p. 471.  Also, Diop states that the sphinx, which has 
obvious Negroid features, is a profile of the pharaoh Chephren, who was the son or brother of Cheops (the 
fourth dynasty pharaoh who built the great pyramid of Giza).  See Diop, p. 240.
3 1
 Jacob H. Carruthers, MDW  NTR:  Divine Speech, pp. 34–35 and 60–61.
3 2
 E. A. Wallis Budge, The Book Of the Dead, pp. xvii and 15.
3 3
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, p. 323.
3 4
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, pp. xiv - xv.
3 5
 See Budge, Egyptian Religion:  Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life, p. 88.
Chapter Two
The Osirian Legend
3 6
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, pp. 287, 288.
3 7
 The quotes in this paragraph are from Budge’s The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, pp. 294 and 295.
3 8
 The quotes in this paragraph are from Budge’s The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, pp. 295 and 296.
3 9
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, p. 300.
4 0
 The quotes in this paragraph are from Budge’s The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, pp. 300 and 301.
4 1
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 87.
4 2
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 91.
4 3
 The quotes in this paragraph are from Budge’s The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, pp. 300, 301, and   
302, except where otherwise indicated.  Also, see pages 306 -307. 
4 4
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, p. 299 and Volume II, pp. 185 -187.
4 5
 See Budge, The Book Of the Dead, pp. xiix.
4 6
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 189.
4 7
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, pp. 122 and 257.
4 8
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 124.
4 9
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 190.
5 0
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, pp. 191 and 192.
5 1
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 150.
5 2
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 209.
5 3
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egypt ians, Volume II, p. 193.
5 4
 The quotes in this paragraph are from Budge’s The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, pp. 205 - 208.
5 5
 The quotes in this paragraph are from Budge’s The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, pp. 208 - 211.
5 6
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 211.
5 7
 The quotes in this paragraph are from Budge’s The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, pp. 12 - 14, except 
where otherwise indicated.
5 8
 The quotes in this paragraph are from Budge’s The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, pp. 360 -363.
5 9
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, p. 488.
6 0
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 245.
6 1
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 193.
6 2
 See Carruthers, MDW  NTR:  Divine Speech, pp. 34–35 and 60–61.80
                                
6 3
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, p. 488, and Volume II, p. 193.
6 4
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, p. 9.
6 5
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, p. 96.
6 6
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 126.
6 7
 The quotes in this paragraph are from  Budge’s Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, pp. 74 and    
75.
6 8
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, pp. 90 - 91.
6 9
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, pp. 74 - 80.
7 0
 The quotes in this paragraph are from Budge’s The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, pp. 151 -153.
7 1
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 262, and Volume I, p. 150.
7 2
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, p. 490.
7 3
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, p. 305.
7 4
 See Budge, Egyptian Religion:  Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life, p. 134.
7 5
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, pp. 340 -343.
7 6
 See Budge, Egyptian Religion:  Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life, pp. 135 - 165, and  Budge, Osiris & 
the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, pp. 337 -347 for the quotes in this paragraph.
Chapter Three
Of The African Roots Of Osirianism
7 7
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, pp. vii - viii.
7 8
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, p. ix.
7 9
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, p. vii.
8 0
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, p. 384.
8 1
 The quotes in this paragraph are from Budge’s Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, pp. xv and 
xvi, except where indicated otherwise.
8 2
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, pp. xvii and xix.
8 3
 See Cheik Anta Diop, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, p. 1 - 2.
8 4
 See Cheik Anta Diop, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, p. 89.
8 5
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, p. 108.
8 6
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, pp. 304 - 305.
8 7
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, p. xiii.
8 8
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, pp. xiv - xv.
8 9
 Quotes from the preceding four paragraphs are taken from Budge’s Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, 
Vol. II, pp. 132 - 139.
9 0
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, p. xviii.
9 1
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. II, pp. 130 - 131.
9 2
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. II, p. 132.
9 3
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, p. 333.
9 4
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. II, pp. 215, and 216.
9 5
 See W. E. B. DuBois, Darkwater, p.166.
9 6
 See Ivan Van Sertima, Golden Age of the Moors, p. 74.
9 7
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, pp. 33 and 231.
9 8
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, pp. 232 - 233, and Volume II, p.253.
9 9
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, p. 243.
1 0 0
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. II, pp. 276 - 278..
1 0 1
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. II, p. 217.
1 0 2
 Quotes from the preceding four paragraphs are taken from Budge’s Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, 
Vol. II, pp. 169 - 170.
1 0 3
 Quotes from the preceding four paragraphs are taken from Budge’s Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, 
Vol. II, pp. 170, 172, and 276.
1 0 4
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. II, pp. 178 - 179.
1 0 5
 See E. A. Wallis Budge: Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. I, p. 324.
1 0 6
 Quotes from the preceding three paragraphs are taken from Budge’s Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, 
Vol. II, pp. 90 - 93.81
                                
1 0 7
 Quotes from the preceding paragraph are taken from Budge’s Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. 
II, pp. 90 - 95.
1 0 8
 Quotes from the preceding paragraph are taken from Budge’s Osiris & the Egyptian Resurrection, Vol. 
II, pp. 95 - 96.
1 0 9
 See J. A. Rogers’, World’s Great Men of Color, Volume I, pp. 399 - 400.
1 1 0
 See the liner notes by Robert Palmer on the album entitled “Dogon A.D.” by Julius Hemphill; Arista, 
1977.
1 1 1
 See The Pale Fox by M. Griaule and G. Dieterlen, p. 61.
1 1 2
 See The Pale Fox by M. Griaule and G. Dieterlen, pp. 71 - 73.
1 1 3
 See Marcel Griaule’s Conversation with Ogotommeli, p. 17.
1 1 4
 See Marcel Griaule’s Conversation with Ogotommeli, p. 18.
1 1 5
 See Marcel Griaule’s Conversation with Ogotommeli, pp. 20 - 21.
1 1 6
 See Marcel Griaule’s Conversation with Ogotommeli, pp. 21 - 22.
1 1 7
 For the quotes in the preceding two paragraphs, see Marcel Griaule’s Conversation with Ogotommeli, 
pp. 22 - 23.
1 1 8
 See Marcel Griaule’s Conversation with Ogotommeli, p. 24 and Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, 
Volume I, pp. 282 - 283.
1 1 9
 See The Pale Fox by M. Griaule and G. Dieterlen, pp. 39 - 30, 306 - 307.
1 2 0
 See The Pale Fox by M. Griaule and G. Dieterlen, pp. 324, 316 - 334 .
1 2 1
 See The Pale Fox by M. Griaule and G. Dieterlen, p. 255.
1 2 2
 See The Pale Fox by M. Griaule and G. Dieterlen, pp. 388 - 389.
1 2 3
 See The Pale Fox by M. Griaule and G. Dieterlen, pp. 389 - 390.
1 2 4
 See the article “African Observers of the Universe: The Sirius Question” by Hunter Adams III in 
Journal of Africal Civilizations, Volume I, Number 2, November 1979; p. 3.
1 2 5
 See the article “African Observers of the Universe: The Sirius Question” by Hunter Adams III in 
Journal of Africal Civilizations, Volume I, Number 2, November 1979; p. 8.
1 2 6
 See Cheik Anta Diop, The African Origan of Civilization: Myth or Reality, p. 179.
1 2 7
 See Richard Leakey, The Origin of Mankind, p. 119
1 2 8
 See Richard Leakey, The Origin of Mankind, p. 128.
1 2 9
 See Richard Leakey, The Origin of Mankind, p. 156.
1 3 0
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, pp. 75 - 76.
1 3 1
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, p. 179.
1 3 2
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, pp. 250 - 251.
1 3 3
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, p. 288.
1 3 4
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, p. 127.
1 3 5
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, p. 260.
1 3 6
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, pp. 265 - 269.
1 3 7
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, p. 262.
1 3 8
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, pp. 268 - 269.
1 3 9
 See Harold A. Cooke, Osiris:  A Study in Myths, Mysteries and religion, pp. 24 -25.
1 4 0
 See Harold A. Cooke, Osiris:  A Study in Myths, Mysteries and religion, p. 10.
1 4 1
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, p. 60.
1 4 2
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume II, p. 586.
Chapter Four
The Temple Builders
1 4 3
 See the article “The Discovery of Superfluidity” by Russell J. Donnelly in Physics Today, p. 30.
1 4 4
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, p. 224.
1 4 5
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, pp. 351 and 354.
1 4 6
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, p. 224.
1 4 7
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, pp. 205 - 210.
1 4 8
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, p. 198.
1 4 9
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, p. 200.
1 5 0
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, p. 194.
1 5 1
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, p. 200.82
                                
1 5 2
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, page 5 of the Introduction.
1 5 3
 See Cheik Anta Diop, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality, p. 95.
1 5 4
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, p. 82.
1 5 5
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, p. 85.
1 5 6
 See George G. M. James, Stolen Legacy, p. 33.
1 5 7
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, pp. 99 and 100.
1 5 8
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, pp. 100 - 102.
1 5 9
 See J. Norman Lockyer, The Dawn of Astronomy, p. 119.
1 6 0
 The quotes are taken from the back cover booknotes of Her-Bak:  The Living Face of Ancient Egypt, by 
Isha Schwaller de Lubicz.
1 6 1
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, page 438.
1 6 2
 The quotes were taken from Ihsa Schwaller de Lubicz, Her-Bak: The Living Face of Ancient Egypt.
1 6 3
 The quotes were taken from Ihsa Schwaller de Lubicz, Her-Bak: Egyptian Initiate.
1 6 4
 See George G. M. James, Stolen Legacy, pp. 30 - 31.
1 6 5
 See Ge rald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, p. 346.
1 6 6
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, p. 198.
1 6 7
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, p. 348.
1 6 8
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, pp. 195 - 196, for quotes and 
comments in this section.
1 6 9
 See Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt the Light of the World, Volume I, pp. 346 - 348.
Chapter Five
Some Discussion of Parables For the Present From the Osirian Legend
1 7 0
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume II, pp. 210 - 211.
1 7 1
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, p. 407.
1 7 2
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, p. 408.
1 7 3
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, p. 415.
1 7 4
 See Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, Volume I, p. 421.
1 7 5
 See the book Medu Neter by Ra Un Nefer Amen.
1 7 6
 See Normandi Ellis, Awaking Osiris, p.22.
1 7 7
 See Normandi Ellis, Awaking Osiris, pp. 74 - 75.
What a handsome figure of a dragon. No wonder I fall madly in love with the Alani Dragon now, the avatar, it's a gorgeous dragon picture.
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Nick1986 View Drop Down
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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03-Feb-2012 at 20:17
Thanks Alani. So "Osirian" was simply another name for ancient Egyptian?
Me Grimlock not nice Dino! Me bash brains!
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Centrix Vigilis View Drop Down
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  Quote Centrix Vigilis Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20-Mar-2012 at 02:13
Along the lines of ancient civilizations.....their study etc...
 
"Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence"

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Pilger's law: 'If it's been officially denied, then it's probably true'

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  Quote Seth Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20-Mar-2012 at 02:14
They were in fact real, Osiris, God? or KING? king with knowledge to rule, all goes back to basic psychology, words are the sword of an empire, armies are nothing but a shield, the myth behind this is not myth its "reality" covered in human personification. our simple minds can rap our heads around the idea that all we know and all that is truth to us is in "reality" defined by lies... just to make it simple. To many people wonder, to many think, to many have power... "They" as in THE HIGHEST, the "power elite" the "USA" governments of suppression... the "everything" the Romans... All back to the times of before... are shrouding the "truth" with something they call "truth", which is just an excuse... me even typing this is up for par in the twist we call truth or lie... All matters on the story which we cant find anymore... Therefore truth is just a word to make lie sound less evil... 
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  Quote Seth Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20-Mar-2012 at 02:16
all is lie, nothing is true. people believe what they want...
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  Quote Seth Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20-Mar-2012 at 02:17
we all know... deep in our brains the answer to every question... just a matter of what u believe 
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  Quote Centrix Vigilis Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20-Mar-2012 at 02:52
Drink some bourbon if your legal....it will help. Wink
"Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence"

S. T. Friedman


Pilger's law: 'If it's been officially denied, then it's probably true'

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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20-Mar-2012 at 19:12
The first gods may well have been dead chieftains or heros. But until we have evidence this civilisation existed, all theories remain speculative
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  Quote Seth Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Mar-2012 at 02:29
Exactly all is true and false so believe everything. yes bourbon! calms the soul :) 
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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Mar-2012 at 19:32
What about archaeological evidence, or mention of this society in ancient texts?
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  Quote Centrix Vigilis Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22-Mar-2012 at 02:03
Depends on what one means as 'evidence'....archaeological or other.  If you mean exclusively mainstream archaeology..none that I have found. All that I have found is essentially esoteric as scholars call it and has been identified with refuters primarily, who take the mainstream archaeological approach in countering it. Essentially it's an Atlantis copy. Same era etc. Rivals. Same same with Rama. Though a term once, iirc, used for predynastic Egypt that has been bandied about is Khmet not Osiria.
Otoh... DH Childress in his book lays claims that certain submerged mega stone blocks/structures are the evidence. Like his work on the Olmecs, he takes the diffusionist approach. And that is in total opposition to Richard Diehl's take. As well as William Sanders and Michael Cole. So again it gets down to what one accepts as 'bonafide proofs'. Whether ya talking Olmecs from Africa or Osirian civilization.
 
Now Mantheo and Herodotus alludes to it, again iirc, but I don't recall Plato.
 
 
 
See also: David Hatcher Childress, Lost Cities of Atlantis, Ancient Europe & the Mediterranean (Stelle, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, 1996), 30.
 
Compare and contrast those links with what Alani already posted above...the rest is up for speculation. And while I am firmly in the camp of the plausibility and probability theories of earlier recorded civilizations-peoples; that might have been destroyed for a multi-cause reason/s to include astro and geophysical events. I'm not yet comfortable with all the so called 'proofs' being offered. As all to often, these might well be examples of earlier current Bronze age proofs that overlap a geo-specific region and can be associated and accepted with an already recognized group.
 
 
Or if your talking Olmec's speculation at best. Whether we like it or not a standard set of proofs to use for comparison and contrast remain the solution. Find me an Egyptian chariot of the Ramses II era; buried under 60-80 feet of undisturbed dirt in Honduras or Mexico. That is either an academically accepted Olmec site or one that had Olmec influence. Prove it's not a fraud. And then we have a real conundrum as to how it got there.
 
But otoh, at that point diffusionism gets a better rep.
Told ya... it's why Bourbon is the key.Wink
 


Edited by Centrix Vigilis - 22-Mar-2012 at 02:22
"Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence"

S. T. Friedman


Pilger's law: 'If it's been officially denied, then it's probably true'

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  Quote Seth Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22-Mar-2012 at 02:24

Technology of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients

by David Hatcher Childress

Gives me reasons to believe other things check it out

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  Quote Centrix Vigilis Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22-Mar-2012 at 02:53
Yep. read the synopsis. as his other. Like I said:
 
And while I am firmly in the camp of the plausibility and probability theories of earlier recorded civilizations-peoples; that might have been destroyed for a multi-cause reason/s to include astro and geophysical events. I'm not yet comfortable with all the so called 'proofs' being offered. As all to often, these might well be examples of earlier current Bronze age proofs that overlap a geo-specific region and can be associated and accepted with an already recognized group.
 
But his proofs remain weak and speculation is no answer for the detractors when it comes to the  classically acceptable use of the 'method'. As I also said: Whether we like it or not a standard set of proofs to use for comparison and contrast remain the solution.
 
I should have added 'academically accepted' proofs.
 
He is outside those according to his detractors. Almost all of whom are uniformly considered experts in the field. At best he is is a revisionist, alternative-nist. And while there is nothing wrong inherently as far as I am concerned with that... as theories should be occasionally challenged with fresh takes and insights and discoveries or re-analysis of accepted proofs as long as the method is observed. Good for the system. And helps keep the egos in check..certainly those who are enslaved to the grant syndrome. Who, btw, are far to often in fear of the penalties of questioning mainstream.
 
Ntl, His background and lack of recognized credentials won't get him much, other then detraction, by the aforementioned academically qualified experts in the field.
 
At worst, he is a market capitalist whose made a living out of publishing books with very little scientific or archaeological proofs, as I said, associated with the method and as refuted by his critics. Is that wrong? Maybe...maybe not...depends on whether one can still applaud his efforts at keeping the subject matter in the public's eye for not only entertainment purposes but scholastic as well.
 
And that remains a subjective determination.Wink


Edited by Centrix Vigilis - 22-Mar-2012 at 11:38
"Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence"

S. T. Friedman


Pilger's law: 'If it's been officially denied, then it's probably true'

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  Quote Seth Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22-Mar-2012 at 12:46
Yes, all just small theory's he suggests. But in "Accepted" Biology of our species, most people say we were in existence (homo sapiens) 200,000 yrs ago, and around 195,000 yrs ago we set of around the world in the post Pangaea continents, where land masses still connected.

Early human migrations began when Homo erectus first migrated out of Africa over the Levantine corridor and Horn of Africa to Eurasia about 1.8 million years ago, a migration probably sparked by the development of language (a former rudimentary language as argued by Fischer's hypothesis.) The expansion of H. erectus out of Africa was followed by that of Homo antecessor into Europe around 800,000 years ago, followed by Homo heidelbergensis around 600,000 years ago, where they probably evolved to become the Neanderthals.

Modern humans, Homo sapiens, evolved in Africa up to 200,000 years ago and reached the Near East around 125,000 years ago. From the Near East, these populations spread east to South Asia by 50,000 years ago, and on to Australia by 40,000 years ago, when for the first time H. sapiens reached territory never reached by H. erectus. H. sapiens reached Europe around 40,000 years ago, eventually replacing the Neanderthal population. East Asia was reached by 30,000 years ago.

The date of migration to North America is disputed; it may have taken place around 30 millennia ago, or considerably later, around 14 millennia ago. Colonisation of the Pacific islands of Polynesia began around 1300 BC, and was completed by 900 AD. The ancestors of Polynesians left Taiwan around 5200 years ago.

The study of early human migrations since the 1980s has developed significantly due to advances in archaeogenetics.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_human_migrations



Edited by Nick1986 - 22-Mar-2012 at 14:16
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  Quote Seth Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22-Mar-2012 at 12:51

Early members of the Homo genus, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis, migrated from Africa during the Early Pleistocene, possibly as a result of the operation of the Saharan pump, around 1.9 million years ago, and dispersed throughout most of the Old World, reaching as far as Southeast Asia. The date of original dispersal beyond Africa virtually coincides with the appearance of Homo ergaster in the fossil record, and the associated first emergence of full bipedalism, and about half a million years after the appearance of the Homo genus itself and the first stone tools of the Oldowan industry. Key sites for this early migration out of Africa are Riwat in Pakistan (1.9 Mya), Ubeidiya in the Levant (1.5 Mya) and Dmanisi in the Caucasus (1.7 Mya).

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