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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Archaeology news updates
    Posted: 29-Jun-2014 at 20:53

4,000-Year-Old Burial with Chariots Discovered in South Caucasus

Here, the roof of a 4,000-year-old burial chamber buried in a Kurgan (mound) in the country of Georgia.

An ancient burial containing chariots, gold artifacts and possible human sacrifices has been discovered by archaeologists in the country of Georgia, in the south Caucasus.

The burial site, which would've been intended for a chief, dates back over 4,000 years to a time archaeologists call the Early Bronze Age, said Zurab Makharadze, head of the Centre of Archaeology at the Georgian National Museum.

Archaeologists discoveredthe timber burial chamber within a 39-foot-high (12 meters) mound called a kurgan. When the archaeologists reached the chamber they found an assortment of treasures, including two chariots, each with four wooden wheels. [See Images of the Burial Chamber & Chariots]

The team discovered ornamented clay and wooden vessels, flint and obsidian arrowheads, leather and textile artifacts, a unique wooden armchair, carnelian and amber beads and 23 golden artifacts, including rare and artistic crafted jewelry, wrote Makharadze in the summary of a presentation he gave recently at the International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, held at the University of Basel in Switzerland.

"In the burial chamber were placed two four-wheeled chariots, both in good condition, [the] design of which represents fine ornamental details of various styles," Makharadze wrote. Thechamber also contained wild fruits, he added.

While the human remains had been disturbed by a robbery, which probably occurred in ancient times, and were in a disordered position, the archaeologists found that seven people were buried in the chamber. "One of them was a chief and others should be the members of his family, sacrificed slaves or servants," Makharadze told Live Science in an email.

A time before the horse

The burial dates back to a time before domesticated horses appeared in the area, Makharadze said. While no animals were found buried with the chariots, he said, oxen would have pulled them.

Other rich kurgan burials dating to the second half of the third millennium B.C. have also been found in the south Caucasus,said Makharadze in another paper he presented in February at the College de France in Paris. The appearance of these rich burials appears to be connected to interactions that occurred between nomadic people from the Eurasian steppes and farming communities within and near the south Caucasus, Makharadze said.

These interactions appear to have led to some individuals, like this chief, getting elaborate burials. The newly discovered armchair symbolizes the power that individuals like the chief had. "The purpose of the wooden armchair was the indication to power, and it was put in the kurgan as a symbol of power," Makharadze said in the email.

The kurgan was found in eastern Georgia near the municipality of Lagodekhi and was excavated in 2012.

http://www.livescience.com/46513-ancient-chariot-burial-discovered.html



Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 29-Jun-2014 at 21:01
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  Quote Ollios Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22-Jun-2014 at 10:59
Byzantine Imperial Court is under attack. This area could be residence

http://arkeolojihaber.net/wp-content/imara-acilan-alanda-bizans-donemine-ait-adalet-binasi-ve-sayfiye-sarayi-var-300x169.jpg

http://image.samanyoluhaber.com/Images/News/20140509/55630858_karar.jpg

I am living just the outside of the city wall of Constantinopole. You can call it, the first suburb of Istanbul Big smile and this place is very close to me.



Ellerin Kabe'si var,
Benim Kabem İnsandır
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Jun-2014 at 18:58

Vindolanda dig unearths rare Roman gold coin

Both sides of the Nero coin
The coin, bearing the image of Emperor Nero, dates from AD 64-65
A rare gold coin bearing the image of Roman emperor Nero has been unearthed in Northumberland.

Deputy director of excavations Justin Blake, left, with Marcel Albert, who uncovered the rare coin

It is the first gold coin to be found at the Roman fort site of Vindolanda where archaeologists have been digging for more than 40 years.

Dr Andrew Birley, director of excavations, described it as a "special" find.

It is likely to be put on display at Vindolanda's museum once it has been fully researched and documented.

The coin was found by dig volunteer Marcel Albert, from Nantes in France.

'Magical moment'

He said: "I thought it can't be true. It was just sitting there as I scraped back the soil, shining, as if someone had just dropped it."

Archaeologists said the image of Nero dated it to AD 64-65 and added it would equate to more than half a year's salary for a serving soldier.

It was found in Vindolanda's 4th Century level and so would have been lost about 300 years after it was made.

Justin Blake, deputy director of excavations, said: "My first find at Vindolanda nearly 20 years ago was a coin.

"But because of their scarcity, I didn't think for a moment that I would ever see a gold coin unearthed at the site.

"It was an absolutely magical moment for the whole team."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-tyne-27917883



Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 21-Jun-2014 at 19:01
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Jun-2014 at 04:54

DIVERS RETURN TO WRECK SITE OF THE MARY ROSE

For almost three decades since being raised from the Solent in 1982, the hull of the Mary Rose – Henry VIII’s 500-year-old flagship which sank in battle in 1545 – sits in a custom built museum, with three levels of interactive exhibits. But what still lies on the seabed and in what condition? It was the mission of a dive team to find out.

Experts described the investigation – the first major dive to the underwater remains of the Mary Rose shipwreck in nine years – as “very successful”.

Coinciding with the anniversary of the new Mary Rose Museum in Portsmouth, divers placed a datalogger on the seabed and a high-tech buoy on the surface of the water, beaming back information to scientists via satellite.

“Everything is now deeply buried and this will preserve what remains on the seabed into the future,” said Christopher Dobbs, a Maritime Archaeologist from the Mary Rose Trust who has dived at the site more than 1,000 times.

It was wonderful to go down to the site again and see how well it continues to be protected in the silts. 

The visibility was not good, but it was good enough to position the monitoring equipment and for Serco Marine to carry out the dives needed to put new sinkers on the seabed and to replace the ageing wreck buoy that marks the protected wreck area.

Professor Mark Jones, Head of Conservation, said the new equipment would help monitor seawater and sediment conditions.

There are still significant numbers of timbers and objects buried in the seabed,” he explained. “The information collected will help us protect the buried materials for the future.’’

http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index.php/archives/06/2014/divers-return-to-wrecksite-of-the-mary-rose




Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 18-Jun-2014 at 04:59
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Jun-2014 at 21:27

‘Dracula’s tomb’ discovered in Italy

Estonian researchers believe they may have finally discovered the whereabouts of “Dracula’s” grave, which is in Italy and not the Romanian Transylvanian Alps as first thought.
The inspiration behind Bram Stoker’s 1897 gothic novel “Dracula” is thought to be Vlad III, the 15th century Prince of Wallachia in Eastern Europe. Known posthumously as Vlad the Impaler, the ruler was known for his brand of cruelty across Europe, which included impaling his enemies. 

Vlad’s ultimate enemy were the Ottomans. Depictions of his endless cruelty made history books, securing his reputation as one of the biggest villains in Turkey’s collective consciousness, as written by Emrah Güler of the Hürriyet Daily News in 2012. Vlad’s story was also converted into a ballet last year in Turkey.

Born in 1431, Count Vlad Tepes was part of a noble family who belonged to the Order of the Dragon, a group that was founded as a means of protecting Christianity in Eastern Europe from Ottoman expansion. His father was nicknamed Dracul, meaning “Dragon,” so the young Vlad became known as Dracula, or “son of Dragon.”

In 1476, Vlad Tepes disappeared in battle. While some sources have claimed he died, researchers claim he was in fact imprisoned by the Turks, who hauled him away in chains. His daughter Maria was meanwhile brought to the Neapolitan court, whose ruling family was allied with her own family, where she was adopted and eventually married to a Neapolitan nobleman.

Scholars from the University of Tallinn say they have discovered evidence that suggests the count was taken prisoner, ransomed to his daughter in Italy and then buried in a church in Naples.

Researchers are claiming a newly uncovered headstone in Naples’ Piazza Santa Maria la Nova, in the same graveyard as his daughter and son-in-law, could be his final resting place. 

The headstone was discovered by Neapolitan student, Erika Stella, who was writing a dissertation on the history of the church. Stella shared the photograph on the Internet and experts identified it with a certain level of confidence after years of research.

Medieval history scholar Raffaello Glinni said the 16th century tomb is covered in images and symbols of the House of the Transylvanian “Carpathians,” and not the tomb of an Italian nobleman.

“When you look at the bas-relief sculptures, the symbolism is obvious. The dragon means Dracula and the two opposing sphinxes represent the city of Thebes, also known as Tepes. In these symbols, the very name of the count Dracula Tepes is written,” Glinni told reporters.


Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 14-Jun-2014 at 21:31
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Jun-2014 at 21:43

Archaeologists discover Britain's longest road to be 10,000 year old

Archaeologists were stunned to discover evidence of a Mesolithic settlement alongside the A1, which stretches 410 miles from London to Edinburgh.

The site, near Catterick in North Yorkshire, is believed to have been used by people travelling north and south as an overnight shelter, similar to today’s motorway service stations.

Items discovered at the settlement include flint tools that date back to between 6000 and 8000 BC.

Archaeologist Steve Sherlock said: “This was a place that people knew of – a place they could return to on many occasions to stay overnight during their travels. There is evidence of people using the route and moving through the area over periods of time. It is also adding to our knowledge of the early Mesolithic period, a time we don’t know very much about.

“We found a small structure that resembled a type of shelter where they were making the flint tools that were also present at the site.”

This rare discovery came during the excavation of known Roman settlements in advance of plans to upgrade the junctions from 51 to 56 to motorway status.

It was designated the A1 by the Ministry of Transport in 1921.

Archaeologists are excavating all the ancient monuments before they become less accessible.

They are focusing on a Roman town located by the road near to the River Swale, called Cataractonium.

Mr Sherlock added: “It was fascinating to find one of those was a Mesolithic site, a further 8,000 years into the past beyond the Romans.

“We are finding buildings on the edge of the Roman road – which runs alongside the A1 – including shop frontages and a bath house.”

http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/482078/The-10-000-year-old-motorway-services

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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Jun-2014 at 20:27
Ancient Love Inscriptions in Astypalea

The concept of love during the ancient Greek times isn’t that different from nowadays. The only change is the way people used to express their feelings. A lovestruck person today may use graffiti to express passion for his beloved, while ancient Greeks inscribed love messages on stones.

According to Ethnos, ancient love inscriptions dating back to the early 6th and the late 5th centuries B.C., were recently discovered in Astypalea.

Spirals, shapes of ships, tools in triangular shapes were mostly drawn by the Neolithic inhabitants of Astypalea.

One of the first findings of the Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology, Andreas Vlachopoulos, was rock paintings located in Vathi at the Pirgos Peninsula and date back to 4th-3rd millennium B.C.

In 2013, more unexpected findings were discovered, which present an aspect of privacy of the ancient Greek inhabitants in the early 6th and late 5th centuries B.C. The Secretary General of the Archaeological Society, Vasilios Petrakos, made extensive reference to two love inscriptions that were discovered which depict two phalluses from the right angle.

http://greece.greekreporter.com/2014/06/04/ancient-love-inscriptions-in-astypalea/



Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 09-Jun-2014 at 20:30
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Apr-2014 at 19:38

Cold War Spy-Satellite Images Unveil 

Lost Cities

Cold War reconnaissance photos triple the number of known archaeology sites across the Middle East.

This 1961 satellite photo shows Tell Rifaat in northwest Syria; it's now completely surrounded by a modern town.

A study of Cold War spy-satellite photos has tripled the number of known archaeological sites across the Middle East, revealing thousands of ancient cities, roads, canals, and other ruins.

In recent decades archaeologists have often used declassified satellite images  to spot archaeological sites in Iraq, Turkey, and Syria.

But the new Corona Atlas of the Middle East, unveiled Thursday at the Society for American Archaeology's annual meeting, moves spy-satellite science to a new level. Surveying land from Egypt to Iran—and encompassing the Fertile Crescent, the renowned cradle of civilization and location of some of humanity's earliest cities—the atlas reveals numerous sites that had been lost to history.

"Some of these sites are gigantic, and they were completely unknown," says atlas-team archaeologist Jesse Casana  of the University of Arkansas, who presented the results. "We can see all kinds of things—ancient roads and canals. The images provide a very comprehensive picture."

The team had started with a list of roughly 4,500 known archaeological sites across the Middle East, says Casana. The spy-satellite images revealed another 10,000 that had previously been unknown.

The largest sites, in Syria and Turkey, are most likely Bronze Age cities, he says, and include ruined walls and citadels. Two of them cover more than 123 acres (50 hectares).

Signs of ancient habitation are visible in this satellite image of Tell Hamoukar in eastern Syria.


But, says Casana, "it's not just new places to excavate. We have a real way with all these sites to look across the whole Middle East and see how it was connected."

The new Middle East atlas reflects both the opportunities and challenges facing archaeologists, who must handle ever larger amounts of data from excavation sites and entire regions, says information-science scholar Eric Kansa of theAlexandria Archive Institute in San Francisco, who spoke at the meeting. "This is big data," Kansa says. "We have the opportunity to really blow up the scale of our efforts in archaeology."

Cold Warrior

The end of the Cold War led to the public release of Corona spy-satellite images by U.S. defense officials almost two decades ago. The spy satellite made images from 1960 to 1972, and the atlas samples only some of the 188,000 images taken from 1967 to 1972 by the last generation of the satellites. The images of the Earth's surface, intended to expose Soviet missile bases and military camps, had a resolution of two meters (6.6 feet).

A missile launch site near Chelyabinsk in the USSR is outlined in this 1969 image.


Current imaging satellites, such as the privately owned Digital Globe based in Longmont, Colorado, return betterresolution images, but "they can't go back in time," says Casana.

The Corona images, he explains, were made before cities such as Mosul in Iraq and Amman in Jordan overran the many archaeological sites near them. Dams have also flooded river valleys, covering many other archaeological sites. As cities grew, the industrial farming and irrigation that supported them grew too,obscuring roads and sites clearly visible in the spy-satellite images.

"Even with much better resolution, we can't see a site that someone has covered up with a building," Casana says.

Information Warfare

"This project is just incredible," says Syro-Palestinian archaeologistDavid Schloen of the University of Chicago. "It's amazing what their atlas can do."

The mapping team, for example, set up their site to allow you to look at the 1960s images of a given location side by side with views of it today.

The 1960s image at left captures an area of southern Iraq's marshes, many of which have since been drained. The photo at right is of the same location in the early 2000s.


Corona satellites photographed the Earth in swaths 120 miles (193 kilometers) long by 10 miles (16 kilometers) wide. Film strips were delivered from space inside parachute-equipped buckets, and the film's stretched and distorted views of the Earth required special optics to sort out. The existence of the photographs was officially kept secret until 1992.

Much of the atlas team's work has involved tying landmarks in the Corona images, purchased from the U.S. Geological Survey,  to mapped landmarks in modern-day images. The landmarks also helped computers remove distortions in the original spy-satellite images.

"We don't want to stop here," Casana says. Many of the Corona images cover other areas of great interest to archaeologists, including Africa and China.

"Corona is amazing," he says. "We really have coverage from almost everywhere."

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/04/140425-corona-spy-satellite-archaeology-science/




Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 27-Apr-2014 at 19:48
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Apr-2014 at 04:09

Roman-era artifacts unearthed in Osmaniye

Three historic artifacts have been unearthed by construction equipment in two villages of the southern province of Osmaniye.
A piece of an architectural structure, measuring 105 by 80 centimeters and estimated to date back to the Roman era, was found during water pipeline construction in the Kırmacılı village. The other finding in the Kesmeburun village was again a Roman-era sarcophagus that measures 150 by 100 centimeters. 

After examinations, the historical artifacts were transferred to the Kastabala Open Air Museum. 
Osmaniye Museum Director Nalan Yastı said Osmaniye and its vicinity were very rich in terms of Roman- and Byzantine era-artworks. 

She said the area where artworks had been unearthed were inside the archaeological site of the ancient city of Kastabala. “The Roman city Kastabala was one of the leading cities in the region along with Antalya and Anavarza. After talks with the head of the ancient city excavations, Professor Turgut Zeyrek, we have decided to display the pieces here.”


Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 27-Apr-2014 at 04:11
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Apr-2014 at 22:23

Medieval slave trade routes in Eastern Europe extended from Finland and the Baltic Countries to Central Asia

The routes of slave trade in Eastern Europe in the medieval and pre-modern period extended all the way to the Caspian Sea and Central Asia. A recent study completed at the University of Eastern Finland suggests that persons captured during raids into areas which today constitute parts of Finland, the Russian Karelia and the Baltic Countries ended up being sold on these remote trade routes. There was a particular demand for blonde girls and boys who were seen as exotic luxury items, and it was financially beneficial to transport them to the far-away markets. The study by Professor Jukka Korpela was published as a General Article in Russian History (1/2014).

The numbers of northern people who finally reached the southern markets were not large. The study indicates that out of the thousands of persons kidnapped in the north, only a few hundred -- at most -- ended up in the Caspian Sea region and Central Asia via the Volgan and Crimean slave markets. Otherwise, slave trade in the Crimea and Volga regions was extensive, and tens of thousands of people were sold into slavery every year. However, the existence of the trade route shows that it was possible, even under primitive conditions, to distribute information about the demand for blonde girls in the far-away markets. The network of those involved in slave trade included men who participated in raids, slave traders and customers representing the leading class of society.

Raids into the north were launched especially from Novgorod, which was well connected to the Crimea and, from there on, to the Caspian Sea and the slave markets of Central Asia. Raids were done by private warlords and princely troops, and they extended all the way to the coasts of the Gulf of Bothnia and Lapland.

The material used in the study consists of chronicles, travelogues and various administrative documents such as tax and land registers, as well as diplomatic reports.

Slave trade in Eastern Europe gradually faded, as the control exercised by the emerging structure of European states became stronger. The spreading of Christianity also caused a decline in slave trade during the medieval period. Slave trade within Europe declined already in the early medieval period, but in regions bordering on Islamic countries, slave trade continued up until the pre-modern period.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140415084148.htm

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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Apr-2014 at 21:22

Bulgaria seizes ancient gold treasure

Bulgaria’s law enforcement agencies have confiscated a cache of archaeological finds, including gold artefacts dating back to the third millennium BCE, which were handed over to the National Museum of History in Sofia on April 14.

The three unique golden necklaces, made of as many as 15 000 individual pieces, is thought to be the second oldest golden treasure dug out in Bulgaria (only the items found in the Varna necropolis, dating back to the mid-fifth millennium BCE, which are among the oldest samples of golden artefacts in the world, are older).

The other items seized by the State Agency for National Security (SANS) include a marble slab with a relief of the Thracian horseman, dating to the second or third century CE, two artillery guns and about 100 coins and items dating from antiquity to the Middle Ages.

Details of the bust are scarce, with SANS declining to give any details because the investigation is ongoing. However, Bulgaria’s Culture Ministry said in a statement that two people were detained and one was facing charges.

Archaeological finds are considered state property in Bulgaria, but illegal treasure-hunting remains a lucrative industry, given the long history of human habitation in Bulgaria – going back to the Neolithic, through Thracian and Roman sites, as well as a rich medieval history pre-Ottoman conquest.

National Museum of History director Bozhidar Dimitrov estimated that the golden necklaces alone could have fetched a price of up to five million euro from private collectors.

“This historical value of this treasure is exceptional, because it dates to the third millennium BCE, a time during which we have no marks of high civilisation in Bulgarian lands. The three necklaces, all from the same necropolis, were likely worn by high-born women,” Dimitrov said, as quoted by Focus news agency.

http://sofiaglobe.com/2014/04/14/bulgaria-seizes-ancient-gold-treasure/

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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 31-Mar-2014 at 21:29

3,300-Year-Old Tomb with Pyramid Entrance Discovered in Egypt

Dating back around 3,300 years this tomb was discovered recently at an ancient cemetery at Abydos in Egypt. At left the rectangular entrance shaft with massive walls served as a base for a small pyramid that was an estimated 23 feet (7 meters) high.

A tomb newly excavated at an ancient cemetery in Egypt would have boasted a pyramid 7 meters (23 feet) high at its entrance, archaeologists say.

The tomb, found at the site of Abydos, dates back around 3,300 years. Within one of its vaulted burial chambers, a team of archaeologists found a finely crafted sandstone sarcophagus, painted red, which was created for a scribe named Horemheb. The sarcophagus has images of several Egyptian gods on it and hieroglyphic inscriptions recording spells from the Book of the Dead that helped one enter the afterlife.

There is no mummy in the sarcophagus, and the tomb was ransacked at least twice in antiquity. Human remains survived the ransacking, however. Archaeologists found disarticulated skeletal remains from three to four men, 10 to 12 women and at least two children in the tomb. [Gallery: See Images of the Newly Found Tomb]

Newly discovered pyramid

The chambers that the archaeologists uncovered would have originally resided beneath the surface, leaving only the steep-sided pyramidvisible.

In one of the burial chambers the archaeologists found a sandstone sarcophagus, painted red, which was created for a "scribe" named Horemheb.

"Originally, all you probably would have seen would have been the pyramid and maybe a little wall around the structure just to enclose everything," said Kevin Cahail, a doctoral student at the University of Pennsylvania, who led excavations at the tomb.

The pyramid itself "probably would have had a small mortuary chapel inside of it that may have held a statue or a stela giving the names and titles of the individuals buried underneath," Cahail told Live Science. Today, all that remains of the pyramid are the thick walls of the tomb entranceway that would have formed the base of the pyramid. The other parts of the pyramid either haven't survived or have not yet been found. [Image Gallery: Amazing Egyptian Discoveries]

Military ties

It was not uncommon, at this time, for tombs of elite individuals to contain small pyramids, Cahail said. The tomb was excavated in the summer and winter field seasons of 2013 and Cahail will be presenting results at the annual meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt, to be held in Portland, Ore., from April 4-6.

Cahail believes that Horemheb's family had military ties that allowed them to afford such an elaborate tomb. Another burial chamber, this one missing a sarcophagus, contains shabti figurines that were crafted to do the work of the deceased in the afterlife. Writing on the figurines say that they are for the "Overseer of the Stable, Ramesu (also spelled Ramesses)." This appears to be a military title and it’s possible that Ramesu was the father or older brother of Horemheb, Cahail said.

He noted it's interesting that both Horemheb and Ramesu share names with two military leaders, who lived at the same time they did. Both of these leaders would become pharaohs.

 "They could actually be emulating their names on these very powerful individuals that eventually became pharaoh, or they could have just been names that were common at the time," Cahail said.

Multiple wives?

The bones the team discovered in the tomb indicate that considerably more women than men were buried in the tomb. This brings up the question of whether Horemheb and Ramesu had multiple wives at the same time. Cahail said that polygamy was a common practice among the pharaohs, but it's uncertain if it was practiced among non-royalty.

Another possibility is that the tomb was used for multiple generations by the same family and contains the remains of daughters, mothers and other female relatives. Yet another possibility is that the tomb was re-used, without permission, at a later date.

Radiocarbon tests, which can provide a date range for the bones, may be done in the future to help solve the mystery.

"You’re left with the question, who are all these people?" Cahail said.

A Jasper treasure

One of the most interesting artifacts the team found was a heart amulet, made of red and green jasper. The hard stone amulet was broken into three pieces.

"It's a beautiful object and possibly one of the best carved examples of these very rare type of amulets," Cahail said. "It was probably on the chest of one of the deceased individuals and there probably would have been some sort of necklaces and gold and things like that."

The purpose of this heart-shaped amulet was probably related to spells from the Book of the Dead that tell the heart of the deceased not to lie. The ancient Egyptians believed that, after death, their hearts would be put on a scale and weighed against a feather representing ma'at, an Egyptian concept that includes truth and justice. If their heart weighed the same or less they could obtain eternal life, but if it weighed more they were destroyed.

"Essentially, your heart and your good deeds and everything that you've done in your life is weighed against the measure of truth," Cahail said.

http://www.livescience.com/44476-ancient-egyptian-tomb-with-pyramid-entrance-discovered.html



Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 31-Mar-2014 at 21:32
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-Mar-2014 at 21:28
Hungary: Archeologists Discover Tomb of Attila the Hun
Budapest| Construction workers building the foundations of a new bridge over the Danube River in the Hungarian capitol, have unearthed a spectacular 6th century sepulchre. The analysis of the monument revealed that it was the burial chamber of a great hunnic leader, most likely  that of King Attila himself.

“This site is absolutely incredible!” explains Albrecht Rümschtein, an historian from the Lorand Eötvös University in Budapest and member of the team of specialists investigating the tomb. “We found many horse skeletons, as well as various weapons and other artefacts, all traditionally associated with Huns. These objects include a large sword made of meteoric iron, which could certainly be Attila’s legendary “Holy War Sword of the Scythians”, allegedly given to him by the god Mars himself. In fact, this definitely seems to be the resting place of the almighty Attila, but further analysis needs to be done to confirm it.”

Nicknamed “the scourge of God” by roman historians, Attila was the ruler of the Huns, a nomadic people originating possibly from Central Asia. He ruled from 434 A.D., until his death in 453 after a feast celebrating his latest marriage to a beautiful and young gothic princess named Ildico. He led many military raids on both the Eastern and Western Roman Empires provoquing what has become knowned as the Barbarian Invasions or the Great Migration, a large movement of germanic populations that greatly accelerated the fall of Rome and the advent of the Middle Ages in Europe. He his considered by most Hungarians, as the founder of the country.

The discovery of this funerary site could bring many clarifications concerning the origins and identity of the hunnic people and of Attila himself, which have both been sources of debate for centuries. The analysis of pieces of pottery and jewelry found on the site, should bring a new light on their cultural origins and trade networks, and help scientists better understand this badly documented people.

http://worldnewsdailyreport.com/hungary-archeologists-discover-tomb-of-attila-the-hun/



Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 26-Mar-2014 at 21:56
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 24-Mar-2014 at 21:02
If we don't learn from history...



Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 24-Mar-2014 at 21:07
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Mar-2014 at 22:45

How ancient Greek plays allow us to reconstruct Europe's climate

The open air plays of the ancient Greeks may offer us a valuable insight into the Mediterranean climate of the time, reports new research in Weather. Using historical observations from artwork and plays, scientists identified 'halcyon days', of theatre friendly weather in mid-winter.
"We explored the weather conditions which enabled the Athenians of the classical era to watch theatre performances in open theatres during the midwinter weather conditions," said Christina Chronopoulou, from the National and Kapodestrian University of Athens. "We aimed to do so by gathering and interpreting information from the classical plays of Greek drama from 5th and 4th centuries B.C."

Ancient Athenians would enjoy the open theatre of Dionysus in the southern foothills of the Acropolis and when possible they would have watched drama in the middle of winter between 15 January and 15 February.

From Second World War bombing raids, to medieval Arabic writings historians and climatologists continue to turn to surprising sources to help piece together the climate of our ancestors. In this case the team turned to the writings of 43 plays by Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes and several were found to contain references about the weather. Greece enjoys long, hot, dry summers, yet in contrast the rare theatre friendly 'halcyon days' of clear, sunny weather during winter appeared to be especially noteworthy.

"The comedies of Aristophanes, often invoke the presence of the halcyon days," concluded said Dr. Chronopoulou. "Combining the fact that dramatic contests were held in mid-winter without any indication of postponement, and references from the dramas about the clear weather and mild winters, we can assume that those particular days of almost every January were summery in the fifth and maybe in the fourth centuries BC."


Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 05-Mar-2014 at 22:47
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Mar-2014 at 22:27

New Evidence Suggests Ice Age Humans Lived For 10,000 Years On Bering Land Bridge

Researchers last week announced that new archaeological and DNA evidence  suggests that as early humans from the Ice Age made their way across Asia and onto the North American continent, they likely paused in journey, surviving in incredibly daunting arctic conditions for about 10,000 years before making their way to warmer climes.

As part of a recent news release from last week, scientists have discovered that the territory known as the Bering Land Bridge, which once linked Siberia to Alaska, was the permanent home to generations of Ice Age peoples, according to fossil evidence which shows that shrubby lowlands that once thrived in that region could have been enough to support human habitation. The findings have been corroborated with DNA data derived from ancestors of those people, which can still be found in the modern Native American population.

The theory is that as many as several thousand people lived in the Land Bridge territory, which is now completely under water, as part of the Bering and Chukchi Seas. About 25,000 years ago, however, Native American people arrived at this arctic locale only to find a crossable section of land, which they are purported to have inhabited for almost 10,000 years before continuing their nomadic migration into the North American continent, which many groups eventually making it down as far as South America.

“It’s staggering when you think about people living in temporary shelters – probably something like a tent — in the Arctic, especially in winter,” paleoecologist Scott Elias of Royal Holloway, University of London said in a phone interview to Reuters. “These are extremely rugged people. I’m sure they were very well adapted to living in the cold in terms of their physique, their physiology, their ability to withstand temperatures that would make most of us be absolutely miserable or die,” he said.

Dr. Elias’ perspectives are supported by a wide range of DNA discoveries over the past decades that reveal a marked genetic departure among the ancestors of Native Americans compared to other humans, most likely as a result of the group becoming  isolated from the rest of the human race for so long during their multi-continental trek. The result, which spans tens of thousands of evolutionary years, led them to acquire their own distinctive genetic blueprint. It is for this reason that most Native Americans have genetic traits that cannot be accounted for in the Asian populations.

Specifically, Dr. Elias and two of his colleagues, archaeologist John Hoffecker of the University of Colorado and anthropologist Dennis O’Rourke of the University of Utah, recently published in the journal Science that the Land Bridge itself was responsible for this genetic diversion. Their findings suggest that these Ice Age humans were able to depart Asia by way of the land bridge, which was a massive expanse of land created as a result of much-lower sea levels. However, it is also believed that, while these people were to traverse the land bridge, their pause in traveling into North America was most likely the result of  huge ice sheets that stood as impassible walls into modern-day Alaska and Canada. Over the 10,000 years that humans settled on the Land Bridge, the planet began to warm, enough so that these ice ramparts slowly melted away, thus opening a path to North America. As the walls diminished, sea levels rose, thus nudging the native people off of the land bridge and into North America.

In this way, the land bridge was something akin to a lock, encouraging the nomadic travelers of Asia to cross it, remain on it for ten millenniums, and then enter into the new world.

By and large, the land bridge has been regarded as a harsh, arctic landscape, unable to sustain human life for such a long period of time. However, Elias and colleagues believe that they have found compelling evidence under the water to suggest otherwise. While early man crossing the land bridge were most likely genetically well-adapted for the harsh conditions, new evidence, which began to be unearthed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the 1970s and 1980s while drilling into the seafloor to search for oil and gas deposits, uncovered core samples that included the surface of the submerged land bridge. What researchers found was a surprisingly fertile environment, considering its geological placement: fossil pollen, plant, and insect material were all present in those samples, suggesting that the land bridge was more like a tundra environment with some trees and hearty plants, such as birch, willow and alder. The wood, combined with the burning of mammoth bones, would have served as a key element for survival, both as fuel for cooking food and keeping warm, as well as the creation of shelters.

For as much as the environment in and around the land bridge was indeed a harsh one some 20,000 years ago, there is now plenty of evidence to suggest that the territory was indeed sustaining enough for humans to live there for a long period of time, thus providing an even more compelling picture of the inspired journey that led to human civilization on the American continents.

http://bionews-tx.com/news/2014/03/03/new-evidence-suggests-ice-age-humans-lived-for-10000-years-on-bering-land-bridge/

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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Mar-2014 at 03:57
Ancient Acropolis To Be Restored in Bulgaria's Kyustendil
Bulgaria's government has set aside BGN 5 M for the restoration of the Pautalia acropolis, near Kyustendil.

The project includes the restoration of the medieval fortress on the Hisarluka hill and the setting up of a museum with artifacts from the area.

Additional archaeological excavations will expose the early Christian basilica, which had been built on the site of an ancient temple of Apollo.

According to Kyustendil's mayor Petar Paunov, the project could be completed by the end of this year.

The Thracian town of Pautalia was founded in 5th-4th centuries BC near the hot springs in the area. Later the Romans developed it into a stronghold, balneological center and trading post. In the Middle Ages the town was called Velbazhd and had been part of the Byzantine Empire and the Second Bulgarian Kingdom.

http://www.novinite.com/articles/158544/Ancient+Acropolis+To+Be+Restored+in+Bulgaria%27s+Kyustendil




Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 04-Mar-2014 at 03:59
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 22-Feb-2014 at 00:00

Evidence That Biblical Philistines Originated As Migrant “Sea People” From Europe Unearthed In Ancient Jordanian Settlement

Swedish archaeologists on a dig in Jordan, led by Professor Peter M. Fischer of the University of Gothenburg Department of Historical Studies, Ancient History/Classical Archaeology have excavated a nearly 60-meter long well-preserved building from 1100 B.C. in the ancient settlement Tell Abu al-Kharaz. The building is from an era characterized by major migration.

According to Prof. Fischer’s U. Gothenberg project site, Tell Abu al-Kharaz (“Mound of the Father of Beads”) is located in the Jordan Valley north of the perennial stream of Wadi al-Yabis and approximately 4 km east of the Jordan River. Tell Abu al-Kharaz flourished in antiquity mainly because of its strategic location and an obviously rich surrounding natural environment: woodlands to the east, Wadi al-Yabis to the south and fertile land everywhere in its vicinity. The site occupies a 300 m x 400 m, and 60 m high, large natural hill (top elevation 116 m below sea level) with steep slopes that were easy to defend.

The archaeologists’ new finds support the theory that groups of so-called “Sea Peoples,” a name reportedlycoined by the ancient Egyptians with reference to of a massive maritime movement of migrants out of Southern or Eastern Europe to the Mediterranean’s eastern shores in the late 13th and early 12th centuries BCE. During the reign of Egypt’s Ramesses III, hordes of seaborne people bore down on the kingdom, were thwarted by the Egyptian armies and then settled along the Levantine coast and also emigrated to Tell Abu al-Kharaz. They and settled in the Eastern Mediterranean region all the way to the Jordan Valley.

“We have evidence that culture from present Europe is represented in Tell Abu al-Kharaz. A group of the Sea Peoples of European descent, Philistines, settled down in the city,” says Peter Fischer in a U. Gothenberg release. “We have, for instance, found pottery resembling corresponding items from Greece and Cyprus in terms of form and decoration, and also cylindrical loom weights for textile production that could be found in central and south-east Europe around the same time.”

Tell Abu al-Kharaz is located in the Jordan Valley close to the border to Israel and the West Bank, and most likely corresponds to the Biblical city of Jabesh Gilead (1 Samuel 11:1, 31:11; Judges 21:8). The Swedish Jordan Expedition has explored the city, which was founded 3200 B.C. and flourished three times over the past 5 000 years: around 3100–2900 B.C. (Early Bronze Age), 1600–1300 B.C. (Late Bronze Age) and 1100–700 B.C. (Iron Age – local periods). The first excavation took place in 1989 with the cooperation of the Jordanian Department of Antiquities. The Swedish Jordan Expedition under the direction of Dr. Fischer conducted a survey at Tell Abu al-Kharaz. Excavations began the same year and the most recent in autumn 2013. A number of walled towns from especially Early Bronze Age I and II, the end of the Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age I and II, and Iron Age I and II were exposed. These settlements date to approximately 3200 – 600 BCE. In total, 16 excavations have been completed.

The site’s height and position provide control of both the eastern, north-south running, main road through the Jordan Valley, and the road along the Wadi Yabis to the eastern highlands. The former rulers of the different cities were maybe claiming tribute from passing caravans. Dr. Fischer notes that on clear day the Tell Abu al-Kharaz vantage point provides a panoramic view from the summit of the site: the hills of Nazareth, Mount Tabor, Beth Shan, the eastern Yizreel Valley, the Samarian hillocks and the area north of Tell es-Saidiyeh in the central valley can be surveyed. Just below Tell Abu al-Kharaz lies Tell al-Maqbarah, an artificial mound which Dr. Fischer says once very likely was occupied by farmers depending on the protection provided by the fortified Tell Abu al-Kharaz during war times.

Remarkably well-preserved stone structures have been exposed during the excavations. The finds include defensive walls, buildings and thousands of complete objects produced locally or imported from south-east Europe. “What surprises me the most is that we have found so many objects from far away. This shows that people were very mobile already thousands of years ago,” says Dr. Fischer.

The scientists have made several exceptional finds in the last three years, especially during excavation of the building from 1100 B.C. where containers still filled with various seeds were found. There are also finds from Middle Egypt that were exported to Tell Abu al-Kharaz as early as 3100 B.C.

The exploration of the 60-meter long building discovered in 2010 continued during the most recent excavation. It was originally built in two levels of which the bottom level is still standing with walls reaching 2.5 meters in height after more than 3000 years.

Times of Israel news editor Ilan Ben Zion says that the Tell Abu al-Kharaz find also strengthens the linkage connecting the Sea Peoples and the Aegean — reinforcing the theory that the Philistines were among a number of non-Semitic tribes that migrated across the Mediterranean and settled in Canaan in the early Iron Age, alongside the emergent Israelites. Ben Zion says evidence of Sea Peoples inhabiting areas east of the Jordan River would lend credence to a seeming anomaly in the Bible — the location of Philistines far from their historic homeland along the shores of southern Israel in I Samuel 31. According to the book of Samuel, the Philistines raided northern Israel and settled in the abandoned Israelite cities “that were on the other side of the valley, and they that were beyond the Jordan.” However, Ben Zion notes that not all scholars are convinced of the validity of Peter Fischer’s Sea People hypothesis.

The archaeologists have found evidence indicating that Philistines, who lived in the building together with local people around 1100 B.C. utilized a defense structure from 3000 B.C. in the form of an old city wall by constructing their building on top of it. In this way, they had both easy access to building material and a solid surface to build on.

“One of our conclusions after the excavation is that ‘Jordanian culture’ is clearly a Mediterranean culture even though the country does not border the Mediterranean Sea,” observes Dr. Fischer “There were well-organized societies in the area long before the Egyptian pyramids were built.”

Dr. Fischer concludes that “One could assume after 16 seasons of excavations that, in principle, the entire occupational sequence of Tell Abu al-Kharaz and the typology of finds would be well established. Nevertheless, the latest four seasons of excavations brought to light new evidence by early Tell el-Yahudiyeh ware on the presence of people at the site in the MB II (18/17th century BCE), the beginning of the Iron Age (12/11th century BCE), and the historical periods following the Iron Age, … and some unique finds which on the one hand are exciting but on the other hand by their very uniqueness present certain problems in finding parallels.

http://bionews-tx.com/news/2014/02/14/evidence-that-biblical-philistines-originated-as-migrant-sea-people-from-europe-unearthed-in-ancient-jordanian-settlement/

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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Feb-2014 at 21:54

‘Active’ Bronze Age woman found in Highland woods

The grave revealed the remains of a woman in her early 40s

A BRONZE Age grave uncovered in the Highlands has revealed the remains of a woman in her forties who was suffering from toothache before she died 4,000 years ago.

Archaeologists from Glasgow-based Guard Archaeology were called in when a cist – a stone burial chest – was inadvertently disturbed by construction workers during landscaping of an access track through Cullaird Wood in West Torbreck, south-west of Inverness.

The team undertook a rescue excavation and found the human remains had been part of a burial.

Osteoarchaeologist Maureen Kilpatrick analysed the bones and discovered that they belonged to a woman aged between 40 and 44.

She said: “As the radiocarbon date demonstrates, this occurred at some point between 1982BC and 1889BC.

“Dental disease in the form of periodontal disease and a cyst were present and are probably symptomatic of poor oral hygiene, and are probably secondary to the moderate dental wear observed on most of the teeth.

“Both the right and left femurs appeared quite robust with fairly prominent muscle attachments, suggesting that the individual probably led a physically active lifestyle.”

She added: “Preservation of the skeleton was fair with 50 per cent available for study. Much of the right side, which had been in direct contact with the subsoil, had not survived and those bones that had were affected by surface erosion.

“A single individual was present and was deemed to be of probable female sex based on pelvic and skull morphology.

“Unfortunately, height could not be established due to the incomplete state of the surviving long bones.”

Ms Kilpatrick said: “The burial appeared consistent with the early Bronze Age, which was confirmed by the post-excavation analyses..”

The cist is located within an area rich in prehistoric remains, many of which have only been discovered within the past few years, primarily due to development associated with the expansion of Inverness.

The area appeared important for prehistoric groups from early times.

Ms Kilpatrick added: “Despite the use of cists spanning a period of at least 300 years, many similarities exist such as location, orientation of burial and material used, suggesting that local traditions may have existed which continued over many decades.

“However, each cist is unique in some way and the West Torbreck burial is no exception.

“For instance, pottery vessels are not always included in cists. In this case, a beaker found in the West Torbreck cist was evidently part of the burial rites and its function was to accompany the individual to the afterlife.

“Although a few others have been found in north-east Scotland, they are generally rare in Scotland and Britain as a whole. This find gives weight to the importance of the region and its close links with the River Ness, and possibly the North Sea region beyond.”

The area immediately around West Torbreck cist remains relatively rural, with the nearest known archaeological site being the Torbreck stone circle, which lies approximately 200 metres to the east in an area of agricultural land.

This small stone circle consists of nine upright stones and two outliers, which are thought to be the remains of an outer circle.

The sides of the recently discovered cist pit were found to be fairly steep and were completely covered with fallen branches, tree stumps and moss.

http://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle/heritage/active-bronze-age-woman-found-in-highland-woods-1-3304751



Edited by TheAlaniDragonRising - 15-Feb-2014 at 21:55
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Feb-2014 at 12:44
Originally posted by TheAlaniDragonRising

<h1 ="title" style="outline: none; font-weight: normal; font-size: 2.2em; color: rgb51, 51, 51; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 5px; margin-left: 0px; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', serif; line-height: normal;">Rabbits unearth a trove of New Stone Age treasure at Land's End</h1>
<span style="font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px; color: rgb51, 51, 51; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', serif;">Burrowing bunnies have uncovered an 8,000-year old treasure trove buried near Land’s End.</span><div ="widget story article widget-editable viziwyg-section-1024 inpage-widget-6138699 article" style="outline: none; font-size: 1.3em; margin-bottom: 6px; color: rgb51, 51, 51; font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', serif; line-height: normal; margin-top: -12px !imant;"><div =" " style="outline: none; line-height: 1.4;"><p style="outline: none; line-height: 22px; font-size: 14px !imant; margin-top: 0px;">The family of rabbits are believed to be responsible for unearthing the archaeological “gold mine” less than 200 yards from the Cornish landmark.

<p style="outline: none; line-height: 22px; font-size: 14px !imant;">Archaeologists said that the animals had uncovered arrow heads, flint tools and hide scrapers dating back to the Neolithic Age.

<p style="outline: none; line-height: 22px; font-size: 14px !imant;">Although a formal excavation of the 150-acre site hasn't started yet, the discovery suggests there could also be a large Neolithic – or New Stone Age -  cemetery, Bronze Age burial mounds and an Iron Age hill fort buried there.

<p style="outline: none; line-height: 22px; font-size: 14px !imant;">Team leader Dean Paton, 30, told the <em style="outline: none;">Daily Mirror: “It seems important people have been buried here for ­thousands of years – probably because of the stunning views. It’s a million-to-one chance rabbits should make such an astounding find.

<p style="outline: none; line-height: 22px; font-size: 14px !imant;">“They dug two little burrows right next to each other and all these ­treasures were thrown out of the earth. No one knows the scale of it but it’s a gold-mine. A family of rabbits have just rewritten the history books.”

<p style="outline: none; line-height: 22px; font-size: 14px !imant;">A team from Big Heritage, based in the Wirral, are to spend up to two years excavating the site.

<p style="outline: none; line-height: 22px; font-size: 14px !imant;">Dean added: “The bunnies are quite nosy and come out to see what we are doing.”

<p style="outline: none; line-height: 22px; font-size: 14px !imant;">Big Heritage also plans to create an “archaeobunnies” children’s trail at Land’s End.

<p style="outline: none; line-height: 22px; font-size: 14px !imant;">The iconic spot, which is the  most south-westerly point of mainland Britain, is a popular tourist destination. It gained widespread attention in May 2012 as the starting point of the London Olympics torch relay.
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/rabbits-unearth-a-trove-of-new-stone-age-treasure-at-lands-end-9104207.html





Perhaps ADR, they are ready to publish the sequel to "Watership Down??

http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/watership-down-richard-adams/1100247375?ean=9780743277709


http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/watership-down-richard-adams/1100247375?ean=9780743277709
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