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Contributions Of Islamic Knowledge to The world

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Moustafa Pasha View Drop Down
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  Quote Moustafa Pasha Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Contributions Of Islamic Knowledge to The world
    Posted: 10-Nov-2007 at 19:37
I have just finished reading "Lost History by Michael Hamilton Morgan" which enlightened me about the contributions of islamic thinkers to what scientific discoveries are oday. This is a must read for all kinds of people be it from Europe,Middle East  and other places to learn about the Islamic Empires contribution to science mathematics,astronomy etc.
 

9781426200922

Lost History
The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Scientists, Thinkers, and Artists
Written by
Michael H. Morgan

National Geographic | Hardcover | June 2007
978-1-4262-0092-2 (1-4262-0092-7) | 320 pages
$26.00/$32.00 (Canada)

 
ABOUT THIS BOOK

In an era when the relationship between Islam and the West seems mainly defined by mistrust and misunderstanding, we often forget that for centuries Muslim civilization was the envy of the world. Essential reading for any student seeking to understand the major role played by the early Muslim world in influencing modern society, Lost History fills an important void. Written by an award-winning author and former diplomat with extensive experience in the Muslim world, it provides new insight not only into Islam's historic achievements but also the ancient resentments that fuel today's bitter conflicts.

Michael Hamilton Morgan reveals how early Muslim advancements in science and culture lay the cornerstones of the European Renaissance, the Enlightenment, and modern Western society. As he chronicles the Golden Ages of Islam, beginning in 570 a.d. with the birth of Muhammad, and resonating today, he introduces scholars like Ibn Al-Haytham, Ibn Sina, Al-Tusi, Al-Khwarizmi, and Omar Khayyam, towering figures who revolutionized the mathematics, astronomy, and medicine of their time and paved the way for Newton, Copernicus, and many others. And he reminds us that inspired leaders from Muhammad to Suleiman the Magnificent and beyond championed religious tolerance, encouraged intellectual inquiry, and sponsored artistic, architectural, and literary works that still dazzle us with their brilliance. Lost History finally affords pioneering leaders with the proper credit and respect they so richly deserve
 
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  Quote -ohcrapitsnico- Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Nov-2007 at 19:52
Very interesting since I love anything related to Islamic history though it is a bit pricy. Thanks
Allahu Akbar
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  Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Nov-2007 at 21:39

I just wonder if the book really covers MOST of the more important achievers, or it is just a limited selection. That's important because the Islamic world have hundred of original creators.

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  Quote eaglecap Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07-Dec-2007 at 19:42
Originally posted by pinguin

I just wonder if the book really covers MOST of the more important achievers, or it is just a limited selection. That's important because the Islamic world have hundred of original creators.



hmmm
The Arab conquerors combined the knowledge of all the major civilizations which would include Greco-Roman, pre Islamic India, and Persia so I would not call their many innovations original. It is not a put down to say one civilization is built upon their predecessors- is it? The Greeks borrowed from the Egyptians and the Romans borrowed from the Greeks.

From an essay by Fjordman: Islam, the Greeks and the Scientific Revolution Part I

According to Scholar F.R. Rosenthal" "Islamic rational scholarship, which we have mainly in mind when we speak of the greatness of Muslim civilization, depends in its entirety on classical antiquity...Islamic civilization as we know it would simply not have existed without the Greek heritage."
Λοιπόν, αδελφοί και οι συμπολίτες και οι στρατιώτες, να θυμάστε αυτό ώστε μνημόσυνο σας, φήμη και ελευθερία σας θα ε
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  Quote Reginmund Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07-Dec-2007 at 23:10
Originally posted by eaglecap

The Arab conquerors combined the knowledge of all the major civilizations which would include Greco-Roman, pre Islamic India, and Persia so I would not call their many innovations original. It is not a put down to say one civilization is built upon their predecessors- is it? The Greeks borrowed from the Egyptians and the Romans borrowed from the Greeks.


Well, depends on how you define "original", as all progress is based on past inventions. We inherit knowledge and we improve on it; if this disqualifies for originality then it will be hard to come across truly original creators. I'd rather say putting together the combined learning of the Graeco-Roman, Persian and Indian traditions was in itself innovative and original. It had never been done before and it was to have an immense impact on the further development of civilisation. Thus Avicenna and Averroes deserve no less credit than Aristotle and Hippocrates.

I could suggest another book: "The Great Arab Conquests" by Hugh Kennedy. I haven't read it myself yet, but it seems to be in much the same vein as the aformentioned book. I'd also recommend you look up his other works, as he has written a lot on the Islamic civilisations and won much critical acclaim.
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  Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Dec-2007 at 00:20
The Islamic World has many original thinkers and contributors to the development of civilization, particularly during the Middle Ages. Al-Kwarismi, for example, is known by everybody. However, some are less known. My favorite muslim figure is the excentrical genious Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham). He was one of the pioneers of optics.
 
You can find his bio on here:
 
 
 
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  Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Feb-2008 at 15:33
Originally posted by Reginmund

Originally posted by eaglecap

The Arab conquerors combined the knowledge of all the major civilizations which would include Greco-Roman, pre Islamic India, and Persia so I would not call their many innovations original. It is not a put down to say one civilization is built upon their predecessors- is it? The Greeks borrowed from the Egyptians and the Romans borrowed from the Greeks.


Well, depends on how you define "original", as all progress is based on past inventions. We inherit knowledge and we improve on it; if this disqualifies for originality then it will be hard to come across truly original creators. I'd rather say putting together the combined learning of the Graeco-Roman, Persian and Indian traditions was in itself innovative and original. It had never been done before and it was to have an immense impact on the further development of civilisation. Thus Avicenna and Averroes deserve no less credit than Aristotle and Hippocrates.

I could suggest another book: "The Great Arab Conquests" by Hugh Kennedy. I haven't read it myself yet, but it seems to be in much the same vein as the aformentioned book. I'd also recommend you look up his other works, as he has written a lot on the Islamic civilisations and won much critical acclaim.


That is the norm in human civilization, adopting and improving. Western Europe inherited a lot from the Islamic World and utilized and in some instances improved upon it. If they were not original then the Islamic scientists (of various faiths ) and the Greeks and etc etc never were original. That would leave us with no one being original save for maybe Egypt and Babylon, which in turn would mean that they had some sort of prescience to the contemporary state of science and technology because surely while they had some concepts of astronomy and of surveying it is not close to complete as ours...

I'll have to check that book out Reginmund. Which other works does he have.

http://www.1001inventions.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=main.viewSection&intSectionID=309
here is an interesting site on Islamic science


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  Quote Leonardo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Feb-2008 at 08:14
What "revolution(s)" in science(s) - Mathematics, Physics, Astronomy, Biology, Geology, Chemics - ever came fron Islamic world?
 
 
 
 
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  Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Feb-2008 at 14:24
Originally posted by Leonardo

What "revolution(s)" in science(s) - Mathematics, Physics, Astronomy, Biology, Geology, Chemics - ever came fron Islamic world?
 
 
Perspective, algebra, trigonometry where all invented by Arabs
 
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  Quote Al Jassas Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Feb-2008 at 14:43
Hello Leonardo I was looking for a new debate Thumbs%20Up
 
The first revolution to happen in Islam was agricultural. Sources tell us thatbefore Islam came, the total agricultural output of Iraq was roughly 100 milion silver pieces, Dirhams, annually. After the conquest this fell during the civil wars to 28 million around 714 AD. When the Abbasids came they raised the vlue of the Dirham, reduced the amount of tax collected, from 20% to about 14%, and they had some 200 million in dirhams by 800. Land produce nearly doubled and in some places quadropled especially in Al-Andalus where new agricultural techniques were introduced. When the Moriscoes were kicked out the agricultural system in Spain nearly collapsed. Same goes for Transoxania and southern Turkey. Famines were rare and were mainly caused by civil wars not crop failures. Scientific approach to agriculture,in Iraq and Transoxania, started quite late ,early 13th century, only to be killed by the Mongols. This approach included selective breeding for animals and plants in a systematic way. For example, horses were produced in large number in that way and Abbasid and Mamlukes did not find it hard to find a large supplu of battle horses because these governments had made their own programs
 
There was an educational revolution. Nizami schools gathered scientists as well as scholars inside and provided a very similar atmosphere as modern, 18th century I mean, universities. They had ever changing correculums and many sciences like Algebra and Trignometry, both were considered as a part of geometry and astronomy respectively and the latter discipline is an Islamic invention from top to bottom by the way, became independent because professors who worked in those institutions and who approached those problems in a scientific way.
 
There was a health revolution. Quarantine was not invented by Italian cit states but by the Hafsids if I am not mistaken. Theirs wee probably the only country in the 14th century who did not suffer greatly from  the Black death. Hospitals existed in every major provincial town in the Islamic world and doctors visited villages and quarantined them if necessary. If Vaccination was the only invention Islamic medicine ever did, and its not, it would be sufficient to go under the criteria of "revolution". Any way, try this link and tell me what you think and if you say "so why did the rennaisance happen in Europe and not the Islamic world ?" I will give you the full answer:
 
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  Quote Leonardo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Feb-2008 at 18:33
Originally posted by pinguin

Originally posted by Leonardo

What "revolution(s)" in science(s) - Mathematics, Physics, Astronomy, Biology, Geology, Chemics - ever came fron Islamic world?
 
 
Perspective, algebra, trigonometry where all invented by Arabs
 
 
You are totally wrong ... Perspective was known to Greeks, algebra (of course not with this name) was known to Greeks, trigonometry was known to Greeks. None of these disciplines were truly invented by Arabs ...
 
 
 
 
 
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  Quote Leonardo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Feb-2008 at 18:41
Originally posted by Al Jassas

Hello Leonardo I was looking for a new debate Thumbs%20Up
 
The first revolution to happen in Islam was agricultural. Sources tell us thatbefore Islam came, the total agricultural output of Iraq was roughly 100 milion silver pieces, Dirhams, annually. After the conquest this fell during the civil wars to 28 million around 714 AD. When the Abbasids came they raised the vlue of the Dirham, reduced the amount of tax collected, from 20% to about 14%, and they had some 200 million in dirhams by 800. Land produce nearly doubled and in some places quadropled especially in Al-Andalus where new agricultural techniques were introduced. When the Moriscoes were kicked out the agricultural system in Spain nearly collapsed. Same goes for Transoxania and southern Turkey. Famines were rare and were mainly caused by civil wars not crop failures. Scientific approach to agriculture,in Iraq and Transoxania, started quite late ,early 13th century, only to be killed by the Mongols. This approach included selective breeding for animals and plants in a systematic way. For example, horses were produced in large number in that way and Abbasid and Mamlukes did not find it hard to find a large supplu of battle horses because these governments had made their own programs
 
There was an educational revolution. Nizami schools gathered scientists as well as scholars inside and provided a very similar atmosphere as modern, 18th century I mean, universities. They had ever changing correculums and many sciences like Algebra and Trignometry, both were considered as a part of geometry and astronomy respectively and the latter discipline is an Islamic invention from top to bottom by the way, became independent because professors who worked in those institutions and who approached those problems in a scientific way.
 
There was a health revolution. Quarantine was not invented by Italian cit states but by the Hafsids if I am not mistaken. Theirs wee probably the only country in the 14th century who did not suffer greatly from  the Black death. Hospitals existed in every major provincial town in the Islamic world and doctors visited villages and quarantined them if necessary. If Vaccination was the only invention Islamic medicine ever did, and its not, it would be sufficient to go under the criteria of "revolution". Any way, try this link and tell me what you think and if you say "so why did the rennaisance happen in Europe and not the Islamic world ?" I will give you the full answer:
 
AL-Jassas
 
 
Your infos are interesting even if very opinable ... anyway, true or not, I would not call them real scientific revolutions (I know I'm making here semantics Smile) and wikipedia is not not a reliable source Smile
 
 


Edited by Leonardo - 28-Feb-2008 at 19:37
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  Quote Cyrus Shahmiri Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Feb-2008 at 19:54
Perspective, algebra, trigonometry where all invented by Arabs

Who were these Arabs? Khwarizmi was not only an Arab but not even a muslim, he was a Persian Zoroastrian.
 
The first revolution to happen in Islam was agricultural. Sources tell us thatbefore Islam came, the total agricultural output of Iraq was roughly 100 milion silver pieces, Dirhams, annually. After the conquest this fell during the civil wars to 28 million around 714 AD. When the Abbasids came they raised the vlue of the Dirham, reduced the amount of tax collected, from 20% to about 14%, and they had some 200 million in dirhams by 800.
Mullahs say the same things about the Islamic revolution of Iran, they also don't consider that the population of Iran was around 30 million during Shah's rule but it is already more than 70 million.


Edited by Cyrus Shahmiri - 28-Feb-2008 at 20:10
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  Quote Al Jassas Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Feb-2008 at 20:56
Hello Cyrus
 
First time ever I heard about a zoroastrin named Muhammad ibn Musa as well as it is the first time I ever knew Khiva was full of Persians despite the fact they never ruled that city. Most scientists were Persians but many were Arabs and christians.
 
Second, what has the mullas have to do with our discussion, I agree with you that the revolution, which was not Islamic but nationalistic untill it was hijacked by the mullas, distroyed the economy of Iran but this has nothing to do with our discussion.
 
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  Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28-Feb-2008 at 23:58
Originally posted by Cyrus Shahmiri

Perspective, algebra, trigonometry where all invented by Arabs

Who were these Arabs? Khwarizmi was not only an Arab but not even a muslim, he was a Persian Zoroastrian.
 
Yes, you are right there. I meant Muslim LOL. Curiously enough, in Spanish we have the tendency to put all Muslim of the Middle Ages under the label or "Arabs".
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  Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Feb-2008 at 00:05
Originally posted by Leonardo

... 
You are totally wrong ... Perspective was known to Greeks, algebra (of course not with this name) was known to Greeks, trigonometry was known to Greeks. None of these disciplines were truly invented by Arabs ...
 
If for Algebra you mean the very limited works of numerical analysis of Diophantus of Alexandria, they of course Greeks had some notions of algebra.
 
If for trigonometry you mean the very limited calculations with cords of Ptolemey and others, then, yes, Greeks have some notions of it.
 
BUT, if you want real SERIOUS stuff, you have to start with Al-Kwarismi in Algebra, and with other Muslims mathematicians in planar and spherical trigonometry.
 
With respect of perspective between Greeks, I really wonder where you got that information, so I would like to ask you show your sources. Greeks believed eyes were some sort of laser-beam machines that scanned the scenes... LOL. With those principles so wrong I really doubt they invented even a preliminary idea of perspective, but I could be wrong. Show me your evidence, please.
 
 
 
 
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  Quote Cyrus Shahmiri Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Feb-2008 at 08:05

First time ever I heard about a zoroastrin named Muhammad ibn Musa

No one knows the first name of Khwarizmi, Muslim historians such as Tabari, gave him the epithet al-Majusi which means nothing except that he was a Zoroastrian.

it is the first time I ever knew Khiva was full of Persians despite the fact they never ruled that city.

Persians have ruled Khiva for thousands years and this city has been always full of Persians, if you go there you will see that most of people speak Persian (Tajiki).

Most scientists were Persians but many were Arabs and christians.

You are right, for example, contemporary of Khwarizmi, was also Muhammad ibn Musa, a great Arab mathematician and astronomer, in fact there was a great Arab family:

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0806092.html

Banu Musa, family of Arab mathematicians and astronomers of the 9th cent. A.D. The name means sons of Musa and refers to the three brothers, Muhammad, Ahmad, and al-Hasan. They supervised the translation of Greek scientific works into Arabic and helped to found the Arabic school of mathematics. The most important work ascribed to them is the geometrical treatise Book on the Measurement of Plane and Spherical Figures.

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  Quote Leonardo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Feb-2008 at 12:48
Originally posted by pinguin

Originally posted by Leonardo

... 
You are totally wrong ... Perspective was known to Greeks, algebra (of course not with this name) was known to Greeks, trigonometry was known to Greeks. None of these disciplines were truly invented by Arabs ...
 
 
With respect of perspective between Greeks, I really wonder where you got that information, so I would like to ask you show your sources. Greeks believed eyes were some sort of laser-beam machines that scanned the scenes... LOL. With those principles so wrong I really doubt they invented even a preliminary idea of perspective, but I could be wrong. Show me your evidence, please.
 
 
 
 
 
Have you ever heard of Pompeii? Have you ever heard of the so called pompeian styles of painting? Particularly the second pompeian style applies concistently perspective rules. Another example are the frescos of the so called "stanza delle maschere" in the house of emperor Augustus on the Palatine Hill in Rome. Surely Romans didn't invent perspective but they only inherited it from their Hellenistic models. These hellenistic models are unfortunely all lost so these proofs are only indirect, I know.
 
If you are interested in a reliable source contrasting with mainstream historiography I can recommend you the book of Lucio Russo "The Forgotten Revolution: How Science Was Born in 300 BC and Why It Had To Be Reborn".
 
 
 


Edited by Leonardo - 29-Feb-2008 at 12:55
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  Quote Mughal e Azam Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Feb-2008 at 13:43
Leonardo, you are correct in saying that Greeks had notions of Algebra and Chemistry, but you are wrong in saying that these sciences are today what the Greeks made them.
 
For example, Greeks had some idea about Physics, but it is the Physics of the 18th century that we use today. And it is the Algebra of the Muslims that we use today, not the lopsided algebra of the Greeks.
 
The Greeks had much more to say about Geometry than Algebra.
 
To say that the Greeks invented Geometry is to say the Indians invented Calculus, while all the Indians did was discover the values of the sine, cosine and tangent function. Besides inventing the modern numeral and decimal system.
 
But yes, mostly the Sciences as they are known to mankind were invented by the Greeks. The Greeks learned how to quantify and find the exactitudes of everything; mostly other cultures focused on the liberal sciences (history, politics, magic spells) while the Greeks focused on the exact sciences and the philosophy of research the whole world uses today.


Edited by Mughaal - 29-Feb-2008 at 13:44
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  Quote Mughal e Azam Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Feb-2008 at 13:46
I would also go to say that the Muslims focused primarily on these branches of Sciences, besides religion: Astronomy, Algebra, Medicine, Botany, Biology.
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