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Who is Mongke?

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    Posted: 17-Jan-2007 at 05:13
Can you give information about Mongke?
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xi_tujue View Drop Down
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  Quote xi_tujue Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 17-Jan-2007 at 06:50
 do you mean mongke khan?
I rather be a nomadic barbarian than a sedentary savage
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  Quote Suren Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 17-Jan-2007 at 06:57
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Mngke Khan (蒙哥汗) (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Mngka, Mangu) was the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire from 1251 to 1259. He was the son of Tolui and Sorghaghtani Beki, brother of Hulagu, and a grandson of Genghis Khan.

Mngke is noted as participating in the European campaign of 1236-1242, in the campaign against the steppe peoples to the southeast of the Russian principalities, the destruction of Kiev, and the assault of Hungary. In the summer of 1241, before the premature end of the campaign, Mngke returned home.

After the death of the third Great Khan, Gyk, Mngke found himself the champion of the factions of Genghis' descendants who aimed to supplant the branch of gedei. Batu, the senior male of the family, had almost come to open warfare with Gyk in 1248, the khan's early death precluding this. Batu joined forces with Tolui's widow to outmaneuver the regent, gedei's widow Oghul Ghaimish. Batu called a kuriltai in Siberia in 1250, which was protested as not being in Mongolia proper. However, Batu ignored the opposition, had his brother Berke call a kuriltai within Mongolia, and elected Mngke khan in 1251.

Realizing they had been outmaneuvered, the gedeiid faction attempted to overthrow Mngke under the pretext of paying him homage, but their conspiracy was clumsy and easily avoided. Oghul Ghaimish was sewn up into a sack and drowned.

Mngke, as khan, seemed to take much more seriously the legacy of world conquest he had inherited than did Gyk. He concerned himself more with the war in China, outflanking the Song Dynasty through the conquest of Yunnan in 1254 and an invasion of Indochina, which allowed the Mongols to invade from north, west, and south. Taking command personally late in the decade, he captured many of the fortified cities along the northern front. These actions ultimately rendered the conquest a matter of time. He dispatched his brother Hulagu to the southwest, an act which was to expand the Mongol Empire to the gates of Egypt. European conquest was neglected due to the primacy of the other two theaters, but Mngke's friendliness with Batu ensured the unity of empire.

However, while conducting the war in China at Fishing town in Chongqing, Mngke was shot to death by cannon (in 1259), which aborted Hleg's campaign in Syria and Egypt, staved off defeat for the Song, and caused a civil war that destroyed the unity and invincibility of the Mongol Empire.

In some texts Mngke is said to be killed by a rock falling onto his head while attacking Fishing town, while other texts said Mongke died of an illness or injury when attacking Fishing town.

In Jinyong's novel The Return of the Condor Heroes, Mongke is said to have been killed by Yang Guo, who hurled a rock with qi-enhanced power and unhorsed the khan, killing him.
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