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The Battle of Kadesh, 1275

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J.M.Finegold View Drop Down
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  Quote J.M.Finegold Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: The Battle of Kadesh, 1275
    Posted: 11-Dec-2004 at 22:28
NOTE:  Since I have nothing better to do... and I write these for fun, and for military history magazines around the world, I might as well share the knowledge... these are in no way the same articles I sell to magazines - these are simplified copies...written a lot worse....

These are taken from word documents, so the style might be off.

----------------

Rank upon rank of Egyptian infantry marched northwards, with leader to their head, to meet their enemy on the fields of battle.  The great campaign could no longer be delayed, and the consequent battle which ensued near a small town in modern day Lebanon  proved to be quite a display of arms, military deception, and it would be a magnificent trial of strength.  Ramesss II, Pharaoh of Egypt, was set on repeating the successes of his father, and creating a new name for himself, and his major target would be that very town, Kadesh, while his enemy, Muwatallis, King of the Hittites, would live up to his treaties of mutual defense which were agreed to by the petty princes of the area and the royal crown. 

Years before, Ramesss father, Sethos I, had also led a major force up the coast of Palestine and into modern day Lebanon and Syria.  Beginning at his fortress of Tjel, located near modern day El-Kantara, Sethos I marched through the Sinai Peninsula.  Soon afterwards, as he entered Palestine, he inflicted a great defeat on an army of rebels, referred to as the Shosu, and then he continued into southern Lebanon.  Although evidence is scant Sethos I did take Kadesh, and hieroglyphic documents point towards a battle between the Hittites and Sethos I, in which Sethos I comes out victorious.  Following this victory Sethos I left a garrison at the city of Beisan, or the Beth-shean of the old testament, and from there continued his manifold exploits in the region, which have been preserved through two stelae located at Beisan, on this day they came to tell His Majesty that the vile enemy who was in the town of Hamath had gathered unto himself many people and had captured the town of BethshaelHis Majesty sent the first army of Amun powerful of bows to the town of Hamath.  Again, the stelae affirm a victory in the name of Egypt.  In an unexplained event, however, Kadesh seemed to have fallen back into Hittite hands, and became a strong southern strong hold of the Hittite army, and this posed as a strategical menace to Egypts Near Eastern territories, and would thus be Ramesss objective of his great campaign north for obvious reasons.  Sethos Is campaign had not been the first.  Sometime before 1457 Pharaoh Tuthmosis III had defeated a powerful Hittite army at the Battle of Megiddo, near a powerful fortified town looking down upon the Plain of Esdraelon.  It was this Ramesss II wanted to imitate, and it was this that spurred his ambition to make a name for himself.

So, with vigor and ambition Ramesss II marched northwards, with a very improved army.  The Egyptian army was composed four divisions, that of Amun, Pre, Beisan, and Ptah.  The three former divisions had formerly been involved in battle in the area under Sethos I, as shown by the stele at Beisan.  These divisions evidently held a strong number of archers, as well as various infantry types, most probably armed with copper, or imported bronze, swords, and stone maces.  It is known that the Egyptians were a complete disadvantage logistically, as Egypt held no tin reserves, making it extremely difficult for the Egyptians to produce their own armaments for their military, and several documents found at Egyptian temples list armament trade between Syria and Egypt.  This latter fact could have possibly been another reason for the heavy Egyptian troop concentrations south of Syria, and for the repeated attacks on the area.  In any case, the Egyptians also made use of a mobile cavalry force, relying heavily on chariots, introduced by the Hyksos, and improved upon by New Kingdom Pharaohs.  Interestingly, Ramesss also improvised a force of cavalry, which seems to be the first attempt at it until the Persian Empire in the 6th Century B.C.E.  The New Kingdomarmies also relied profoundly on foreign manpower.  The Poem, conserved by an Egyptian scribe named Pentaur (although he is not the author), recites the existence of a corps in the army marching north composed of soldiers from a people called the Sherden.  The Sherden had been an earlier scourge on the New Kingdom during their naval invasion, and are better known as the Sea Peoples.  However, after their defeat the survivors seem to have been incorporated by Ramesss II, as five hundred and twenty of their kind were present with Ramesss at the time of the Battle of Kadesh.  However, tactics shown by the Egyptian army of the New Kingdom showed little improvement, as battles were frequently settled with archer duels, and quick charged by the Egyptian battle line, although, Kadesh would not be a failure of Egyptian discipline, to say the least.

Across the border, the Hittites were proving no less able in their military tact and administrative skill.  The king of the Hittites, Muwatallis, was left with a very gifted military machine, and it too had its share of successes in Syria and abroad. During the early 1200s Egypt and Hittites had pursued generally very peaceful relations, especially with their mutual fear of the growth of the Assyrians in and around the year 1250 B.C.E.  However, with the break of any chances of lasting peace by Sethos I, and the campaign against the Hittites renewed once again under the command of Ramesss II around the year 1274, Muwatallis was forced to forge a grand army and march south to meet the Egyptian threat.  Of these, the most interesting addition to his army include a contingent given by the Dardanians, familiar from Homers Iliad.  From further Egyptian sources it appears that the Hittites controlled much of Anatolia on the Aegean coastline, as the Hittites also received aid from the Lycians.  The poem, gives reference to a multitude of allies of the Hittites which joined the fray against Ramesss II, however, any numbers were most likely small, and played merely a minor role in the upcoming battle.  The largest player in the upcoming battle of Kadesh would be its extremely well trained chariot force, which was second to none.  The Hittite chariot was manned by a crew of three, wherein the Egyptian chariot had a crew of two driver and fighter.  This variation in the Hittite chariot seems to have been implemented to allow two fighters, one for defense, and another for attacking operations, allowing each one to worry about its job, and allowing superior performance on the battlefield.  The attackers were given either a lance or a bow, and the superiority of crew members gave the Hittites an advantage in the number of men during a melee.

Hittite military strategy, consequently, revolved around the supremacy of her chariot forces, and the kings always depending on drawing enemy armies into the open, where Hittite war chariots could charge and fight to full effect.  To this end deception was very important before battles to conceal the presence or news of the Hittite army, and it would play its cast at Kadesh.

Ramesss reached Kadesh sometime in the summer of 1275, and in an early morning he ordered his army to begin crossing the river Orontes.  Kadesh lay just above the Orontes, as it was located in the center of the angle formed by the Orontes and a small tributary of said river.  Behind Kadesh lay the plains of Lebanon, and thus Kadesh was the strategic gateway to this territory.  During the morning operations to cross the river Ramesss received two Bedouin fighters who claimed their interest in deserting the Hittite army.  According to the steles which survive and depict the subsequent battle, Ramesss accepted them and immediately extracted information from his two newest soldiers.  The two Bedouins told the Pharaoh that Muwatallis was still in the land of Khaleb, north of Kadesh, and Ramesss took the information eagerly.  Why Ramesss relied on information from two ex-soldiers of the Hittite army is unknown, however, the fact that his forward scouts had failed to detect the presence of a Hittite army may have persuaded the king to accept the news as fact.  In all haste Ramesss II rushed north to Kadesh, protected by only his bodyguard, in an effort to take the city in a surprise assault.  As soon as he had opened a gap five miles wide between his army and himself he realized his mistake.  He had opened camp and soon enough another two Hittite scouts had landed on his lap, and these told a very different story than that uttered by the Bedouins.  The Hittite position had been betrayed.  However, Ramesss II had little time to contemplate his strategic mistakes, and the failure of his reconnaissance, as the Hittite army was already upon his army.

The Pre division was quickly shredded as a strong group of Hittite chariots forded the Orontes south of Kadesh and arched into the Pre Divisions rear, forcing the division to give way before the Hittites.  What happens next is unclear, as all Egyptian sources begin to relate the courage of Ramesss II, and his personal feat of arms against the hordes of Hittite chariots.  Almost certainly the Egyptian army was torn apart by the opening Hittite charge, and they fared little better in the melee.  Throughout the battle much of the Hittite army seemed to be pre-occupied in ransacking the Egyptian camp, and consequently set the stage for their eventual encirclement.  In all respects, though, the fighting seemed particularly savage, and hundreds of death must have ensued.  Several infantry contingents manned by the Hittites took part of the melee, which provided much of the stamina in order to allow the chariots to successfully sack the Egyptian camp, however, the tables were soon to turn.  The Egyptians that had not crossed the river Orontes just yet appeared just in the nick of time and hit the Hittites in the rear as they focused on the camp.  From recent reconstructions it seems that Muwatallis was surrounded and was forced to break out of the encirclement and retreat to Kadesh.  It was an achievement that the Egyptian infantry had at all managed to hold the Hittites until further relief had arrived, and this is a testament to their discipline, but it remains amazing how little reconnaissance Ramesss II had completed prior to the battle and how brashly he reacted to two very strange Bedouins. 

After the battle Ramesss paraded the battle as a victory, one of the reasons so many steles depicting the battle have been found.  Consequently, since no Hittite records have been found as of yet, most histories notify the battle of Kadesh as an Egyptian history.  However, from what happened after, this was simply not so.  The Poem, the main written source on Kadesh, had notoriety on embellishing the battle, and after recent reconstructions of the battle it becomes fairly obvious that Muwatallis was unable to bring about his full force.  In order to successfully sweep the Egyptians from the rear Muwatallis chariots had to ford the river Orontes, which would require some sort of bridge large enough to support two of these vehicles abreast.  Meaning, that to complete such a maneuver so rapidly as to catch the enemy by surprise only a few of the chariots could have been successfully transferred to the opposite side of the river, thereby, failing to provide the Hittites with a complete advantage.

In any case, after the battle sources seem to contradict the success of the Egyptians.  One third of the Egyptian army was slaughtered, and Hittite casualties were most likely around the same since they too had been surprised and hit from the rear.  Ramesss II would go on to blame his troops for the failed victory, and continued to express the skirmish as a personal battle in which he defeated the Hittites alone.  Additionally, after the battle Syria remained strongly in Hittite hands, and even some lands to the south fell to Muwatallis, who replaced the present kings in those regions with kings of his own choice.  However, neither was it a complete Egyptian rout, as Ramesss, evidently, campaigned actively in Palestine around the year 1278.  Therefore, the most likely outcome of the battle was a tactical draw and a victory for the Hittites in the strategical sense.  It is true that after the battle the New Kingdom fell into a long period of decline, ending only with Persian intervention, and subsequent take over of Lower Egypt (that to the north of the modern day country).

Circa 1291 B.C.E. Ramesss II and the new Hittite king, Khattusilis agreed to a treaty, copies of which were found both in the Egyptian capital of Thebes and in the Hittite capital at Boghazkoy.  The general agreement was one of mutual peace on the shared borders and a military alliance.  The alliance was sealed with Ramesss marrying a Hittite queen.

Many historians have dismissed the battle as a mere skirmish meant to wear down armies before the larger battle expected to have occurred days after.  However, that battle never came, and it is increasingly obvious why.  It is likely that Ramesss II had been shaken by the overwhelming power of the Hittite military and with one third of his army now lying in the sands of Syria he most likely decided that it would not be in his best interest to fight the enemy so far away from Egypt, and so close to Anatolia.  He may have been skeptical at any signs of success and the moral in the Egyptian army could have been non existent.  In any case, it wouldnt be soon before the Hittite Kingdom would leave the annals of history, and Egypt was thrown into an extensive period of civil war and numerous foreign invasions.  In reality, there had been no victor at all.





--------------------------

Hope you enjoy

-Jon


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  Quote J.M.Finegold Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-Dec-2004 at 00:20
Sources:

Breasted, J.H., Ancient Records of Egypt
Cavillier, Giacomo, Some Tactical Remarks on the Battle of Kadesh
Ellis, Edward S., The Story of the Greatest Nations:Early Nations and Greece
Gardiner, Alan, The Egyptians
Gurney, O. R., The Hittites
Lichtheim, M., Ancient Egyptian Literature
Sayce, Archibald H,. History of Nations:  Ancient Empires of the East



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  Quote Tobodai Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-Dec-2004 at 18:22
good stuff there
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I have learned to hold popular opinion of no value."
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  Quote vagabond Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Dec-2004 at 01:11

Here's a link to Paul Halsall's Ancient History Sourcebook with the text of Ramses inscription:  http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/1326khita.html

Basically - Ramses takes a long time to say, "We kicked their butts!"  That's the perspective he wanted to leave for posterity (no puns, please. )

Leaving this behind (oops - did it myself) -

I'm looking for links to the other online primary sources on the battle - anyone have any?



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  Quote J.M.Finegold Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21-Dec-2004 at 00:12
Eh, I have a primary source on a word document, but I never jotted down the site:

--------------------------

Poem of Pentaur

    Beginning of the victory of King Usermare-Setepnere Ramses II, who is given life, forever, which he achieved in the land of Kheta and Naharin, in the land of Arvad [2], in Pedes [3], in the Derden [4], in the land of Mesa, in the land of Kelekesh [5], Carchemish, Kode [6], the land of Kadesh, in the land of Ekereth [7], and Mesheneth [8].

    Behold, his majesty prepared his infantry and his chariotry, the Sherden of the captivity of his majesty from the victories of his word - they gave the plan of battle. His majesty proceeded northward, his infantry and his chariotry being with him. He began the goodly way to march.
    Year 5, the second month of the third season tenth month, on the ninth day, his majesty passed the fortress of Tharu, like Montu when he goes forth. Every country trembled before him, fear was in their hearts; all the rebels came bowing down for fear of the fame of his majesty, when his army came upon the narrow road, being like one who is upon the highway.

    Now, after many days after this, behold, his majesty was in Usermare-Meriamon, the city of cedar. His majesty proceeded northward, and he then arrived at the highland of Kadesh. Then his majesty marched before, like his father, Montu lord of Thebes, and crossed over the channel of the Orontes, there being with him the first division of Amon named: "Victory-of-King-Usermare-Setepnere."

    When his majesty reached the city, behold, the wretched, vanquished [9] chief of Kheta had come, having gathered together all countries from the ends of the sea to the land of Kheta, which came entire: the Naharin likewise, and Arvad, Mesa, Keshkesh, Kelekesh, Luka, Kezweden, Carchemish, Ekereth, Kode, the entire land of Nuges, Mesheneth, and Kadesh. He left not a country which was not brought together with their chiefs who were with him, every man bringing his chariotry, an exceeding great multitude, without its like. They covered the mountains and the valleys; they were like grasshoppers with their multitudes. He left not silver nor gold in his land but he plundered it of all its possessions and gave to every country, in order to bring them with him to battle.

Behold, the wretched, vanquished chief of Kheta, together with numerous allied countries, were stationed in battle array, concealed on the northwest of the city of Kadesh, while his majesty was alone by himself, with his bodyguard, and the division of Amon was marching behind him. The division of Re crossed over the river-bed on the south side of the town of Shabtuna, at the distance of an iter [10] from the division of Amon; the division of Ptah was on the south of the city of Aranami; and the division of Sutekh was marching upon the road. His majesty had formed the first rank of all the leaders of his army, while they were on the shore in the land of the Amor.

The mound of Kadesh (from Koldewey)
J.H.Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Three,  335

    Behold, the wretched vanquished chief of Kheta was stationed in the midst of the infantry which was with him, and he came not out to fight, for fear of his majesty. Then he made to go the people of the chariotry, an exceedingly numerous multitude like the sand, being three people to each span [11]. Now, they had made their combinations thus: among every three youths was one man of the vanquished of Kheta, equipped with all the weapons of battle. Lo, they had stationed them in battle array, concealed northwest of the city of Kadesh.

    They came forth from the southern side of Kadesh, and they cut through the division of Re in its middle, while they were marching without knowing and without being drawn up for battle. The infantry and chariotry of his majesty retreated before them. Now, his majesty had halted on the north of the city of Kadesh, on the western side of the Orontes. Then came one to tell it to his majesty

    His majesty shone like his father Montu, when he took the adornments of war; as he seized his coat of mail, he was like Baal in his hour. The great span which bore his majesty called: "Victory-in-Tebes," from the great stables of Ramses II, was in the midst of the leaders. His majesty halted in the rout; then he charged into the foe, the vanquished of Kheta, being alone by himself and none other with him. When his majesty went to look behind him, he found 2,500 chariotry surrounding him, in his way out, being all the youth of the wretched Kheta, together with its numerous allied countries: from Arvad, from Mesa [12], from Pedes [3], from Keshkesh, from Erwenet, from Kezweden [13], from Aleppo, Eketeri [14], Kadesh, and Luka, being three men to a span, acting in unison.

Then the king of Khita-land,
With his warriors made a stand,
But he durst not risk his hand
In battle with our Pharaoh;
So his chariots drew away,
Unnumbered as the sand,
And they stood, three men of war
On each car;
And gathered all in force
Was the flower of his army,
for the fight in full array,
But advance, he did not dare,
Foot or horse.
So in ambush there they lay,
Northwest of Kadesh town;
And while these were in their lair,
Others went forth south of Kadesh,
on our midst, their charge was thrown
With such weight, our men went down,
For they took us unaware,
And the legion of Pra-Hormakhu [15] gave way.
But at the western side
Of Arunatha's [16] tide,
Near the city's northern wall,
our Pharaoh had his place.
And they came unto the king,
And they told him our disgrace;
Then Rameses uprose,
like his father, Montu in might,
All his weapons took in hand,
And his armor did he don,
Just like Baal, fit for fight;
And the noble pair of horses that carried Pharaoh on,
Lo! "Victory of Thebes" was their name,
And from out the royal stables of great Miamun [17] they came.
Then the king he lashed each horse,
And they quickened up their course,
And he dashed into the middle of the hostile, Hittite host,
All alone, none other with him, for he counted not the cost.
Then he looked behind, and found
That the foe were all around,
Two thousand and five hundred of their chariots of war;
And the flower of the Hittites, and their helpers, in a ring---
Men of Masu [12], Keshkesh [18], Pidasa [3], Malunna, Arathu,
Qazauadana, Kadesh, Akerith [14], Leka and Khilibu---
 
Cut off the way behind,
Retreat he could not find;
There were three men on each car,
And they gathered all together, and closed upon the king.
"Yea, and not one of my princes, of my chief men and my great,
Was with me, not a captain, not a knight;
For my warriors and chariots had left me to my fate,
Not one was there to take his part in fight."
Then spake Pharaoh, and he cried:
"Father Ammon, where are you?
Shall a sire forget his son?
Is there anything without your knowledge I have done?
From the judgments of your mouth when have I gone?
Have I e'er transgressed your word?
Disobeyed, or broke a vow?
Is it right, who rules in Egypt, Egypt's lord,
Should e'er before the foreign peoples bow,
Or own their rod?
Whate'er may be the mind of this Hittite herdsman horde,
Sure Ammon at should stand higher
than the wretch who knows no God?
Father Ammon, is it nought
That to you I dedicated noble monuments, and filled
Your temples with the prisoners of war?
That for you a thousand years shall stand the shrines
I dared to build?
The king, probably, is here identifying himself with Ammon.
That to you my palace-substance I have brought,
That tribute unto you from afar
A whole land comes to pay,
That to you ten thousand oxen for sacrifice I fell,
And burn upon your altars the sweetest woods that smell;
That all your heart required, my hand did ne'er gainsay?
I have built for you tall gates and wondrous works beside the Nile,
I have raised you mast on mast,
For eternity to last,
From Elephantine's isle
The obelisks for you I have conveyed,
It is I who brought alone
The everlasting stone,
It is I who sent for you,
The ships upon the sea,
To pour into your coffers the wealth of foreign trade;
Is it told that such a thing
By any other king,
At any other time, was done at all?
Let the wretch be put to shame
Who refuses your commands,
But honor to his name
Who to Ammon lifts his hands.
To the full of my endeavor,
With a willing heart forever,
I have acted unto you,
And to you, great God, I call;
For behold! now, Ammon, I,
In the midst of many peoples, all unknown,
Unnumbered as the sand,
Here I stand,
All alone;
There is no one at my side,
My warriors and chariots afeared,
Have deserted me, none heard
My voice, when to the cravens I, their king, for succor, cried.
But I find that Ammon's grace
Is better far to me
Than a million fighting men and ten thousand chariots be.
Yea, better than ten thousand, be they brother, be they son,
When with hearts that beat like one,
Together for to help me they are gathered in one place.
The might of men is nothing, it is Ammon who is lord,
What has happened here to me is according to your word,
And I will not now trangress your command;
But alone, as here I stand,
To you my cry I send,
Unto earth's extremest end,
Saying, 'Help me, father Ammon, against the Hittite horde."'
Then my voice it found an echo in Hermonthis' [19] temple-hall,
Ammon heard it, and he came unto my call;
And for joy I gave a shout,
From behind, his voice cried out,
"I have hastened to you, Ramses Miamun,
Behold! I stand with you,
Behold! 'tis I am he,
Own father thine, the great god Ra, the sun.
Lo! mine hand with thine shall fight,
And mine arm is strong above
The hundreds of ten thousands, who against you do unite,
Of victory am I lord, and the brave heart do I love,
I have found in you a spirit that is right,
And my soul it does rejoice in your valor and your might."
Then all this came to pass, I was changed in my heart
Like Monthu, god of war, was I made,
With my left hand hurled the dart,
With my right I swung the blade,
Fierce as Baal in his time, before their sight.
Two thousand and five hundred pairs of horses were around,
And I flew into the middle of their ring,
By my horse-hoofs they were dashed all in pieces to the ground,
None raised his hand in fight,
For the courage in their breasts had sunken quite;
And their limbs were loosed for fear,
And they could not hurl the dart,
And they had not any heart
To use the spear;
And I cast them to the water,
Just as crocodiles fall in from the bank,
So they sank.
And they tumbled on their faces, one by one.
At my pleasure I made slaughter,
So that none
E'er had time to look behind, or backward fled;
Where he fell, did each one lay
On that day,
From the dust none ever lifted up his head.
Then the wretched king of Khita, he stood still,
With his warriors and his chariots all about him in a ring,
Just to gaze upon the valor of our king
In the fray.
And the king was all alone,
Of his men and chariots none
To help him; but the Hittite of his gazing soon had fill,
For he turned his face in flight, and sped away.
Then his princes forth he sent,
To battle with our lord,
Well equipped with bow and sword
And all goodly armament,
Chiefs of Leka, Masa, Kings of Malunna, Arathu,
Qar-qa-mash, of the Dardani, of Keshkesh, Khilibu.
And the brothers of the king were all gathered in on place,
Two thousand and five hundred pairs of horse---
And they came right on in force,
The fury of their faces to the flaming of my face.
Then, like Monthu in his might,
I rushed on them apace,
And I let them taste my hand
In a twinkling moment's space.
Then cried one unto his mate,
"This is no man, this is he,
This is Sutek, god of hate,
With Baal in his blood;
Let us hasten, let us flee,
Let us save our souls from death,
Let us take to heel and try our lungs and breath."
And before the king's attack,
Lands fell, and limbs were slack,
They could neither aim the bow, nor thrust the spear,
But just looked at him who came
Charging on them, like a flame,
And the King was as a griffin in the rear.
Behold thus speaks the Pharaoh, let all know,
I struck them down, and there escaped me none
Then I lifted up my voice, and I spake,
Ho! my warriors, charioteers,
Away with craven fears,
Halt, stand, and courage take,
Behold I am alone,
Yet Ammon is my helper, and his hand is with me now."
When my Menna, charioteer, beheld in his dismay,
How the horses swarmed around us, lo! his courage fled away,
And terror and affright
Took possession of him quite;
And straightway he cried out to me, and said,
"Gracious lord and bravest king, savior-guard
Of Egypt in the battle, be our ward;
Behold we stand alone, in the hostile Hittite ring,
Save for us the breath of life,
Give deliverance from the strife,
Oh! protect us, Ramses Miamun!
Oh! save us, mighty King!"
Then the King spake to his squire,
"Halt! take courage, charioteer,
As a sparrow-hawk swoops down upon his prey,
So I swoop upon the foe, and I will slay,
I will hew them into pieces, I will dash them into dust;
Have no fear,
Cast such evil thought away,
These godless men are wretches that in Ammon put no trust."
Then the king, he hurried forward, on the Hittite host he flew,
"For the sixth time that I charged them," says the king---and listen well,
"Like Baal in his strength, on their rearward, lo! I fell,
And I killed them, none escaped me, and I slew, and slew, and slew."



Edited by DuxPimpJuice
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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Nov-2011 at 19:35
This battle is interesting as both the Egyptians and the Hittites claimed victory. Ramses' marriage to the Hittite king's daughter ended centuries of warfare and provided Egypt with a powerful ally

Edited by Nick1986 - 29-Nov-2011 at 19:35
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