Notice: This is the official website of the All Empires History Community (Reg. 10 Feb 2002)

  FAQ FAQ  Forum Search   Register Register  Login Login

Turkic world

 Post Reply Post Reply Page  123 5>
Author
merced12 View Drop Down
General
General
Avatar

Joined: 24-Sep-2005
Location: Turkey
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 767
  Quote merced12 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Turkic world
    Posted: 05-May-2006 at 06:02

Western-(Oghuz)-Turkic languages

AZERBAIJANI, SOUTH (Iran)

Country
Iran
Language code
AZB
Continent
Southwest Asia
Alternate language names
AZERI
Dialect names
AYNALLU (INALLU, INANLU), KARAPA- PAKH, TABRIZ, AFSHARI (AFSHAR, AFSAR), SHAHSAVANI (SHAHSEVEN), MOQADDAM, BAHARLU (KAMESH), NAFAR, QARAGOZLU, PISHAGCHI, BAYAT, QAJAR
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani
Geographical region
East and west Azerbaijan, Zanjan, and part of central provinces. Many in a few districts of Tehran. Some Azerbaijani-speaking groups are in Fars Pro- vince and other parts of Iran. Also in Jordan and USA
Population
13,000,000 or more in Iran (1991), over 20% of the population (1991), including 290,000 Afshar, 5,000 Aynallu, 7,500 Baharlu, 1,000 Moqaddam, 3,500 Nafar 1,000 Pishagchi, 3,000 Qajar, 2,000 Qaragozlu, 65,000 Shahsav- ani (1978 MARC); 5,000 or fewer in Afghanistan; 300,000 to 900,000 or more inIraq; 30,000 in Syria (1961); 530,000 or more in Turkey; 13,865,000 total or more
Status
Work in progress
Remarks
People called 'Turki' (Turks). In gene- ral not written, but occasionally with Arabo-Persian script in Iran. Distinctive dialect differences between the Azerbaijani of the former USSR (North) and Iranian Azerbaijani (South) in phonology, lexicon, morphology, and syntax. Teimurtash (7,000 in Mazandaran; possibly the same as Teimuri, Timuri, Taimouri) and Salchug (in Kerman Province) may be dialects. Qashqai is probably a dialect
Subsistence type
Agriculturalists, pastoralists
Total speakers
13,865,000
Religion
Shi'a Muslim
Also in
Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Jor- dan, USA


AZERBAIJANI, NORTH (Azerbaijan)

Country
Azerbaijan
Language code
AZE
Continent
Europe
Alternate language names
AZERBAIJAN, AZERI TURK, TURKLER, AZERBAYDZHANI
Dialect names
KUBA, DERBENT, BAKU, SEMAKHA, SALIANY, LENKORAN, KAZAKH, AIRYM, BORCALA, TEREKEME, KYZYLBASH, NUKHA, ZAKATALY (MUGALY), KUTKASEN, EREVAN, NAKHICHEVAN, ORDUBAD, KIROVABAD, SUSA (KARABAKH), KARAPAPAK
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani
Geographical region
Azerbaijan, and southern Dagestan, along the Caspian coast and beyond the Caucasian Mts
Population
6,791,106 in Azerbaijan and Russia (1989 census), 98% speak it as mother tongue, 4,000,000 are monolingual
Bible printings
1891
New Testament printings
1878-1982
Printings of whole books of Bible
1842-1891
National language
Yes
Remarks
High literacy rate. Cyrillic script is used in Azerbaijan. Used in schools, publications, radio. Significant differences from South Azerbaijani in phonology, lexicon, morphology, and syntax
Radio use
Yes
Religion
Shi'a Muslim
Total speakers
6,791,000
Also in
Russia (Europe)


BALKAN GAGAUZ TURKISH (Turkey)

Country
Turkey
Language code
BGX
Continent
Southwest Asia
Alternate language names
BALKAN TURKIC
Dialect names
GAJOL, GERLOVO TURKS, KARAMANLI, KYZYL-BASH, MACEDONIAN GAGAUZ, SURGUCH, TOZLUK TURKS, YURUK (KONYAR)
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish
Geographical region
Yuruk dialect in Macedonia (Greece or Yugoslavia)
Population
11,000, including 7,000 Surguch in Turkey (1965); 4,000 Macedonian Gagauz
Status
Needs survey
Remarks
Distinct from Gagauz of Moldova, Bulga- ria, and Romania
Total speakers
11,000 or more
Religion
Muslim


GAGAUZ (Moldova)

Country
Moldova
Language code
GAG
Continent
Europe
Alternate language names
GAGAUZI
Dialect names
BULGAR GAGAUZI, MARITIME GAGAUZI
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish
Geographical region
Cultural center is Kishinev. Some also in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Romania
Population
173,000 in Moldova (1979 census), 89% speak it as mother tongue; 12,000 in Bulgaria (1982 estimate); 185,000 total or more
Printings of whole books of Bible
1927-1935
Status
Work in progress
Remarks
Has literary status. Cyrillic script introduced in 1957. Close to Turkish, but uses Russian Orthodox Christian religious vocabulary in contrast to the Islamic vocabulary of Turkish
Total speakers
185,000 or more
Religion
Christian
Also in
Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Kazakhstan


KHALAJ (Iran)

Country
Iran
Language code
KLJ
Continent
Southwest Asia
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani
Geographical region
Northeast of Arak in Central Province
Population
17,000 and decreasing (1968)
Bilingual in
Farsi
Status
Needs survey
Remarks
Not a dialect of Azerbaijani, as previ- ously supposed. An independent language distinct from other extant Turkish languages (Doerfer 1971). Most are bilingual in Farsi; some children know only Farsi
Total speakers
17,000 or fewer
Religion
Muslim


KHORASANI TURKISH (Iran)

Country
Iran
Language code
KMZ
Continent
Southwest Asia
Alternate language names
QUCHANI
Dialect names
WEST QUCHANI (NORTHWEST QUCHANI), NORTH QUCHANI(NORTHEAST QUCHANI), SOUTH QUCHANI
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish
Geographical region
Northeast Iran, in the northern part of Khorasan Province, especially northwest of Mashhad. West dialect in Bojnurd region; north dialect in Quchan region (probably the largest), south dialect around Soltanabad near Sabzevar
Population
400,000 possibly (1977 Doerfer)
Bilingual in
Farsi
Status
Needs survey
Remarks
Midway linguistically between Azerbaija- ni and Turkmen, but not a dialect of either. Bilingual in Farsi. Not a literary language, but the government broadcasts in Quchani. Oghuz-Uzbek in Uzbekistan is reported to be a dialect of this. Distinct from Khorasani, a local Persian dialect in Khorasan
Total speakers
400,000 possibly
Religion
Muslim


QASHQAI (Iran)

Country
Iran
Language code
QSQ
Continent
Southwest Asia
Alternate language names
QASHQA'I, QASHQAY, KASHKAI
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani
Geographical region
Southern Iran, Fars Provin- ce; southern part in winter, northern in summer
Population
200,000 (1982 estimate)
Bilingual in
Farsi
Status
Needs survey
Remarks
Very close to Azerbaijani. Nomadic. Many are bilingual in Farsi and can read it well
Subsistence type
Rug weavers
Total speakers
200,000
Religion
Shi'a Muslim 100%


SALCHUQ (Iran)

Country
Iran
Language code
SLQ
Continent
Southwest Asia
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani
Status
Needs survey
Remarks
Probably a dialect of Azerbaijani
Religion
Muslim


TURKMEN (Turkmenistan)

Country
Turkmenistan
Language code
TCK
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
TURKOMANS, TURKMENLER, TURKMA- NIAN, TRUKHMEN, TRUKHMENY, TURKMANI
Dialect names
NOKHURLI, ANAULI, KHASARLI, NERE- ZIM, YOMUD, TEKE (TEKKE), GOKLEN, SALYR, SARYQ, ESARI, CAVDUR
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian
Geographical region
Turkmenistan. Also in Uzbek- istan, Pakistan, USA, and Germany
Population
2,028,000 in Turkmenistan (1979 census), 99% speak it as mother tongue; 721,600 in Iran (1986); 380,000 in Afghanistan (1983); 925 in Turkey (1982); 3,131,000 total
Bilingual in
Russian
New Testament printings
in press (1988)
Printings of whole books of Bible
1880-1982
Remarks
The literary language is based on the dialect of the Yomuts; some dialects differ sharply from it. Strong literary traditi- on. Cyrillic script used in Turkmenistan. 25.4% claim a good knowledge of Russian. Radio broadcasts in Turkmen in Turkmenistan and Iran. The so-called 'Turkmen' in Syria, and possibly Iraq, and Jordan, actually speak Azerbaijani; so-called 'Turkmen' in Tibet may speak a different Turkic language
Geological type
Black sand desert, narrow oases
Subsistence type
Agriculturalists: cotton; stock breeders: sheep; carpet weavers; traditionally pastoralists: sheep
Radio use
Yes
Total speakers
3,131,000
Religion
Sunni Muslim
Also in
Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, Germany, USA, Uzbekistan


TURKISH (Turkey)

Country
Turkiye
Language code
TRK
Continent
Southwest Asia
Alternate language names
ANATOLIAN
Dialect names
DANUBIAN, ESKISEHIR, RAZGRAD, DINLER, RUMELIAN, KARAMANLI, EDIRNE, GAZIANTEP, URFA
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish
Population
46,278,000 in Turkey, 90% of the population (1987); 845,550 in Bulgaria (1986); 37,000 in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan (1979 estimate); 120,000 in Cyprus; 128,380 in Greece (1976 WA); 63,600 in Belgium (1984 Time); 1,552,300 in Germany (1984 Time); 14,000 in Romania (1982); 250,000 in Yugoslavia (1982); 3,000 in Iraq (1990); 2,570 in Iran; 24,123 in USA (1970 census); 8,863 in Canada (1974 govt. statistics); 135,000 in France (1984 Time); 150,000 in Netherlands (1984 Time); 5,000 in Sweden (1988); 56,000,000 total (1991 WA)
Bible printings
1827-1941
New Testament printings
1819-in press (1991)
Printings of whole books of Bible
1782-1985
Remarks
Danubian is western; other dialects are eastern. Roman script now used
Grammar typology
SOV
Total speakers
56,000,000
Religion
Muslim
Also in
Uzbekistan, Iran, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, USA, Canada, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, France, Netherlands, Romania, Yugo- slavia, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Kyrghyzstan, Iraq

 

Eastern-(Chagatay)-Turkic Languages

AYNU (China)

Country
China
Language code
AIB
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
AINI, ABDAL
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Eastern
Geographical region
Yengixar (Shule) town, Hanalik and Paynap villages in the Kashgar area, and Gewoz village near Hoban. Xinjiang Autonomous Region
Population
5,000 (1988)
Status
Needs survey
Remarks
The language has the same grammar as Uyghur but much Persian vocabulary. They speak Aynu in the family, but Uyghur to outsiders. They do not intermarry with Uyghur. The Uyghur despise them and call them 'Abdal' or 'beggar'. The government counts them as Uyghur
Subsistence type
Caste of circumcisers
Total speakers
5,000


ILI TURKI (China)

Country
China
Language code
ILI
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
T'URK, TUERKE
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Eastern
Geographical region
Ili Valley near Kuldja, Xinjiang. Probably some in Kazakhstan
Population
120 approximately, or at least 30 households in China (1980 R.F. Hahn)
Status
Needs survey
Remarks
Reported to be a link between Chagatai and Kypchak (Uzbek dialect). Ethnically and linguistically distinct, discovered in 1956. Their oral history says they came from the Ferghana Valley (Uzbekistan/Kyrghyzstan) about 200 years ago. Spoken by older people. Younger people are intermarrying with neighboring groups. They understand Ili Turki but are adopting Kazakh or Uyghur
Total speakers
120 approximately
Also in
Kazakhstan


SALAR (China)

Country
China
Language code
SLR
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
SALA
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Eastern
Geographical region
Xunhua Salar Autonomous County and Hualong Hui Autonomous County in Qinghai Province, Jishishan Autono- mous County in Gansu Province. Also Yining in Xinjiang
Population
55,000 speakers (1982) out of 87,697 in the official nationality (1990 census)
Bilingual in
Uyghur, Chinese
Remarks
The people use Chinese as literary language. Reinhard F. Hahn says Salar is spoken by descendants of an Oghuz-Turkic-speaking sub-tribe that, in the 15th century area of Samarkand, split off a main tribe and 'returned eastward,' eventually settling in Western China. Their language has an Oghuz Turkic base, has taken on a medieval Chaghatay Turkic stratum through Central Asian contacts and finally acquired a stratum of features from local languages. An official nationality
Subsistence type
Agriculturalists, animal hus- bandry, commerce
Grammar typology
SOV
Religion
Sunni Muslim
Total speakers
55,000


UYGHUR (China)

Country
China
Language code
UIG
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
UIGHUR, UYGUR, UIGUR, UIGHUIR, UIGUIR, WEIWUER
Dialect names
KASHGAR-YARKAND (KASHI-SHACHE), YENGI HISSAR (YENGISAR), KHOTAN-KERYA (HOTAN-YUTIAN), CHARCHAN (QARQAN, QIEMO), AKSU(AQSU), QARASHAHR (KARAXAHAR), KUCHA (KUQA), TURFAN (TURPAN), KUMUL (HAMI), ILI (KULJA, YINING, TARANCHI), URUMQI (URUMCHI), LOPNOR (LOPNUR), DOLAN, AKTO TRKMEN
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Eastern
Geographical region
Throughout the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. Also in Germany, India, Australia, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, USA, possibly Morocco, Iran
Population
7,214,431 in China (1990 census), including 4,700,000 Central Uyghur, 1,150,000 Hotan, 25,000 Lop; 245,000 in Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, and Uzbekistan (1986); 3,000 in Afghanistan; 1,000 in Mongolia; 500 or more in Turkey (1981); a few hundred families of traders in Pakistan; 7,464,000 total or more
Bible printings
1950
New Testament printings
1914-1939
Printings of whole books of Bible
1898-1982
Status
Work in progress
Remarks
Roman, Arabic, and Cyrillic script have been used. Urumqi is the literary dialect in China. One of the five main official nationalities in China. It had a Pinyin (Roman) alphabet in China; a new Arabic script was introduced in 1987. Cyrillic script is used in the former USSR. Only the Roman alphabet is known in Turkey. There are radio broadcasts in Uyghur. Those in the north are more influenced by modern Chinese culture. The Akto Trkmen speak a dialect of Uyghur with 500 different seldom-used words. They have different appearance and customs. They say they originated in Samarkand, and are listed as Kirghiz by the government. There are 2,000 in two villages, Ksarap and Oytak in Akto County, south of Kashgar, Xinjiang. Dolan is a dialect spoken around the fringes of the Taklimakan desert in Xinjiang
Ecosystem type
Desert, oases
Geological type
Valleys
Subsistence type
Agriculturalists: grain, fruit, grapes, vegetables, cotton; traders; craftsmen
Grammar typology
SOV
Total speakers
7,464,000 or more
Religion
Sunni Muslim
Also in
Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Mongolia, Turkey, Pakistan, Germa- ny, Australia, India, Indonesia, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, USA, Taiwan, Kyrghyzstan, Uzbekistan


CHAGATAI (Turkmenistan)

Country
Turkmenistan
Language code
CGT
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
CHAGHATAY, JAGATAI
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Eastern
Status
Extinct


UZBEK, NORTHERN (Uzbekistan)

Country
Uzbekistan
Language code
UZB
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
UZBEGS, O"ZBEK
Dialect names
KARLUKO-CHIGILE-UIGHUR, KYPCHAK, OGHUZ, QURAMA, LOKHAY
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Eastern
Geographical region
Uzbekistan and throughout Asian republics of the former USSR. East of the Amu Darya and around the southern Aral Sea. Also in USA, Australia, possibly Munich, Germany
Population
15,000,000 in Uzbekistan (1986 esti- mate), 99% speak it as mother tongue; 3,000 in China (1990); 15,003,000 total
New Testament printings
in press (1989)
Printings of whole books of Bible
1891-1990
National language
Yes
Remarks
Arabic and Roman scripts used formerly, now Cyrillic script is used. Used in schools, publishing, radio, television, theater. Children speak Uzbek at home. Many speakers are bilingual in Russian, but rural people have limited proficien- cy. People are highly literate and about one-third urbanized. Much Persian influence in language and culture. Increasing ethnic pride. Patrilineal. 'Sart' is an obsolete name for sedentary Uzbek. 49% understand Russian. There are Uzbek-speaking Gypsy communities in Soviet central Asia. Distinct from Southern Uzbek of Afghanistan and Turkey. Oghuz may be a dialect of Khorasani Turkish (see Turkey) rather than Uzbek
Geological type
Desert, semi-arid; fertile valleys
Subsistence type
Agriculturalists: cotton, fruit, vegetables, grain; pastoralists: sheep; silk production; technicians, professionals, industrialists, communications, medicine, educators, administrators
Radio use
Yes
Total speakers
15,003,000
Religion
Hanafi Sunni Muslim
Also in
China, USA, Australia


UZBEK, SOUTHERN (Afghanistan)

Country
Afghanistan
Language code
UZS
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
UZBEKI, USBEKI, USBAKI
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Eastern
Geographical region
Many places in north Afghan- istan, especially Fariab Province. Maimana town is largely Uzbek. Also Pakistan, possibly Germany
Population
1,403,000, or 9% of population in Afghanistan (1990 WA); 1,981 in Turkey (1982); 1,405,000 total or more
Bilingual in
Dari Persian (20%), Pashto
Remarks
A literary language in Afghanistan, but the only literature is a newspaper. Arabic script. Speakers generally understand Dari Persian or Pashto. 5% to 15% literate. Distinct from Northern Uzbek of Uzbekistan and China
Subsistence type
Mainly settled agricultura- lists, some nomads, some craftsmen in gold, jewels, pottery, leather
Total speakers
1,405,000 or more
Religion
Sunni Muslim 100%
Also in
Turkey, Pakistan


YUGUR, WEST (China)

Country
China
Language code
YBE
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
SARYGH UYGUR, SARIG, YA LU, YELLOW UIGHUR, SARI YOGUR, YUKU, YUGU, SARY-UIGHUR
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Eastern
Geographical region
Sunan Yugur Autonomous County near Zhangye (Kanchow) in northwest Gansu Province
Population
6,150 speakers out of ethnic group of 12,297 (1990 census)
Remarks
An official nationality together with East Yugur, a Mongolian language. About one-third of the ethnic group speaks Chinese as first language. Written Chinese in use
Subsistence type
Animal husbandry
Grammar typology
SOV
Religion
Lamaist Buddhist, shamanism
Total speakers
6,150

Siberian-Turkish

ALTAI, SOUTHERN (Russia, Asia)

Country
Russia, Asia
Language code
ALT
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
OIROT, OYROT, ALTAI
Dialect names
ALTAI PROPER (ALTAI-KIZHI, ALTAJ KIZI, MAI- NA-KIZHI, SOUTHERN ALTAI), TALANGIT (TALANGIT-TOLOS, CHUY)
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Northern
Geographical region
Gorno-Altai AO mountains, bordering on Mongolia and China
Population
51,600 mother tongue speakers (86%) out of an ethnic population of 60,000, including Northern Altai (1979 census)
Bilingual in
Russian
Printings of whole books of Bible
1910
Status
Work in progress
Remarks
Has literary status. Cyrillic alphabet. Northern Altai and Southern Altai are not inherently intelli- gible, although there is a dialect continuum between them. Written Altai is based on Southern Altai, but is rejected by Northern Altai children. Teleut is considered a separate language outside the A.O. Different from Oirat (Kalmyk-Oirat), a Mongolian language. Russian is used as the second language by all except older people as a contact language, for litera- ture, and urban professional and cultural life. Altai is used in the familiar sphere and with speakers of other Turkic varieties
Religion
Secularist
Total speakers
51,600


ALTAI, NORTHERN (Russia, Asia)

Country
Russia, Asia
Language code
ATV
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
TELEUT, TELENGUT
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Northern
Geographical region
Gorno-Altai AO mountains, bordering on Mongolia and China
Population
(51,000 including Southern Altai; 1979 census)
Bilingual in
Russian
Remarks
Not intelligible with Southern Altai. Considered a separate language outside the region. Southern Altai is rejected by children
Religion
Secularist


DOLGAN (Russia, Asia)

Country
Russia, Asia
Language code
DLG
Continent
Asia
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Northern
Geographical region
Yakut ASSR
Population
5,100 (1979 census)
Bilingual in
Russian
Remarks
A separate language from Yakut. Russian is the second language. Dolgan is the contact language on the Tajmyr Peninsula, and is spoken also by Evenki, Nganasan, and long-- term Russian residents. There are two Cyrillic orthographies: one based on Yakut and one on Russian. Several publications in Dolgan
Total speakers
5,100


KARAGAS (Russia, Asia)

Country
Russia, Asia
Language code
KIM
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
TOFA, TOFALAR, SAYAN SAMOYED, KAMAS, KARAGASS
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Northern, Siberia
Geographical region
Siberia
Population
600 (1959 census)
Status
Needs survey
Remarks
The official name is Tofa or Tofalar. Speakers use Russian as second language
Religion
Christian: Russian Orthodox
Grammars
Monograph by V.I Rassadin
Total speakers
600


KHAKAS (Russia, Asia)

Country
Russia, Asia
Language code
KJH
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
KHAKHAS, KHAKHASS, ABAKAN TATAR, YENISEI TATAR
Dialect names
SAGAI (SAGAJ), BELTIR, KACHA (KACA), KYZYL, SHOR, KAMASSIAN
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Northern
Geographical region
Khakass AO, north of the Altai Mts., and a few north of the Oblast
Population
57,500 mother tongue speakers (81%) out of an ethnic population of 71,000 in Russia (1979 census); about 10 fluent speakers in China (1988); 57,500 total
Bilingual in
Russian
Status
Work in progress
Remarks
A literary language based primarily on Sagai. Cyrillic script
Total speakers
57,500
Religion
Russian Orthodox
Also in
China

SHOR (Russia, Asia)

Country
Russia, Asia
Language code
CJS
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
SHORTSY, ABA, KONDOMA TATAR, MRAS TATAR, KUZNETS TATAR, TOM-KUZNETS TATAR
Dialect names
MRASSA, KONDOMA
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Northern
Geographical region
Altai Krai, Khakass AO and Gorno-Altai AO, on the River Tomy
Population
9,760 mother tongue speakers (61%) out of an ethnic population of 16,000 (1979 census)
Status
Work in progress
Remarks
Mras is the basis for the literary language. Some sources combine Shor and Chulym. Shor is distinct from the Shor dialect of Khakas. A language association has been founded. A chair of Shor was formed in the Pedagogical Institute in Novokuzneck
Total speakers
9,760
Religion
Christian: Russian Orthodox



TUVIN (Russia, Asia)

Country
Russia, Asia
Language code
TUN
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
TUVA, TUVAN, TUVIA, TYVA, TOFA, TOKHA, SOYOT, SOYON, SOYOD, TANNU-TUVA, TUBA, TUVINIAN, URI- ANKHAI, URIANKHAI-MONCHAK, URYANKHAI, DIBA, KK MUNGAK
Dialect names
CENTRAL TUVIN, WESTERN TUVIN, NORTHEAS- TERN TUVIN (TODZHIN), SOUTHEASTERN TUVIN, TUBA-KIZHI
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Northern
Geographical region
Tuvin AO
Population
166,000 in Russia (1979 census), 99% speak it as mother tongue; 24,700 in Mongolia (1985 estimate); 400 in China (1990); 191,000 total
Bilingual in
Russian, Mongolian
Status
Work in progress
Remarks
Has literary status. Cyrillic script. Sharp dialect differences. Speakers use Russian as second language, and Mongolian near the border. Until 1944 Tuva was a formally independent state
Total speakers
191,000
Religion
Lamaist Buddhist
Also inMongolia, China


YAKUT (Russia, Asia)

Country
Russia, Asia
Language code
UKT
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
SAKHA
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Northern
Geographical region
Yakutia, near the Arctic Ocean, nearly the entire length of the basin of the middle Lena River and the Aldan and Kolyma rivers; 2,000 miles long. Jakutsk is the capital
Population
311,600 mother tongue speakers (95%) out of an ethnic population of 328,000 (1979 census)
Bilingual in
Russian
Printings of whole books of Bible
1858-1898
Remarks
Has status as a literary language. Cyrillic script. Yakut is preferred by most speakers for most purposes. It is used as second language by some Evenki, Even, and Yukaghir people. A town koine has developed in Jakutsk, which older speakers reject. Speakers are bilingual in Russian. Russian is used in higher education. Grammar
Subsistence type
Nomadic, fishermen, hunters
Grammars
Boehtlink, Otto, Veber die yakutischen Sprache
Total speakers
311,600
Religion
Traditional religion, Christian: Russi- an Orthodox


 

< name=back>Central-(Kipchak)-Turkish

< name=back> 

CRIMEAN TURKISH

Country
Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Language code
CRH
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
CRIMEAN TATAR
Dialect names
NORTHERN CRIMEAN (CRIMEAN NOGAI, STEPPE CRIMEAN), CENTRAL CRIMEAN, SOUTHERN CRIMEAN
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian
Geographical region
Removed from southern shore of Crimean Peninsula to Uzbekistan in 1944. Returned 250.000 persons end of 1996, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey. Some in USA
Population
250.000 returned from Uzbekistan to Ukraine(end 1996) 268,793 in Uzbekistan (1989 census); 25,000 in Romania (1982 estimate); 6,000 in Bulgaria (1990); 300,000 total or more. Estimates of more than 1,000,000
New Testament printings
1666-1825
Printings of whole books of Bible
1659-1986
Status
Work in progress
Remarks
The census counted them with the Tatar, but the languages are distinct. A literary language. Cyrillic script
Total speakers
300,000 or more
Religion
Muslim
Also in
Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, USA, Ukraine


JUDEO-CRIMEAN TATAR (Uzbekistan)

Country
Uzbekistan
Language code
JCT
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
JUDEO-CRIMEAN TURKISH
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian
Geographical region
Uzbekistan (most), Georgia, Kazakhstan
Status
Needs survey
Remarks
There may only be older speakers now
Religion
Jewish
Also in
Georgia, Kazakhstan


KARAIM (Lithuania)

Country
Lithuania
Language code
KDR
Continent
Europe
Alternate language names
KARAITE
Dialect names
EASTERN KARAIM, NORTHWESTERN KARAIM, TRAKAY, GALITS
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian
Geographical region
Lithuania and southwest Ukraine, small communi- ties in the Crimean Peninsula, city of Galiche
Population
535 mother tongue speakers (16%) out of an ethnic population of 3,340 (1979 census)
Printings of whole books of Bible
1819-1889
Remarks
Close to Karachay and Kumyk. A literary language. Cyrillic and Hebrew scripts. National language of the Karaim
Total speakers
535
Religion
Jewish
Also in
Ukraine


KARACHAY-BALKAR (Russia, Europe)

Country
Russia, Europe
Language code
KRC
Continent
Europe
Alternate language names
KARACHAY, KARACHAI, KARACHAYLA, KARACHAITSY, KARACAYLAR
Dialect names
BALKAR, KARACHAY
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian
Geographical region
Karachi-Cherkess AO. Some in USA
Population
191,000 mother tongue speakers (97%) out of an ethnic population of 197,000 including 131,000 Karachay, 66,000 Balkar (1979 census)
Printings of whole books of Bible
1978
Status
Work in progress
Remarks
As a literary language a common Kar- achay-Balkar language was created. Balkar and Karachay are almost identical. Cyrillic alphabet
Total speakers
191,000
Religion
Sunni Muslim
Also in
USA


KUMYK (Russia, Europe)

Country
Russia, Europe
Language code
KSK
Continent
Europe
Alternate language names
KUMUK, KUMUKLAR, KUMYKI
Dialect names
KHASAV-YURT, BUINAK, KHAIDAK
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian
Geographical region
Southern Dagestan ASSR. Also Turkey, USA
Population
189,000 in Russia (1970 census)
Bilingual in
Russian
Printings of whole books of Bible
1888-1897
Remarks
Dialects are apparently quite divergent. Has literary status. Cyrillic script. Different from the Kumux dialect of Lak. Speakers use Russian as second language. Education is in Russian
Total speakers
189,000 or more
Religion
Sunni Muslim
Also in
USA,Turkey


NOGAI (Russia, Europe)

Country
Russia, Europe
Language code
NOG
Continent
Europe
Alternate language names
NOGAY, NOGHAY, NOGHAI, NOGHAY- LAR, NOGAITSY, NOGALAR
Dialect names
WHITE NOGAI (AK), BLACK NOGAI (KARA), CENTRAL NOGAI
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian
Geographical region
Northern Caucasus, Cherkes AO
Population
54,000 mother tongue speakers (90%) out of an ethnic population of 60,000 (1979 census)
Bilingual in
Russian
Printings of whole books of Bible
Yes
Remarks
The literary language is based on White Nogai, Black Nogai, and Central Nogai. Dialect differences are slight. Cyrillic script. Speakers use Russian as second language
Total speakers
54,000
Religion
Sunni Muslim


KARAKALPAK (Uzbekistan)

Country
Uzbekistan
Language code
KAC
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
KARAKLOBUK, TCHORNY, KLOBOUKI
Dialect names
NORTHEASTERN KARAKALPAK, SOUTHEAS- TERN KARAKALPAK
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian
Geographical region
Karakalpak ASSR, Uzbekistan, along the lower Amu Darya and around the southern part of the Aral Sea
Population
293,000 mother tongue speakers (96%) out of an ethnic population of 303,000 in Uzbekistan (1979 census); 2,000 in Afghanistan; 295,000 total
Bilingual in
Uzbek, Russian
Remarks
It has literary status; some literature. Cyrillic script. Speakers use Uzbek or Russian as second language
Subsistence type
Fishermen in Aral Sea, agricul- turalists, craftsmen
Religion
Sunni Muslim
Total speakers
295,000
Also in Afghanistan


KAZAKH (Kazakhstan)

Country
Kazakhstan
Language code
KAZ
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
KAZAK, KAISAK, KOSACH, QAZAQ
Dialect names
NORTHEASTERN KAZAKH, SOUTHERN KAZAKH, WESTERN KAZAKH
Genetic affiliation
Altaic,Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian
Geographical region
Kazakhstan, northern Soviet Middle Asia and into western Siberia. Also in Germany
Population
6,556,000 in Kazakhstan (1979 cen- sus), 98% speak it as mother tongue; 1,111,718 in China (1990); 100,000 in Mongolia (1991); 3,000 in Iran (1982); 2,000 in Afghanistan; 600 or more in Turkey (1982); 8,000,000 total or more (1990 IBT)
Bilingual in
Russian, Uzbek
New Testament printings
1820-1910
Printings of whole books of Bible
1818-1989
Status
Work in progress
Remarks
Cyrillic script. Minor dialect differen- ces. Increasing ethnic pride and feelings of Islamic brotherhood. Increasing education in Kazakh. Many speak Russian as second language. Semi-nomadic. The names 'Eastern Kirghiz' and 'Western Kirghiz' have been erroneously applied to Kazakh. Radio pro- grams
Subsistence type
Traditionally pastoralists, now agriculturalists, industrialists
Grammar typology
SOV
Radio use
Yes
Total speakers
8,000,000 or more
Religion
Sunni Muslim
Also in
Afghanistan, China, Iran, Turkey, Mong- olia, Germany, Russia


KIRGHIZ (Kyrghyzstan)

Country
Kyrghyzstan
Language code
KDO
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
KARA-KIRGIZ, KIRGIZ
Dialect names
NORTHERN KIRGIZ, SOUTHERN KIRGIZ
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian
Geographical region
Kyrghyzstan, and in the mountains of surrounding republics of the former USSR
Population
1,906,000 in Kyrghyzstan (1979 cen- sus), 98% speak it as mother tongue; 141,549 in China (1990 census); 500 in Afghanistan; 1,137 in Turkey (1982); 2,049,200 total
Bilingual in
Russian
New Testament printings
in press (1990)
Printings of whole books of Bible
1982-1987
Remarks
Has status of literary language. Cyril- lic script. Increasing education. Increasing feelings of Islamic brotherhood. The names 'Eastern Kirghiz' and 'Western Kirghiz' have been erroneously applied to Kazakh. Newspapers, books, radio programs, TV, theaters, films, schools in Kirghiz. 29% speak Russian as second language
Geological type
Mountain slope
Newspapers
Yes
Radio use
Yes
Total speakers
2,049,200
Religion
Sunni Muslim, some Lamaism
Also in
China, Afghanistan, Turkey, Kazakhstan,Tajikistan

Idil- Ural-Turkish

BASHKIR (Russia, Asia)

Country
Russia, Asia
Language code
BXK
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
BASQUORT
Dialect names
KUVAKAN (MOUNTAIN BASHKIR), YURMA- TY (STEPPE BASHKIR), BURZHAN (WESTERN BASHKIR)
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian
Geographical region
Baskir ASSR, between the Volga River and Ural Mountains, and beyond the Urals
Population
1,000,000 mother tongue speakers (67%) out of an ethnic population of 1,371,000 (1979 census). 370,000 ethnic Bashkir speak Tatar as mother tongue
Bilingual in
Tatar
Printings of whole books of Bible
1899-1902
Remarks
It has literary status based on the Kuvakan dialect. Cyrillic script. Close to Tatar
Subsistence type
Oil workers, agriculturalists
Religion
Sunni Muslim
Total speakers
1,000,000


CHULYM (Russia, Asia)

Country
Russia, Asia
Language code
CHU
Continent
Asia
Alternate language names
CHULYM-TURKISH, CHULIM, MELETS TATAR, CHULYM TATAR
Dialect names
LOWER CHULYM, MIDDLE CHULYM
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian
Geographical region
Basin of the Chulym River north of the Altay Mts., a tributary of the Ob River
Bilingual in
Russian
Status
Needs survey
Remarks
Closely related to Shor; some consider them one language. The government considers them separate. Spoken in villages. Also spoken by the Kacik (Kazik, Kuarik). Russian is the second language


CHUVASH (Russia, Europe)

Country
Russia, Europe
Language code
CJU
Continent
Europe
Alternate language names
BULGAR
Dialect names
ANATRI, VIRYAL
Genetic affiliation
Altaic, Turkic, Bolgar
Geographical region
Chuvasia, east of Moscow, near the Volga River
Population
1,640,000 mother tongue speakers (82%) out of an ethnic population of 2,000,000 (1991 WA)
Bilingual in
Russian
New Testament printings
1904-1911
Printings of whole books of Bible
1820-1988
Status
Work in
http://www.turks.org.uk/
16th century world;
Ottomans all Roman orients
Safavids in Persia
Babur in india
`azerbaycan bayragini karabagdan asacagim``
Back to Top
merced12 View Drop Down
General
General
Avatar

Joined: 24-Sep-2005
Location: Turkey
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 767
  Quote merced12 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-May-2006 at 06:06
http://www.turks.org.uk/
16th century world;
Ottomans all Roman orients
Safavids in Persia
Babur in india
`azerbaycan bayragini karabagdan asacagim``
Back to Top
Digenis View Drop Down
Colonel
Colonel
Avatar
suspended

Joined: 22-Nov-2005
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 694
  Quote Digenis Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-May-2006 at 07:12

What's this ???

A drop of ink ?
Back to Top
erci View Drop Down
Chieftain
Chieftain
Avatar

Joined: 22-Jun-2005
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 1426
  Quote erci Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-May-2006 at 07:50
Muslim Greeks perhaps
"When one hears such music, what can one say, but .... Salieri?"
Back to Top
mamikon View Drop Down
Sultan
Sultan
Avatar

Joined: 16-Jan-2006
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 2200
  Quote mamikon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-May-2006 at 12:55
And I thought Ossetic and Dagestani languages were iranic....silly me

nice source btw...lol

http://www.turkiye.net/



Edited by mamikon
Back to Top
merced12 View Drop Down
General
General
Avatar

Joined: 24-Sep-2005
Location: Turkey
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 767
  Quote merced12 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-May-2006 at 13:38

in dagestan lot of azeri turks and avar turks live.

@digenis there are macedonia and sandzak  100000 _150000 turks live

http://www.turks.org.uk/
16th century world;
Ottomans all Roman orients
Safavids in Persia
Babur in india
`azerbaycan bayragini karabagdan asacagim``
Back to Top
Digenis View Drop Down
Colonel
Colonel
Avatar
suspended

Joined: 22-Nov-2005
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 694
  Quote Digenis Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-May-2006 at 16:15
@merced this is northern Greece mainly, and southern FYROM .
i was quiet good in geography
Back to Top
Iranian41ife View Drop Down
Arch Duke
Arch Duke
Avatar

Joined: 24-Dec-2005
Location: Tajikista
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 1832
  Quote Iranian41ife Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-May-2006 at 17:55

LOL

kurds are not turkic, ossetians are not turkic, and neither are dagestani's.

"If they attack Iran, of course I will fight. But I will be fighting to defend Iran... my land. I will not be fighting for the government and the nuclear cause." ~ Hamid, veteran of the Iran Iraq War
Back to Top
merced12 View Drop Down
General
General
Avatar

Joined: 24-Sep-2005
Location: Turkey
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 767
  Quote merced12 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-May-2006 at 17:59
Originally posted by Iranian41ife

LOL

kurds are not turkic, ossetians are not turkic, and neither are dagestani's.

who says kurds turkic??????or osset and dagestani who

 

http://www.turks.org.uk/
16th century world;
Ottomans all Roman orients
Safavids in Persia
Babur in india
`azerbaycan bayragini karabagdan asacagim``
Back to Top
Iranian41ife View Drop Down
Arch Duke
Arch Duke
Avatar

Joined: 24-Dec-2005
Location: Tajikista
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 1832
  Quote Iranian41ife Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-May-2006 at 18:59
Originally posted by merced12

Originally posted by Iranian41ife

LOL

kurds are not turkic, ossetians are not turkic, and neither are dagestani's.

who says kurds turkic??????or osset and dagestani who

 

the map.

"If they attack Iran, of course I will fight. But I will be fighting to defend Iran... my land. I will not be fighting for the government and the nuclear cause." ~ Hamid, veteran of the Iran Iraq War
Back to Top
merced12 View Drop Down
General
General
Avatar

Joined: 24-Sep-2005
Location: Turkey
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 767
  Quote merced12 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-May-2006 at 19:04

because in dagestan in ossetia and north irak turks are living.

 

 

http://www.turks.org.uk/
16th century world;
Ottomans all Roman orients
Safavids in Persia
Babur in india
`azerbaycan bayragini karabagdan asacagim``
Back to Top
mamikon View Drop Down
Sultan
Sultan
Avatar

Joined: 16-Jan-2006
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 2200
  Quote mamikon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-May-2006 at 00:28
Turks are also living in Australia, Canada and Germany...I am surprised Germany is not on the map...it probably has more Turks than Dagestan and Ossetia combined...

or maybe if the map did include Germany the bs would be too obvious?...
Back to Top
Iranian41ife View Drop Down
Arch Duke
Arch Duke
Avatar

Joined: 24-Dec-2005
Location: Tajikista
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 1832
  Quote Iranian41ife Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-May-2006 at 01:10
Originally posted by merced12

because in dagestan in ossetia and north irak turks are living.

 

 

that doesnt make any sense at all.

if that was the case then how come ossetia is highlighted while georgia isnt, im sure there are turks living in georgia as well.

keep living in your dream world.

"If they attack Iran, of course I will fight. But I will be fighting to defend Iran... my land. I will not be fighting for the government and the nuclear cause." ~ Hamid, veteran of the Iran Iraq War
Back to Top
Leonidas View Drop Down
Tsar
Tsar
Avatar

Joined: 01-Oct-2005
Location: Australia
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 4613
  Quote Leonidas Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-May-2006 at 07:55
its a clumsily put together map.

there are turkic speakers on the coast of dagestan, also west of ossetia and as a small minority in FYROM. that map exagerates all these groups.
Back to Top
Leonidas View Drop Down
Tsar
Tsar
Avatar

Joined: 01-Oct-2005
Location: Australia
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 4613
  Quote Leonidas Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-May-2006 at 09:50
look at the eastern half



the tadzik minority in china is missing

mongol speakers in sinkiang are missing, infact it doesnt show uiger/kazakh or mongol well in the overlaping triangle

the yellow uigher (yuger, west) number 6,000 yuger ethnicity according to ethnologue. How they can even get on the map is rather suprising. The East Yuger are mongol speakers.


BTW Salar is an interesting group for turkic lovers, its Oghuz




Edited by Leonidas
Back to Top
Behi View Drop Down
Sultan
Sultan
Avatar
Retired AE Moderator

Joined: 27-Apr-2005
Location: Iran
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 2268
  Quote Behi Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-May-2006 at 13:19
@to all forumers whom Concern:
please judge about it

I really wonder about a Mod.


first dear forumers take look at: http://www.allempires.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=10604&am p;PN=2

there is Map of Kurdish people from Britanica:

Since this map is fiction and contains political propaganda I moved it to this forum. The last thing we need is another ethnic dispute over a fictitious name in real countries.

a Mod. as you see , calimed the map is political propaganda & is Fiction!!!
then topic moved to amusement & Perspolis was threated for warning & he is indebted for this kindness

Perspolis. Political propaganda is an offense contrary to codes of conduct at AE. I was gentle with you. You should count your lucky stars that I brought this thread to the Historical amusement forum and not given you a warning.

now, Here at first post, we see some data (really in font & size, Merced12 at least you could edit that) from http://www.turkiye.net/
seems as ISP or web hosting or somthing like that.

I wonder, Why Persepolis one was Fiction & political
propaganda but not this one??!!
I wonder, Britanica is
Fiction & political but http://www.turkiye.net/   ??!!
are ISPs in Turkey considers as Academy??
I guess yes!!! bcuz britanica is
Fiction & political propaganda.

I said my view & keep looking for yours
What is your Opinon??
was mod. decision right in both topic??
if yes, why does not act for it???
If wrong why did hapean for that withot any excuse???

I hope Mods be honest
& I hope they don't ban me for this protest
Back to Top
merced12 View Drop Down
General
General
Avatar

Joined: 24-Sep-2005
Location: Turkey
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 767
  Quote merced12 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-May-2006 at 13:29

land of aryan this thread about turkic not kurd

 

http://www.turks.org.uk/
16th century world;
Ottomans all Roman orients
Safavids in Persia
Babur in india
`azerbaycan bayragini karabagdan asacagim``
Back to Top
Behi View Drop Down
Sultan
Sultan
Avatar
Retired AE Moderator

Joined: 27-Apr-2005
Location: Iran
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 2268
  Quote Behi Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-May-2006 at 13:44
@To all Forumers whom Concern:
Originally posted by merced12

land of aryan this thread about turkic not kurd

Thank you,
It seems you clear it,
by this unwritten rule, every topic about Turk with all ## are reliable & devine but others not,

Back to Top
The Charioteer View Drop Down
Colonel
Colonel
Avatar

Joined: 16-Feb-2006
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 735
  Quote The Charioteer Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-May-2006 at 13:48

@ Land of Aryan,

You post is only a sort of complain and inquiry. AE wont ban you for that, dont worry.

but you could have PMed Zagros or Perseas regarding this, as they are Mods specificly assigned to this section, and let them judge.

 

Back to Top
Behi View Drop Down
Sultan
Sultan
Avatar
Retired AE Moderator

Joined: 27-Apr-2005
Location: Iran
Online Status: Offline
Posts: 2268
  Quote Behi Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-May-2006 at 14:06
@Charioter:
I'm in AE for more than one year not some months ago with more than 2100 posts,
it's long time & I know it, I also send it for Komnenos.
I wanted to see others view


Edited by Land of Aryan
Back to Top
 Post Reply Post Reply Page  123 5>

Forum Jump Forum Permissions View Drop Down

Bulletin Board Software by Web Wiz Forums® version 9.56a [Free Express Edition]
Copyright ©2001-2009 Web Wiz

This page was generated in 0.195 seconds.