AENEAS, son of Anch?ses and Venus, fled from Troy after its capture by the Greeks (1184?) and came to Italy. He was accompanied by his son I?LUS and a number of brave followers. LAT?NUS, who was king of the district where Aenéas landed, received him kindly, and gave him his daughter, LAVINIA, in marriage. Aenéas founded a city, which he named LAVINIUM, in honor of his wife. After his death, I?lus, also called ASCANIUS, became king. He founded on Mount Alb?nus a city, which he called ALBA LONGA, and to it transferred the capital. Here a number of kings ruled in succession, the last of whom was SILVIUS PROCAS, who left two sons, NUMITOR, the older, and AMULIUS. They divided the kingdom, the former choosing the property, the latter the crown. Numitor had two children, a son and a daughter. Amulius, fearing that they might aspire to the throne, murdered the son, and made the daughter, RHEA SILVIA, a Vestal virgin. This he did to prevent her marrying, for this was forbidden to Vestal virgins. She, however, became pregnant by Mars, and had twin sons, whom she named ROMULUS and REMUS. When Amulius was informed of this, he cast their mother into prison, and ordered the boys to be drowned in the Tiber. At this time the river was swollen by rains, and had overflowed its banks. The boys were thrown into a shallow place, escaped drowning, and, the water subsiding, they were left on dry land. A she wolf, hearing their cries, ran to them and suckled them. FAUSTULUS, a shepherd who was near by, seeing this, took the boys home and reared them. When they grew up and learned who they were, they killed Amulius, and gave the kingdom to their grandfather, Numitor. Then (753) they founded a city on Mount Palat?nus, which they called ROME, after Romulus. While they were building a wall around this city, Remus was killed in a quarrel with his brother. Romulus, first king of Rome, ruled for thirty-seven years (753-716). He found the city needed inhabitants, and to increase their number he opened an asylum, to which many refugees fled. But wives were needed. To supply this want, he celebrated games, and invited the neighboring people, the SABINES, to attend the sports. When all were engaged in looking on, the Romans suddenly made a rush and seized the Sabine virgins. This bold robbery caused a war, which finally ended in a compromise, and a sharing of the city with the Sabines. Romulus then chose one hundred Senators, whom he called PATRES. He also divided the people into thirty wards. In the thirty-seventh year of his reign he disappeared, and was believed to have been taken up into heaven. One year followed without any king, and then NUMA POMPILIUS(716-673), a Sabine from Cures, was chosen. He was a good man, and a great lawgiver. Many sacred rites were instituted by him to civilize his barbarous subjects. He reformed the calendar, and built a temple to the god Janus. TULLUS HOSTILIUS(673-641) succeeded him. His reign was noted for the fall of Alba Longa. Then came ANCUS MARCIUS (640-616), the grandson of Numa. He was a good ruler and popular. He conquered the Latins, enlarged the city, and built new walls around it. He was the first to build a prison, and to bridge the Tiber. [Footnote: This bridge was called the _pons sublicius_ i. e. a bridge resting on piles.] He also founded a city at its mouth, which he called OSTIA. The next three kings were of Etruscan origin. LUCIUS TARQUINIUS PRISCUS (616-578) went to Rome first during the reign of Ancus, and, becoming a favorite of his, was appointed guardian of his sons. After the death of Ancus, he wrested the government from them, and became king himself. He increased the Senators to two hundred, carried on many wars successfully, and thus enlarged the territory of the city. He built the CLO?CA MAXIMA, or great sewer, which is used to-day. Tarquin also began the temple of JUPITER CAPITOL?NUS, on the Capitoline Hill. He was killed in the thirty-eighth year of his reign by the sons of Ancus, from whom he had snatched the kingdom. His successor was his son-in-law, SERVIUS TULLIUS (578-534), who enlarged the city still more, built a temple to Di?na, and took a census of the people. It was found that the city and suburbs contained 83,000 souls. Servius was killed by his daughter, Tullia, and her husband, Tarquinius Superbus, son of Priscus. TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS succeeded to the throne (534-510). He was energetic in war, and conquered many neighboring places, among which was Ardea, a city of the Rutuli. He finished the temple of Jupiter, begun by his father. He also obtained the SIBYLLINE BOOKS. A woman from Cumae, a Greek colony, came to him, and offered for sale nine books of oracles and prophecies; but the price seemed exorbitant, and he refused to purchase them. The sibyl then burned three, and, returning, asked the same price for the remaining six. The king again refused. She burned three more, and obtained from the monarch for her last three the original price. These books were preserved in the Capitol, and held in great respect. They were destroyed with the temple by fire, on July 6, 83. Two men had charge of them, who were called _duoviri sacr?rum_. The worship of the Greek deities, Apollo and Lat?na, among others, was introduced through these books. In 510 a conspiracy was formed against Tarquin by BRUTUS, COLLAT?NUS, and others, and the gates of the city were closed against him. [Footnote: The cause of the conspiracy was the violence offered by Sextus, Tarquin's son, to Lucretia, wife of Collat?nus. Unable to bear the humiliation, she killed herself in the presence of her family, having first appealed to them to avenge her wrongs] A Republic was then formed, with two Consuls at the head of the government. Tarquin made three attempts to recover his power at Rome, all unsuccessful. [Footnote: The victory of Lake Regillus, which has been painted by Macaulay in glowing colors, was gained over Tarquin in 509.] In the last attempt (508), he was assisted by PORSENA, king of the Etruscans. They advanced against the city from the north. HORATIUS COCLES, a brave young man, alone defended the bridge (_pans sublicius_) over the Tiber until it was torn down behind him. He then swam the river in safety to his friends. [Footnote: See Macaulay's "Lays of Ancient Rome."] During the siege of the city, QUINTUS MUCIUS SCAEVOLA, a courageous youth, stole into the camp of the enemy with the intention of killing King Porsena, but by mistake killed his secretary instead. He was seized and carried to Porsena, who tried to frighten him by threats of burning. Instead of replying, Scaevola held his right hand on the burning altar until it was consumed. The king, admiring this heroic act, pardoned him. Out of gratitude, Scaevola told the king that three hundred other men as brave as himself had sworn to kill him. Porsena was so alarmed, that he made peace, and withdrew from the city. Mucius received his name Scaevola (left-handed) on account of this loss of his right hand. Tarquin went to Tusculum, where he spent the rest of his days in retirement. In 494 the plebeians at Rome rebelled, because they were exhausted by taxes and military service. A large part of them left the city, and crossed the Anio to a mountain (Mons Sacer) near by. The Senate sent MENENIUS AGRIPPA to treat with them. By his exertions [Footnote: Menenius is said to have related for them the famous fable of the belly and members.] the people were induced to return to the city, and for the first time were allowed to have officers chosen from their own ranks to represent their interests. These officers were called Trib?ni Plebis. Two years later (492) Gaius Marcius, one of the patricians, met and defeated the Volsci, a neighboring tribe, at CORIOLI. For this he received the name of CORIOL?NUS. During a famine, he advised that grain should not be distributed to the plebeians unless they relinquished their right to choose the Trib?ni Plebis. For this he was banished. Having obtained command of a Volscian army, he marched against Rome, and came within five miles of the city. Here he was met by a deputation of his own citizens, who begged him to spare the city. He refused; but, when his wife and mother added their tears, he was induced to withdraw the army. He was afterwards killed by the Volscians as a traitor. [Footnote: See Shakespeare's "Coriolanus."] After the expulsion of Tarquin, the FABII were among the most distinguished men at Rome. There were three brothers, and for seven consecutive years one of them was Consul. It looked as if the Fabian gens would get control of the government. The state took alarm, and the whole gens, numbering 306 males and 4,000 dependents, was driven from Rome. For two years they carried on war alone against the Veientes, but finally were surprised and slain (477). One boy, Quintus Fabius Vibul?nus, alone survived to preserve the name and gens of the Fabii. In 458 the Romans were hard pressed by the Aequi. Their territory had been overrun, and their Consuls, cut off in some defiles, were in imminent danger of destruction. LUCIUS QUINCTUS CINCINN?TUS was appointed Dictator. He was one of the most noted Roman warriors of this period. The ambassadors sent to inform him of his appointment found him working with bare arms in his field. Cincinn?tus told his wife to throw over him his mantle, that he might receive the messengers of the state with proper respect. Such was the simplicity of his character, and yet so deeply did he reverence authority. The Aequi could not withstand his vigorous campaign, but were obliged soon to surrender, and made to pass under the yoke as a sign of humiliation. The Dictator enjoyed a well earned triumph. In 451 one of the Decemviri, APPIUS CLAUDIUS, was captivated by the beauty of a patrician maiden, VIRGINIA, [Footnote: See Macaulay's "Lays of Ancient Rome."] a daughter of Lucius Virginius, and the betrothed of Lucius Icilius. He formed, with one of his tools, an infamous plot to obtain possession of Virginia, under pretence that she was a slave. When, in spite of all the efforts of the girl's father and lover, the Decemvir had, in his official capacity, adjudged her to be the slave of his tool, Virginius plunged a knife into his daughter's bosom, in presence of the people in the Forum. The enraged populace compelled the Decemviri to resign, and Appius, to escape worse punishment, put an end to his own life. MARCUS FURIUS CAMILLUS was a famous man of a little later period. He was called a second Romulus for his distinguished services. In 396 he captured Veii, after a siege of ten years. On his return he celebrated the most magnificent triumph yet seen at Rome. He was afterwards impeached for not having fairly divided the spoils obtained at Veii, and went into exile at Ardea. When Rome was besieged by the Gauls under Brennus, in 390, Camillus was recalled and made Dictator. At the head of forty thousand men he hastened to the city, raised the siege, and in the battle which followed annihilated the Gauls. He was Dictator five times, Interrex three times, Military Tribune twice, and enjoyed four triumphs. He died at the advanced age of eighty-eight. BRENNUS was the famous leader of the Senones, a tribe of Gauls, who invaded Italy about 390. He defeated the Romans at the River Allia (July 18, 390), and captured the city, except the Capitol, which he besieged for six months. During the siege he tried to surprise the garrison, but was repulsed by Manlius, who was awakened by the cackling of some geese. Peace was finally purchased by the Romans by the payment of a thousand pounds of gold. To increase the weight, Brennus is said to have thrown his sword on the scales. At this juncture, as the story runs, Camillus appeared with his troops, ordered the gold to be removed, saying that Rome must be ransomed with steel, and not gold. In the battle which followed, the Gauls were defeated.