"Vndecimum (factum est bellum) in monte ((,) qui dicitur) Agned / Breguoin, id est Cat Bregion."
"The 11th ((battle) was (waged/fought)) on (the) mount(ain) ((which is) called) Agned / Breguoin [meaning "(white) hills"], which we call Cat Bregion / Agned Cath Regonion." (- HB; LF; Omitted in the Irish HB.)
"He also built the city of Alclud ["Dumbarton"] towards Albani [meaning "white"], and the town of mount Agned ["Edinburgh"], called at this time 'castellum puellarum' "the Castle of Maidens", or 'montem dolorosum' "the Mountain of Sorrow"." (- HRB.)
("He built another city, that which is denominated Caer Alclyd, and the castle which is called Castell y Morwynion [gwyn "white"], on Mynydd/Mount y Tristydd.... ... and he completed the building of the city begun by his father, which was then called Caer Alclyd, and afterwards Castell y Morwynion...." - '24 kings & 33 cities' document.)
Checklist of identification details of Agned/Bregion from the source text(s): Number/order 8th/11th ("or 9th/12th") of 9/12 (HB, LF) in a triad of hills near Tribruit & Badon (HB) Mount Agned name/meaning Bregion name/meaning a battle there (British victory) Arthur/Britons there then fought against Saxons "from Germany and every province" date during/after Hengist/Octa & before/until Ida "547" (HB, Collingwood) is "history" (HB) in "(the island of) Britain" (HB) written in the HB which also contains the Wonders omitted in the Irish HB. possibly switched with 9th/12th site/battle Badon (Brynjulfson)? true site masked (Henry of Huntingdon) maybe matches Brewyn/Bretrewyn of Urien/Gwallawg/Taliesin? may match Ystawinguin of the Pa Gur (Bambrough)? may match the Castle of Maidens (HRB)?
Agned meaning match: It is said that it is uncertain what the origin & meaning of Agned/Ained/Agnes/Agnet(um?) is, but the main suggestions have included: an, annedd "dwelling", angar/angor "staying round", Agnes as "pure, virgins, lamb", acgued/agued/agwed(d) "death/massacre", aghen/ancen/angen(ion) "necessity, want", ang(e)ned "sorrow(s)", anghenoedd/ancene:des "battles", Agnes as hagi "pasture" + nes "headland", "land of Acon", "possessing the qualities of Agn", ag-ned "below (river) Neath/Ned", "[Br]eg[uoi] n_id[_est]", gned, -ed "locative suffix", ieg/ey "island"?
The "sorrows" meaning recalls the massace at Anderida by the South Saxons.
(Cat-)Breg(om)ion / (Cath) Regomion / (Tha) Bregomion / Breguoin meaning match: (Cat-)Bregion/Breguoin means "(battle of) (the) (white) hills/highlands" from (cat "battle" +) bre(ga) "hill(s)" (+ gwyn "white") (+ -ion/ium) which surely matches the South Downs &/or the Windover 'Long Man' chalk hill figure around our site's area. (Compare the uplands of Ystawinguin in the PG.) An alternative proposed meaning of *Bravoniones "a tribal name" might possibly connect with Bran and the Windover Long Man?
(Mons/Monte) Agned name match: Possible matches for the name (Mount) Agned in our site's area include: - ((H)on_)Avg_Ndr on tiles/stamps from Anderida - Caer Andred / Coid Andred / Anderida/Anderitum, which place name has a number of propsed etyomogies: inderauuda "wood Deri" or an-dar-udu "oak wood", or aened-mere "duck-mere", or ynn+deri+dan "great fords", or "the place at the river mouth", or "name of a (Celtic) goddess". (Perhaps compare Anjou for the g/d interchange, and Cerdic/Cedric for the transposition/metathesis?) - Glynde?
- Geoffrey of Monmouth also seems to suggest that Agned was in Albani ("white")? Albani = Albion = white cliffs of Dover = North Downs = Downs = South Downs = Anderida/Pevensey.
(Cat-)Bregion/Breguoin name match: Possible matches in the area of our site include: - Cl(assis) Br(itannica) stamped on tiles at Anderida/Pevensey fort? - Mt Caburn/Cayburn/Caerbryn/Cairbryn hill fort / Caber/Caberbury/Caberburh/Caberburgh / Caldeburgh/Caldborough? (Tradition of battle here before/during/after the one at Anderida/Pevensey.) [Perhaps compare that some connect Catbregion with Cadbury?] - Bergion "brother to Albion". - Bre Gwoden (in our site's area). - Bre Regin / hill of Rhegin / Regnum/Regni (Sussex). - yBryngwyn/Gwynfryn "White Hill/Tower" of Bran, which is supposedly in "London" but "facing France". (The Long Man? Also perhaps compare Bregan's tower which Ireland seen from (i.e. on coast can see another land across water)?) - Boulogne facing Anderida across the Channel?
Mount(ain)/hill match: The mons/mont/mount/hill could match any of these downs/hills/heights/mounts/mountains/cliffs in the general or wider Caburn/Pevensey/Eastbourne/Hastings area: South Downs, Beechdown, Downside, Henley down, Willingdon Hill/down, Wilmington Downs / Windover hill, Highdown Hill, Holwood Hill, Combe Hill, Battle Hill, West & East Hill (Hastings), Mill Hill, Telham Hill, Boreham hill, Senlac Hill, St Anthony's Hill, Lewes "hill/slope", yBryngwyn/Gwynfryn "White Hill" ("facing France"), Bre Regin / hill of Rhegin, Bexhill (near Pevensey Levels), (Herst)monceux "wooded hill", Mountney Level, Mt Caburn, Montague, Mont Argis, Mount Street, Mountey sewer, (H)on Avg Ndr (hon/mons?), Langney Rise, a point between Blackness & Stonecross, Lower Agney.
Number/order match: Agned/Bregion is the 8th battle site of 9 in the HB. Anderida/Pevensey 8th fort of 9 in the ND/SS. Ystawinguin is the 8th of 9 sites in the PG.
Battle match: The fort and possible archaeological remains/traces of battles there? "It is uncertain whether habitation of the fort continued after this event. The fort appears to have been resettled by about the middle of the 6th century by a Saxon community"? "many skeletal remains of young Saxon men buried on Highdown Hill dating from 2nd half of 5th century"? Tumuli in hills to west of Pevensey? Martin's ditch (in Pevensey/area)? St Martins Abbey (not too far from Anderida)? (Leon Mintz's paper tentatively showed connection between Arthur/Merlin and the war/battle god Ares/Mars and St Martin.) Battle Hill (between Kenardington & Dowels)? Bexhill & Battle? 'Battle Abbey'? (Though these might just be from the battle of Hastings?) There is a local tradition of a battle fought at Cayburn in 488. The historical battle of Anderida/Pevensey 491 (ASC) was fought in the same area. Strategic: Anderida/Pevensey is near the site of the battle of Hastings (and some even think it may be the real site of Hastings). I'm not sure if Mountney Level or the Pevensey Levels might be a suitible place for a battle?
"Arthur"/Britons there then match: "there is no archaeological evidence for occupation by Anglo-Saxons in that area of Sussex between the 5th and 8th century." "Sussex disappears from the records after this initial conquest until as late as 685 when its king Aethelwealh died at the hands of the Gewissae." Sussex "remained a coastal settlement hemmed in by natural boundaries". "... we know nothing of his successors for the next two centuries." The Weald may have been like a refuge for the Britons? "pockets south of the Weald".
Eidyn match? Some scholars have though that Eidyn of the Pa Gur matches Agned because Eidyn comes after Tribruit in the PG, while Agned comes after Tribruit in the HB, plus the HRB also seems to identify Agned with Edin(burgh). We however disagree that Eidyn of the PG matches Agned of the HB for the following reasons: The 9 PG sites match the 9 HB, and Tribruit is 7th in both. The PG has two Eidyns and Tribruits with different numbers/orders, and has the 2 sites different ways around in the two places. The first Eidyn on the border has a different name to the second Mynydd Eidyn. The 1st & 2nd PG sites Tribruit 1 & Eidyn 1 can not match the 7th & 8th HB sites Tribruit & Agned, but they can match the 1st & 2nd HB sites Glein (Yarmouth) & Dublas (Othona). The 6th & 7th PG sites Eidyn 2 & Tribruit 2 can't match the 7th & 8th HB sites Tribruit & Agned, but they can match the 5th/6th & 7th HB sites Guinnion (Dover) & Tribruit (Lemanis). Agned instead matches the 8th PG site Ystawinguin. (See table in page/chapter ....) There is an Edinburgh Hill at Dover (Guinnion). Incidentally there is also an Eden in the upper Medway area not that far from our Agned site.
Nennius match: The 12 battles of Arthur in the HB certainly match the 9 SS sites. Since "Nennius" wrote both the 12 battles and the Wonders it is quite possible that the Wonders may be the same sites, and if some/many of the Wonders do happen to match some/many of the battle sites then it is extra confirmation that the sites are likely right. We more or less accidentally discovered that some/many/most/all of the Wonders do match some/many/most/all of our battle sites. Most of the Wonders match the Kent to/and Hampshire area (Downs/Weald), but not many/any of the Wonders seem to match the Anderida/Pevensey area. However, some of the Wonders of Britain that may possibly match our site's area and/or the wider area of (West) Sussex between Kent / East Sussex and Hampshire include Trahannon? Appled Ash? Fount guur helic? "Nennius" said he knew sources like [the ND,] etc.
Brewyn / Urien / Rheged match: It has been suggested that (Cat) Bregion/Breguoin of the HB may match the (Kat gellawr) Brewyn battle of Urien(s) of Rheged in another source. It is only modern scholars theory that Breguoin is same as Brewyn. They say "possible/possibly, potential". It may be right or wrong. Urien(s) association with Rheged is itself not necessarily concrete. Urien(s) is variously of Gore, Rheged, Bath (HRB), Mureif/"Moray" (HRB). Rheged itself could have south-east connections. In the Pevensey/Sussex area are Bre Regin / (hill of ) Rhegin / Regentium/Regnum/Regno/Regni / Regnes, Rickney, [and Rhemi?] Perhaps compare that one HB version has 'Agned_Cath_Regomion' / 'Agned_Tha_Bregomion' for Agned/(Cat-)Bregion? Brewyn is similar to Berwyn in Snowdon(ia), and Snowdon "white hill" is analogous to Dover/Albion & the Downs?
Previous hitherto location candidates theories for Agned/Bregion/Anderida/Pevensey: inis Breguin (Ireland, Tigernach) Berwyn (Snowdon) * Brocavo/Brougham (Lot) Bravonacis (Kirkby-Thore) (Lot) Ned/Neath Arthuret Troon in Ayrshire in the North Beregonium (Ardrey) Eidyn/Edinburgh (HRB, Skene, wiki) * Bremenium/High Rochester, Northumberland (Hunt) Catterick/Thornborough (Hunt) Anderida/Pevensey (us) "somewhere in Sussex" (Collingwood) Caburn (lost reference) "any of the many hillforts from the Caburn to Winchester" (Collingwood) Brent Knoll/Battleborough/Cadbury "in Somerset" (14th cent Vatican ms) Bravonium/Leintwardine (Hereford) (Anscombe, Faral, Lot) Aconbury (Hereford) (Anscombe) Angers/Andegavum & Bourges/Bretagne near Mt Dol/Deols (G Ashe)* corruption / error (Jackson) puzzle / obscure / problems (Jackson, Collingwood).
Synonyms or analogies for Agned/Bregion/Anderida/Pevensey in various sources: Ystawinguin 8th of 9 (PG) Pensavelcoit? Abercorn/Abercurnig / Peanfahel near Alcluith (Bede)? * Anderida/Pevensey (ND/SS, ASC 477/490) Andred (Malory)? Agned/Bregion (HB, LF) St Agnes (Scilly)? Agwisance of Ireland of 11 kings of Bedegraine? Andegavia (HRB)? Aquitaniorum/Branodunum (ND/SS)? * Max/Severus Aequantius of 9 emperors (HB) * St Albinus of Angers 550? Angor/Argoel/Argoed Llwyfein 579? * Clochar Aithin(n)e 545/575? Anagantios jan/feb in the Coligny calendar? great battle Mon(a)/Anglesey 565? St Brynach/Mons Angelorum/Carningli? * "Alclut" in Albani, and/or "Totness" (HRB)? Aedan/Gabhran or Rheged of 12 Men of the North (Hen Ogledd)? Kat gellawr Brewyn of Uriens of Rheged (Taliesin triad) Agathes & Bretrewyn (Taliesin) * din Breon inis Breguin (Tigernach) St Brioc/Brieuc or Gildas (Breton) Bregowine 759/761 (ASC)? * Brigantes of 17 tribes/provinces? yBryngwyn/Gwynfryn "White Hill/Tower"? Bergion brother to Albion? Bregan's tower / Braganza city? Bergos or Andros or Mona or Ricnea (Pliny or Plutarch)? Castle of Maidens Croyland (12 Monasteries list)? Galluc/Salisbury of 11 Consuls (HRB)? Brynach or Keri/Egloskerry or Helie/Egloshayle or Adwen/Advent or Berwyn or Nectan of 15 children of Brychan? * one of 3 several battles.