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Chronology of Central Asian History

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DayI View Drop Down

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  Quote DayI Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Chronology of Central Asian History
    Posted: 19-Oct-2005 at 07:02
Originally posted by Aryan Khadem

I found some in accuracy and some other important events missing in this...... White huns could be Mongolian but also they could be Iranic tribes so your logic aside it can be logical to say Iranic as well.....

Try putting other important events dealing with central asia, this is incomplete... soz to bag on your parade.

say goodbye to youre sun-god theory...
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Aryan Khadem View Drop Down

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  Quote Aryan Khadem Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Oct-2005 at 01:35

I found some in accuracy and some other important events missing in this...... White huns could be Mongolian but also they could be Iranic tribes so your logic aside it can be logical to say Iranic as well.....

Try putting other important events dealing with central asia, this is incomplete... soz to bag on your parade.

Life is beautiful but I am darker then Life.

Iran Aziz Janam Fadayt

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erci View Drop Down

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  Quote erci Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Oct-2005 at 19:51
nicely done thanks for posting
"When one hears such music, what can one say, but .... Salieri?"
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Chingis View Drop Down
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  Quote Chingis Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 18-Oct-2005 at 03:55

sorry if wrong,

We did declare indpendence from Manju in 1911, but it was 1921 we officially recognized as an indepencent country, when baron ungern soldiers went into mongolia and forced manju troops go out, and then we defeated Baron-Ungerns soldiers with russian red army(after revolution of russia),

also some say, we didn`t recognized as independent country until 1945, after russian and mongolian troops freed inner mongolia and china from japanese militarists... after that russia had contact with US, and Britain and asked them to recognize Mongolian independence...

so its not exactly 1911,
Mongolians ourselves says we declared independent country in 1921

The 800th Anniversary of the Great Mongolian State

Great Mongolian State (1206-2006 >>>>>
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blitz View Drop Down

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  Quote blitz Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Oct-2005 at 07:00

Originally posted by Chingis

1921 Outer mongolia declared independence from China

Was it not 1911? And was it not Manju-Qing Dynasty? China is the wrong term in this case.  

Road to wisdom: err, err and err. But less, less and less!
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Chingis View Drop Down
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  Quote Chingis Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Oct-2005 at 02:03

1921 Outer mongolia declared independence from Manju-Qin Dynasty(Zorchid)... !!!

(in 1911 we did first, but in 1921 it was official from Manju`s...)

Edited by Chingis
The 800th Anniversary of the Great Mongolian State

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  Quote poirot Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Oct-2005 at 19:03
 good work!
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  Quote Seko Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11-Oct-2005 at 09:16
Back then Mongolia proper was not as it would be 500 years later. Many Turk tribes of various distinctions would later move on out. A few have remained. And with Mongolian written records not predating the time of Cengiz Han, it makes it more difficult to know who the Avars or, in this case, the Juan Juan were. Does anyone have info on the first documented usuage of Mongol peoples or language?
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11-Oct-2005 at 08:53
Mongolian is more probable. Because we know in 552, Bumin Qaqan sent his brother, Istemi to defeat the remainings of their former enemies (should I say?) in Central Asia and North Eastern of Iran. They were called Heftalites or Ebdalites by Iranians. Anyhow, we know the escaped from Mongolia to Central Asia. So, logically, they should seem to be Mongolian rather than Iranian. Take care...
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  Quote Attila2 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Oct-2005 at 12:54
some people say that those white huns were not a turkic people.Also a few scientists agree that they spoke persian instead of a Turkic or a Mongolian language.Interesting that they are using the name "hun". 
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  Quote Seko Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Oct-2005 at 17:10
A long and intensive list of steppe dates. Kind of gives us quick access to various timelines. I always wondered about these guys - The Hephthalites (White Huns). Seems that they are listed as Avars here.
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  Quote kotumeyil Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Oct-2005 at 16:55

I found the chronology from the following links:

I'm not sure if the dates or events are correct but they might be helpful for any researh on the related subjects...

c. 1200 BC
The Cimmerians begin to occupy the South Russian Steppe.

c. 700 BC
The Scythians replace the Cimmerians in the Steppe region

6th cent. BC
The Invasion of Transoxiana by the Achaemenids of Persia under Darius I and Cyrus.

4th cent. BC
The Samartians begin to absorb the Scythians.

329-28 BC
The Invasion of Transoxiana and capture of Samarkand by the Greeks under Alexander the Great, resulting in the rule of the Greek Seleucids in both Bactria and Soghdiana.

250 BC
The Parthians take Soghdiana from the Greeks, leaving the latter to rule only in Bactria.

206 BC
The Han dynasty is established in China.

c. 200 BC
The Emergence of the Hsiung-nu (later known as the Huns?) on the western borders of China.

174-161 BC
The Hsiung-nu attack the Yeh-chih (known in the West as the Tocharians), driving them from Gansu.

141-128 BC
The Yeh-chih, fleeing from the Hsiung-nu, overrun the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, which is renamed Tocharistan.

138 BC
The first Chinese diplomatic mission to the Ferghana Valley, led by Chang Chien.

121 BC
The Chinese, under General Ho Chu-ping, defeat the Hsiung-nu.

106 BC
Diplomatic ties are established between the Chinese and the Persians.

102 BC
The Chinese capture Kokand.

51 BC
The Hsiung-nu split into two hordes, with the Eastern Horde subject to China.

AD 48
The Hsiung-nu Empire dissolves.

c. AD 50
Kujula Kadphises unites the Yeh-chih to establish the Kushan Empire, stretching from Persia to Transoxiana to the Upper Indus.

c. AD 78-144
The reign of King Kanishka over the Kushan Empire (territory extended to include the Tarim Basin), with Buddhism as the dominant religion.

AD 97
Chinese armies reach the Caspian Sea.

3rd cent.
The decline of the Kushan and Parthian Empires and the incorporation of Soghd and Bactria into Persia under the Sassanian dynasty.

The end of the Han dynasty in China.

The Sassanians overthrow the Parthians in Persia.

4th cent.
The Mongolian Juan-juan Empire is formed in Mongolia.

c. 370
The Huns invade Europe from the Central Asian steppe.

The Hephthalites (White Huns, later known in the West as the Avars) move south from the Altai region to occupy Transoxiana, Bactria, Khurasan, and eastern Persia.

c. 460
The Hephthalites conquer the Kushans and invade India.

The Turks destroy the Juan-juan Empire and establish the Turkic Khaganate, nominally divided into Western and Eastern Khanates.

The Turks and Sassanians ally to destroy the Hephthalite Empire.

late 6th cent.
The Hephthalites move west to the Russian steppe to form the Avar Khanate.

The birth of Muhammad.

The Turks and the Byzantines ally against the Sassanians.

The Turks invade the Caucasus and establish the Khazar Khanate.

The Turkic Khaganate officially breaks up into Western and Eastern Khanates.

The Tang dynasty is established in China.

The Chinese occupy Mongolia (Eastern Turkic Khanate).

The Chinese subdue the Tarim Basin.

The death of Muhammad and beginning of the expansion of the Arab Muslim Empire.

The Sassanian Shah Yazdigird is defeated by the Arabs at the Battle of Nahavand.

The collapse of the Sassanian Empire under the pressure of Arab raids.

c. 650
The Khazars defeat the Alans and Bulgars, resulting in their domination of the Caucasus and the Volga region.

The Arabs first capture Khurasan.

Chinese forces penetrate into Transoxiana (Western Turkic Khanate).

The establishment of the Arabic Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus and the origin of the Sunni-Shi'ite split in Islam.

The Arabs defeat Peroz, the last Sassanian shah, and first cross the Oxus River(Amu Darya).

Arab raids across the Oxus in an attempt to capture Bukhara and Soghd.

The revolt of the Turks against the Chinese and the re-establishment of the Turkic Khanate in Mongolia.

The Arab occupation of Termez.

The reestablishment of the Eastern Turkic Khanate in the Tarim Basin.

The Arabs, under Qutayba ibn Muslim, launch a holy war against Transoxiana from Merv.

The Arabs capture Bukhara and Samarkand.

The Arabs capture Khiva.

The Arabs subdue Khwarezm and recapture Samarkand.

The Arabs sack Kashgar.

The Chinese, under emperor T'ai-tsong, defeat the Turks at Lake Issuk-kul.

The end of the Arab conquest of Transoxiana as a result of the death of Qutaiba.

Arab attempt to forcibly convert Transoxiana to Islam, resulting in general revolt.

The Uighurs defeat the Turks in Mongolia and establish the Uighur Empire.

The Chinese invade the Ferghana Valley.

The Abbasids seize the Caliphate from the Umayyads and subsequently transfer the capital to Baghdad.

The Arabs defeat the Chinese at the Battle of the Talas River.

mid-8th cent.
Semirechye and the eastern Syr Darya come under the rule of the Qarluqs while the western Syr Darya comes under the rule of the Oghuz (Ghuzz).

late 8th cent.
The Uighurs convert to Manichaeism under Khan Mei-yu (759-80).

The rise of the Tahirid Emirate in Khurasan, extending into Transoxiana.

The Kirghiz replace the Uighurs in Mongolia, who flee to Turfan to establish the Uighur Kingdom.

The rise of the Saffarid dynasty (Shi'ite) in Persia.

The Persian Samanid dynasty (Sunni) obtains the administration of Transoxiana, with its capital in Bukhara, from the Caliph.

The Samanids overthrow the Saffarids, thus extending their rule into all of Persia.

The end of the Tang dynasty in China.

The Mongol Khitans defeat the Kirghiz.

The Turkic Qarakhanid dynasty is established, with its initial center in Kashgar.

mid-10th cent.
The conversion of the Qarakhanids and Uighurs from Buddhism to Islam under Satuq Bughra Khan (d.955).

The Turkic Ghaznavid dynasty is established in Afghanistan.

The Kievan ruler Svyatoslav crushes Khazar political power in the Russian steppe region.

The Seljuq Turks, a ruling tribe of the Oghuz, move to the vicinity of Bukhara.

The Russians, in search of a religion, contact Muslim missionaries from Khwarezm, but decide not to adopt Islam.

The conversion of the Russians to Orthodox Christianity.

late 10th cent.
The pro-Shi'ite Persian Buwayhids end the political power of the Abbasid Caliphate by seizing control of Iraq and much of Iran.

The Ghaznavids defeat the Samanids in Khurasan and the Qarakhanids capture Bukhara, the Samanid capital.

early 11th cent.
The extension of Ghaznavid rule from Iraq to the Sind.

mid-11th cent.
The Qarakhanid Empire splits in two: one rules over Western Turkestan (Transoxiana), the other over Eastern Turkestan (the Tarim Basin).

The Seljuqs defeat the Ghaznavids at the Battle of Dandanqan, near Merv.

The Seljuqs, under Tghral Beg, capture Baghdad, the Abbasid capital, from the Buwayhids, establish the Seljuq Sultanate, and become the official protectors of the Caliphate.

The pagan Oghuz, known to the Byzantines as the Cumans, move into the Russian steppe.

The Cumans defeat the South Russian princes.

The Seljuqs, under Alp-Arslan, defeat the Byzantine emperor Romanus Diogenes at the Battle of Manzikert and establish the Turkish sultanate of Rum in Anatolia.

The Seljuqs defeat the Qarakhanids.

The death of the Seljuq sultan Malik-Shah, resulting in the division of the Sultanate into three parts: Nicaea (Anatolia), Hamadan (Persia), and Merv (Transoxiana and Khurasan).

The Russians defeat the Cumans.

The Tungusic Juchen drive the Mongol Khitans (Liao dynasty: 916-1124) from China, resulting in the creation of the Qarakhitai state in Semirechye.

The Qarakhitai defeat the Qarakhanids (now vassals of the Seljuqs) at Khojent.

The Qarakhitais defeat the Seljuq Sultan Sanjar at the Battle of the Qatwan Steppe, thus gaining power in Transoxiana.

The overthrow of the Seljuq Sultanate of Merv by Oghuz mercenaries.

1155 (1162? 1167?)
The birth of Chingiz Khan.

The death of Sultan Sanjar, resulting in the breakup of the remaining Seljuq Sultanate.

The death of Tghril III, the last Persian Seljuq ruler, resulting in the end of Seljuq power in Iran and the rise of the Turkic Khwarezmians in Transoxiana.

Chingiz Khan becomes khan of the Mongols.

The Mongols defeat the Kirghiz of the Yenisei, forcing them to flee south to the Tien Shan.

The Uighurs, under Barchuq, submit to Mongol rule.

The Khwarezmians defeat the Qarakhitais.

The Mongols sack and burn Peking.

The Mongols capture Semirechye and the Tarim Basin, occupying Kashgar.

The execution of Mongol envoys by the Khwarezmian Shah Muhammad sets in motion the first Mongol westward thrust.

The Mongols cross the Jaxartes River (Syr Darya) and begin their invasion of Transoxiana.

The Mongols capture Bukhara and Samarkand, defeating the Khwarezmians.

The Mongol conquest of Khurasan and Afghanistan.

The Mongols, in pursuit of the Khwarezmian shah, encounter the Russians on the river Kalka, where they defeat them.

The death of Chingiz Khan, resulting in the division of his empire amongst his heirs, including Batu (the Kipchak Khanate, on the Russian steppe) and Chagatai (The Chagatayid Khanate, in Transoxiana, the Tarim Basin, and Semirechye).

The Mongols defeat a resurrected Khwarezmian Shahdom.

The second Mongol westward thrust begins.

Kiev falls to the Mongols and Russia comes under the Mongol yoke.

The Mongols stop their westward advance at the gates of Vienna.

The Mongols defeat the Seljuqs at the Battle of Ksedagh.

A group of Khwarezmians, fleeing from the Mongols, capture Jerusalem from the Crusaders.

The establishment of the Kipchak Turkic Mamluke dynasty in Egypt.

The Mongol Il-Khanid dynasty is established in Iran under Hleg.

The Mongols destroy Baghdad and bring the Abbasid caliphate to an end.

The Mamlukes defeat the Mongols at the Battle of 'Ayn Jalut.

The Kipchak Khanate divides into the White and Golden Hordes.

The Mongol Yan dynasty is established in China under Kublai Khan.

The Uighur Kingdom is defeated by rebels.

The Uighur Kingdom is absorbed into the Chagatai Khanate.

The Il-Khanids convert to Islam under Ghazan Khan.

The Seljuq Sultanate of Anatolia breaks up into smaller principalities, to be succeeded by the Ottoman Turk Emirate, founded by Osman I (ruled 1290-1326).

The Mamlukes stop the last Mongol invasion of Syria.

early 14th cent.
The Chagatai Khanate splits in two parts: Transoxiana (West) and Moghulistan (East).

The rule of the Golden Horde by Khan Uzbek (1282-1342), under whom the Horde converts to Islam.

The conversion of the Chagatayid Khan Tarmashirin to Islam.

The end of the Il-Khanid dynasty in Iran.

The birth of Timur.

The rule of the Chagatai Khan Tughlug Timur in Transoxiana.

Timur expels Khan Tughlug Timur and sets up a puppet Khan under his control.

The end of the Yan dynasty in China.

Timur becomes the sole ruler of Transoxiana.

The rule of the Golden Horde by Khan Tokhtamysh.

The Russians defeat Mamay, Khan of the Golden Horde, at the Battle of Kulikova.

The Golden Horde is amalgamated with the White Horde (together called by the former name).

Timur conquers Iran.

Tokhtamysh sacks and burns Moscow.

late 14th cent.
The Turfan Uighurs accept Islam.

Timur defeats Tokhtamysh, destroys the Golden Horde capital of Sarai Berke, and briefly occupies Moscow.

Timur defeats the Delhi sultanate.

Timur defeats the Mamlukes in Syria.

Timur destroys Baghdad.

Timur defeats the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I at the Battle of Ankara.

The death of Timur.

The rule of Timur's son Shah Rukh (1377-1447) in Herat.

The rule of Shah Rukh's son Ulugh Beg (1394-1449) in Samarkand.

The emirate of the Black Sheep Turks is established in western Persia.

c. 1430
Part of the Golden Horde splits off to form the Khanate of the Crimea under Hajji Giray Khan.

The rise of the Oyrat (Western) Mongols in Jungaria.

early 15th cent.
The Uzbeks move south to Transoxiana under Abu al-Khayr (1413-69).

Part of the Golden Horde splits off to form the Khanate of Kazan.

The reign of the Timurid ruler Abu Sa'id (1424-69).

The Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople.

The Muscovite Prince Ivan III (the Great, reigned 1462-1505) sends an embassy to Abu Sa'id.

Part of the Golden Horde splits off to form the Khanate of Astrakhan.

The White Sheep Turks defeat the Black Sheep Turks in Persia.

1478-1506The reign of the Timurid ruler Husayn Bayqara (1438-1506) in Herat.

Ivan III throws off the Mongol yoke and proclaims himself Czar of Russia.

Husayn Bayqara sends an embassy to Moscow.

late 15th cent.
The Kazakh Empire is established on the Central Asian steppes.

late 15th cent.
The decline of the overland trade routes, including the Silk Road, due to a new emphasis on trade by sea.

Babur (1483-1530), the ruler of Ferghana, captures Samarkand.

The Uzbeks capture Samarkand under Muhammad Shaybani Khan (1451-1510), thus taking over Transoxiana from the Timurids.

Babur and the Uzbeks continuously battle to control Samarkand.

The final collapse of the Golden Horde at the hands of the khan of the Crimean Tatar Khanate.

The beginning of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.

Babur establishes himself in Kabul.

The Uzbeks capture Bukhara.

The Uzbeks capture Herat, bringing to an end the Timurid dynasty.

Muhammad Shaybani Khan is killed in the Battle of Merv against Shah Ismail, the Safavid ruler, resulting in the establishment of the Shaybanid dynasty in Transoxiana, with the capital in Samarkand, but political power increasingly centered in Bukhara.

early 16th cent.
The rise of the Khojas in Kashgar, later split into the Aq-Taghliqs (white-caps) and the Qara-Taghliqs (black-caps).

The rule of the Eastern Chagatayid Khan Sayid, under whom the capital moves from Ili to Kashgar.

The Ottomans defeat the Mamlukes, thus adding Egypt to their Empire.

Babur captures Qandahar.

Babur captures Delhi and founds the Moghul Empire in India.

Ivan IV (the Terrible, reigned 1533-84) subjugates the Kazan Khanate.

Ivan IV defeats the Astrakhan Khanate.

The reign of the last and greatest Shaybanid ruler in Bukhara, Abdullah Khan II (1533-98).

The first Russian commercial contacts with Transoxiana under Anthony Jenkinson.

The reign of the last Shaybanid ruler of the Siberian Khanate, Kuchum Khan.

The height of Oyrat Mongol power in Jungaria and Mongolia.

The Crimean Tatars sack Moscow.

late 16th cent.
The Kazakh Empire divides into three hordes: the Great Horde (east), the Middle Horde (center), and the Lesser Horde(west).

Yermak, the Russian Cossack leader, defeats Kuchum Khan at the Battle of Tobol River.

The Astrakhanid dynasty, related to the Shaybanids by marriage, inherits power in Transoxiana, with their power base in the Khanate of Bukhara.

The first diplomatic contacts between Moscow and Bukhara.

early 17th cent.
The Kalmuks, part of the Oyrat tribal confederation, migrate from Jungaria to the Volga.

The Oyrats who stayed in Jungaria conquer Semirechye.

The Manchu Qing dynasty is established in China.

The Russians reach the Pacific Ocean.

Clashes between Russian and Chinese troops in Manchuria.

The rule of Khan Teuke over the reunited Kazakh hordes.

The end of Shaybanid rule in Khiva.

The Treaty of Nerchinsk between Russia and China ends border clashes in Manchuria.

early 18th cent.
Oyrat raids on the Kazakhs.

The first Russian military expedition to the Kazakh Steppe under Peter the Great.

The first Russian military expedition to Khiva ends in a massacre of Tsarist troops.

The Oyrats defeat the Kazakh Middle Horde north of Lake Balkash.

The Afghans invade Persia, bringing to an end the Safavid dynasty.

Kalmuk and Oyrat raids into northern Transoxiana.

Nadir Qoli Beg (later Nadir Shah) drives the Afghans out of Persia.

The Kazakh Lesser Horde accepts Russian protection.

Nadir Qoli Beg takes Herat.

The founding of the Russian fort at Orenburg.

Nadir Shah takes Ghazna and Kabul and occupies Delhi.

The Kazakh Middle Horde accepts Russian protection.

The invasion and subsequent domination of Transoxiana by Nadir Shah.

Part of the Kazakh Great Horde accepts Russian protection.

The establishment of the Durrani dynasty in Afghanistan.

The Uzbek Mangit dynasty begins to rise to power in the Khanate of Bukhara.

The Chinese defeat the Oyrats in Jungaria.

The Chinese conquer the Tarim Basin, resulting in the Khojas fleeing to Kokand.

The Uzbek Kungrat dynasty begins to rise to power in the Khanate of Khiva (or Khorezm).

Eastern (Chinese) Turkestan is officially renamed "Xinjiang" by the Chinese.

The Chinese attempt to bring the Kazakhs into a vassal relationship.

Some Kalmuks migrate back to Jungaria and the Ili Valley from the Volga.

The Crimean Tatar Khanate is absorbed by Russia.

The Mangits succeed the Astrakhanids as rulers of the Khanate of Bukhara and adopt the title of Emir.

The establishment of the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand.

The Kungrats (in Khiva) adopt the title of Khan.

The Khojas revolt against Chinese rule in Altishahr (the Tarim Basin).

The Khanate of the Kazakh Middle Horde is abolished by Russia.

The Khanate of the Kazakh Lesser Horde is abolished by Russia.

The establishment of the Barakzai (or Mohammadzai) dynasty in Afghanistan.

Kazakh revolts against Russian rule.

Kazakh resistance to Russian rule under Kenesary Kasimov (1802-47).

The First Opium War results in China's defeat at the hands of the European powers.

The First Anglo-Afghan War results in the British capturing Kabul and Qandahar.

The imprisonment and execution of Stoddart and Conolly by Emir Nasrullah of Bukhara.

The revolt of the Six Khojas in Altishahr.

The Khanate of the Kazakh Great Horde is abolished by Russia.

The Taiping Rebellion in China.

The founding of Alma-Ata (then called Fort Vernoe) by the Russians.

Russia is defeated in the Crimean War.

Kazakhstan comes fully under Russian control, who now hold the Syr Darya line (from the Aral Sea to Lake Issyk Kul).

Muslim rebellions in Yunnan and Shaanxi provinces in China.

The Khojas revolt in Altishahr.

The Second Opium War, again resulting in China's defeat.

Yaqub Beg (c. 1820-77) establishes an independent state in Altishahr.

The Russians create the Province of Turkestan.

June 1865
The Russians capture Tashkent.

The Russians create the Governorate-General of Turkestan, with Tashkent as its capital.

The Russians create the Governorate-General of the Kazakh Steppe, with Orenburg as its capital.

May 1868
The Russians capture Samarkand.

June 1868
The Khanate of Bukhara becomes a Russian protectorate.

The Russians establish a fort at Krasnovodsk on the Caspian Sea.

Russian forces occupy the Ili Valley.

Aug. 1873
The Khanate of Khiva becomes a Russian protectorate.

The Khanate of Kokand is annexed by Russia.

The Chinese begin their reconquest of Xinjiang.

Queen Victoria is proclaimed "Empress of India."

Yaqub Beg dies of poisoning.

Kashgar falls to the Chinese, under Tso Tsung-t'ang.

The Congress of Berlin halts further Russian advancement into Afghanistan.

The Second Anglo-Afghan War.

The Transcaspian Railroad is begun.

Jan. 1881
The Russian slaughter of the Turkmens at the Battle of Gok-Tepe, resulting in the creation of the Transcaspian province.

The Treaty of St. Petersburg between Russia and China results in the return of the Ili Valley to China.

The Russians introduce American cotton into Turkestan.

The Russians occupy the Merv oasis, thus completing the conquest of Turkestan.

Xinjiang officially becomes a Chinese province.

Muslim revolt in the Ferghana Valley against Tsarist rule.

The Trans-Caspian Railroad reaches Mary (Merv).

The border between Afghanistan and Russian Turkestan is determined by the British and the Russians.

The Trans-Caspian Railroad reaches Samarkand.

Mass immigration of Russian and Ukrainian settlers into the Kazakh steppe.

Riots in Tashkent due to a cholera epidemic.

Muslim uprising in Andijan against the Russians.

Russia annexes the eastern Pamirs.

The 1905 Russian Revolution.

The Russo-Japanese War.

The completion of the Orenburg-Tashkent Railroad, linking Turkestan to European Russia.

The founding of the Young Bukharans in Bukhara.

The Republican Revolution in China brings the Qing dynasty to an end.

The founding of the Alash Orda party amongst the Kazakhs.

World War I

Central Asian uprising in protest over conscription into labor units of the Russian army, resulting in the slaughter of many Kazakhs by the Russians.

Mar. 12(Feb. 27),1917
The "February" Revolution in Russia, resulting in the establishment of the Tashkent Committee of the Provisional Government and the Tashkent Soviet of Worker's and Peasant's Deputies.

Apr. 1917
The Bolshevik Party affirms it support of the right of all nations within Russia to separate and form independent states.

Apr. 1917
The First Pan-Kirghiz (Kazakh) Congress in Orenburg.

Apr. 16-23, 1917
The First Central Asian Muslim Congress in Tashkent demands the cessation of Russian colonization and the return of confiscated lands.

May 1-11, 1917
The First Pan-Russian Congress of Muslims in Moscow.

July 21-26, 1917
The Second Kazakh Congress in Orenburg.

Sept. 3, 1917
The Second Central Asian Muslim Congress in Tashkent proposes the creation of an Autonomous Federated Republic of Turkestan.

Nov. 7(Oct. 25), 1917
The Bolshevik "October" Revolution in Russia, resulting in the Tashkent Soviet seizing power from the Tashkent Committee.

Nov. 1917
The White Cossacks, under Ataman Dutov, cut off Central Asia from European Russia.

Nov. 15, 1917
The Third Regional Congress of Soviets in Tashkent decides to exclude Muslims from local government.

Nov. 15, 1917
The Bolshevik Declaration of the right of nations of Russia to secede and the freedom of Muslims to practice Islam.

Nov. 19, 1917
The Bolsheviks in Tashkent create the Council of People's Commissars to rival the Menshevik-dominated Tashkent Soviet.

Nov. 25-27, 1917
The Fourth Central Asian Muslim Congress in Kokand results in the creation of the Muslim Provisional Government of Autonomous Turkestan.

Dec. 5-13, 1917
The Third Kazakh Congress in Orenburg proclaims a Kazakh nationalist government under the leadership of the Alash-Orda in an attempt to halt the spread of Communism into the Kazakh steppe.

Jan. 1918
The Fourth Regional Congress of Soviets in Tashkent declares war on the Kokand Government.

Feb. 18, 1918
The Muslim government in Kokand is crushed by the Tashkent Soviet and the Red Army, resulting in the slaughter of many Muslims.

Feb. 1918-Sept. 1920
The first phase of the Basmachi Revolt.

Mar. 1918
The Russian Civil War begins.

Apr. 1918
The Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) is established.

July 1918
A Russian Social Revolutionary government captures Ashkabad from the Tashkent Soviet and appeals to British forces in Persia for assistance.

Nov. 1918
The Congress of Muslim Communists in Moscow creates a Muslim Bureau within the Russian Communist Party (RCP).

Feb. 1919
British forces withdraw from Ashkabad.

May 1919
The Third Anglo-Afghan War results in the Afghans signing a friendship treaty with the new Soviet regime.

May 1919
The First Conference of Muslim Communists of Central Asia proposes a "Unified Turkestan Soviet Republic."

July 1919
The Third Congress of the Communist Party of Turkestan decides to exclude Muslims from government posts in Turkestan.

Sept. 1919
Red Army troops break Dutov's blockade of Central Asia.

Oct. 1919
The Turkestan Commission is sent by Lenin to take over authority from the Tashkent Soviet.

early 1920
The Reds emerge victorious in the Russian Civil War.

Jan. 15, 1920
The Turkestan Commission proposes the division of Turkestan into separate ethnic republics.

Jan. 20, 1920
The Fifth Congress of the Communist Party of Turkestan proposes a Soviet Republic of Turkic Peoples and a Turkic Red Army.

Feb. 2, 1920
Soviet troops capture Khiva, resulting in the abolition of the Khanate of Khiva and the end of the Kungrat dynasty.

Feb. 1920
The Tashkent Soviet recaptures Ashkabad.

Mar. 1920
The Alash Orda government gives up resistance to the Bolsheviks.

Apr. 4, 1920
The People's Republic of Khorezm (Khiva) is established under the leadership of the Young Khivans.

Aug. 26, 1920
The Kazakh (then called Kirghiz) ASSR is created.

Sept. 1920
Soviet troops capture Bukhara, resulting in the abolition of the Khanate of Bukhara and the end of the Mangit dynasty.

Oct. 6, 1920
The People's Republic of Bukhara is established under the leadership of the Young Bukharans and the Bukharan Communist Party, with Faizullah Khojaev (1896-1938) as chairman and then premier.

The second phase of the Basmachi Revolt.

Jan. 1921
The Muslim Bureau of the RCP is dissolved.

Mar. 14, 1921
The Soviets depose the Young Khivan government of the People's Republic of Khorezm.

Oct. 1921
Enver Pasha (1881-1922) arrives in Bukhara to assist the Soviets and switches allegiance to the Basmachis.

Feb. 1922
The Bukharan Communist Party comes under the control of the RCP.

Aug. 1922
Enver Pasha is killed, resulting in the gradual crumbling of the Basmashi Revolt.

Nov. 1922
The Turkish nationalists, under Mustafa Kemal (Atatrk) abolish the Ottoman Sultanate.

Dec. 1922
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is created, with the Turkestan and Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSRs included as parts of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (RSFSR).

Mar. 1923
The First Conference of the Turkestan ASSR and the People's Republics of Bukhara and Khorezm establishes the Central Asiatic Economic Council, resulting in the economic and administrative unification of the three republics.

June 1923
Stalin denounces "Sultan Galievism" and the Muslim Communist aspirations for an independent Turkestan.

Oct. 1923
The Republic of Turkey is proclaimed, with Mustafa Kemal as its first president.

Oct. 1923
The Khorezmian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) is established, replacing the People's Republic of Khorezm.

Intermittent Basmachi operations against the Soviets in Turkestan.

Jan. 1924
The death of Lenin and subsequent rise of Stalin to full power in the USSR.

Mar. 1924
Mustafa Kemal abolishes the Ottoman Caliphate.

Sept. 1924
The Bukharan SSR is established, eplacing the People's Republic of Buhkhara.

Oct. 1924
The National Delimitation of Soviet Central Asia results in the abolition of the Turkestan ASSR, the Bukharan SSR, and the Khorezmian SSR and the establishment of the Turkmen SSR, the Uzbek SSR, and the Tajik ASSR (as part of the Uzbek SSR).

Oct. 27, 1924
The Turkmen and Uzbek SSRs are created.

The Sino-Soviet Agreement re-establishes diplomatic relations between the two countries.

Mar. 15, 1925
The Tajik ASSR is created.

Apr. 1925
The "Kirghiz" ASSR is renamed the Kazakh ASSR.

The Baku Turkological Congress proposes the adoption of the Latin script for all Turkic languages in the USSR.

Feb. 1, 1926
The Kirghiz ASSR is created.

Stalin purges the "Trotsky-Zinoviev" opposition.

The liquidation of the Kazakh Alash-Orda party by the Communists and the replacement of Kazakhs by Russians in the republican government.

Soviet anti-Islamic campaign launched, resulting in the disbanding of Islamic courts and waqfs.

The Latin script replaces the Arabic alphabet in Soviet Central Asia.

The forced collectivization of Soviet Central Asians.

Oct. 15, 1929
The Tajik SSR is created.

The completion of the Turkestan-Siberian Railroad.

The Soviets capture the Basmachi leader Ibrahim Beg.

Muslim revolt in Kumul (Hami), Xinjiang. Nov. 1933
The Turkish-Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan (TIRET) is established in Kashgar.

Dec. 1933
The beginning of Soviet control of Xinjiang under Governor Sheng Shih-ts'ai.

July 1934
The TIRET falls to Dungan (Chinese Muslim) forces.

The incorporation of the Karakalpak ASSR into the Uzbek SSR.

Dec. 5, 1936
The Kazakh and Kirghiz SSRs are created.

The Japanese invasion of China.

Muslim revolt in Kashgar, Xinjiang, resulting in Soviet military intervention.

Stalin purges the Muslim Communist leaders.

Mar. 1938
The execution of Uzbek Communist leaders Faizullah Khojaev and Akmal Ikramov.

World War II

The Cyrillic script replaces the Latin Alphabet in Soviet Central Asia.

June 1941
Hitler invades the USSR.

Sheng Shih-ts'ai breaks with the Soviets and realigns Xinjiang with Nationalist China.

The Soviet government grants Islam official legal status in the USSR and establishes the four Spiritual Directorates.

Xinjiang again comes under the control of the Chinese Republican government.

The forced evacuation of Crimean Tatars, Meskhetian Turks, and other Caucasian Muslims to Soviet Central Asia.

Muslim revolt in Ili, Xinjiang.

Nov. 1944
The Eastern Turkestan Republic is established in Ili.

Civil War in China between the Communists and the Nationalists.

June 1946
The ETR disbands as a result of a treaty with Nationalist China.

The partition of British India and independence of India and Pakistan.

Oct. 1, 1949
The People's Republic of China (PRC) is established.

Mar. 1953
The death of Stalin and subsequent rise of Khrushchev.

The establishment of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region in China.

The Great Leap Forward in the PRC.

Oct. 1961
The 22nd Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) Party Congress, at which the concepts of sblizhenie and sliianie are introduced.

Mass exodus of Kazakhs from Xinjiang to Soviet Central Asia.

Border clashes between Chinese and Indian forces in Kashmir.

The Sino-Soviet rift comes out into the open.

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the PRC.

A military coup in Afghanistan abolishes the monarchy and establishes Muhammad Daud Khan as prime minister of the Republic of Afghanistan.

The death of Mao Tse-tung.

The rise of Deng Xiao-ping.

Apr. 1978
A Communist-backed coup in Afghanistan results in the assassination of Daud Khan and the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

Jan.-Feb. 1979
The Islamic Revolution in Iran under Ayatollah Khomeini.

Apr. 1, 1979
Khomeini declares Iran an Islamic Republic.

Dec. 1979
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan props up the Afghan regime in its battle against the mujehaddin.

The Iran-Iraq War.

Jan. 1985
Anti-Russian riots in Dushanbe, Tajikistan.

Mar. 1985
Mikhail Gorbachev is appointed as General Secretary of the CPSU.

The 27th CPSU Party Congress approves the policies of perestroika and glasnost.

Dec. 17-18, 1986
Anti-Russian riots in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan.

Soviet troops withdraw from Afghanistan.

Feb. 1989
Anti-Russian riots in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

June 1989
Ethnic violence in Uzbekistan between Uzbeks and Meskhetian Turks.

June 1989
Riots in Novyi 'Uzen, Kazakhstan.

June 4, 1989
The Tiananmen Square massacre in Beijing.

Feb. 1990
Ethnic riots in Tajikistan.

Summer 1991
The breakup of the Soviet Union and the subsequent declarations of independence by the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Edited by kotumeyil
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