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Turko-Mughal titles

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    Posted: 01-Oct-2012 at 01:30
Turko-mongol term is applied to those people who were aristocrats of the steppe; Princess, Commanders and Generals who ruled and served the Turko-Mongol states and had ancestral origin from Turko-Mongol dynasties especially descendants of Genghis Khan. Turko-Mongols are mainly the descendants of those Turks who were ruled over by the Mongols speaking mostly Turkic languages; they derived their ethnic and cultural origins from both groups. "Turko-Mongol" is used to describe the people of Mongol khanate; Ilkhanate; Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde and sometimes also describe successor Khanates; such as the Khanate of Kazan, the Nogi, Crimean Khanate; Astrakhan Khanate; Empire of Timurid Empire of India; Arghun and Tarkhan Dynasty of Sind Pakistan.
Turkic represent a broad ethno-linguistic group of people and includes existing societies such as the Kazakhs; Uzbeks; Karghaiz; Uyghur; Turkmen and as well as the historian societies such as Xiongnu/Huns; Gokturk (Turkut people); Khazars; Seljuks; Kepchaks; Ottomans and Timurids etc. The famous Turko-mongol titles are Khan, Khaqan (Khagan), Tarkhan, Khatun, Ilkhan, Tegin, Yabghu, Shad, Baghatur, Mirza, Beg (bek), Aga, etc.

The Arab sources unanimously agreed that the Khagan and Bek were Jews as were the Royal families from whom the Khagan was chosen.The general who initiated the return to the faith is appointed King over the Khazars and is given the title Khagan a title used unto this day.Fadlan continues that the supreme King of the Khazar, no as the great Khakan or Khagan never appears in public. He has a viceroy called the Bek, who command the armies, administraters, affairs of the state, appears in public and wages war. Tarkhan was Khazar aristocracy and Khagan was Khazar spirtual King. The Khazar military institutions in a dual kinship the sacred, spirtual khagan was senior king and nothing more, but all business and authorities in the hands of the Ishad, Bek and Tarkhans (military establishment).

Tarkhan is a title used in Islamic times for a Turkish nobleman or Prince. Ulugh Tarkhan was Tukish and came to Bughdad; the following is noteworth; that his father held a traditional Turkish title of nobility that is "Tarkhan". The Tarkhan; After the Khagan, Bek, Kender and Jawshighar, the next position in the hierarchy of power was the Tarkhan. The Tarkhans served as commanders of regments of Khazar Army or auxiliary troops. A Khazarian Tarkhan named Chorpan ravaged Arminia in 630. A famous Tarkhan known as As Tarkhan led a large-scale military intiative against the South caucanus in 762-764. Tarkhan was also the title of the local governor of Atil in the 8th century. Tarkhan-Khazarian title for army commander, local governor or chief. The two churches at balnjar have already been noted, an 8th century, Khazarian Tarkhan "George" was an Orthodox christian. The life of saint Abu reported that christians lived in many Khazar towns in the North sausasus reign in the 780.
His (Khagan) closest kinsmen, who held the titles of Shad and Yabghu. The Khagan were surrounded by his counsellors (buyur) who discharged military, administrative, diplomatic and legal functions and bore titles such as Tarkhan, Chor, and Tudun. In order to facilitate the administration, the tribes were divided into two territorial groups, the Tardush (western) and the Tolish (Eastern). The soldiery of these two groups composed the right and left wings of the army's battle order, and they were led by the close kinsmen of the Kaghan (the Shad's) and the most influential tribal leaders of the each wing, with its dual system of tribal and political principles, the administrative structure was a natural reflection of the social structure of the ancient Turkic community. It's highest stratum consisted of Begs (Begler in Turk), a hereditary aristrocracy; it was composed of members of families whose special status in the managment of the affairs of the tribe was considered unchallengeable and hallowed by tradition. The dynastic families and tribes (the A-Shih-Na,the Ashih-te and the Yaghlakar) form the elite of this hereditary aristrocracy. The first Turk ruler of Tokharistan and the subjugated petty kingdom Tardu Shad the son of western Turk Tung Yabghu Kaghan. When Tardu  was poisoned by his wife a few years later, he was succeeded by his son Ishbara Yabghu, who at first among the Turk rulers, began to mint coins. His coin effigy represents him bearing a crown decorated with two wings and a bulls head. The first Turk Yabghu (King) of Tokharistan confirmed by the Chinese emperor, was Wu-Shih-Po of the Ishihna dynasty. 

Bugu Khan's first cousin Tun Bilga Tarkhan, who served as chief Minister and head of the inner officials killed the Khan and some two thousand others, including two of his sons, his closest advisors, numerous sodians and probably Manichaean priests in the Khan's retinue. Tun Bilga Tarkhan became the next ruler under the title Alp Kutlagh Balgha Khagan (780-789) only to be murdered by his son Talas (789-790), who reigned as Qutlag Bilga Khagan. When Talas was poisoned by the Junior Queen his younger brother seized the thorn. However the state ministers quickly moved to kill this Usurper and installed the sixteen year old youngest son of Talas in titled Kutlug Bilge Khagan/A cho (790-795), which ended a decade of instability in the Uyghur realim, under unclear circumstances following the death of Qutlag Bilga Khagan, the Uyghur leadership elevated his minister Kutlug to the thorn under the title Alp Qutlag Ulug Bilga Khagan/Huaihsin (795-808) which transferred power the Yaglakar Charismatic clan of the Uyghur tribe for the leading clan of the Adiz tribe, both of whom were members of the nine Oguz tribal confideration.

The Viceroys (Shad and Yabgus) were next in rank to the Khagan, close relative, younger brothers or sons, who's duties included administering part of the Khagans dominions. According to Clanson, Khagan and Khan first designated essentially the same title Khan, later being used mainly for a subordinate ruler . Although both terms are used in the old Turkic monuments, the title Khan occurs infrequently. One who took the title "Khan" had to be a direct descendant of Chengiz Khan. Timugin was later given the name Chengiz Khan, a named by which he is known throughout the world. In the secret history he receives this name when he is elected Khan of the Mongol by his uncles and cousins, the various clan leaders. This first Coronation took place during the last decade of the 12th century. Her (Sorghaghtani) four sons would all play major roles in building upon Genghis Khan legacy. All four would eventually became Khan and among them, they would expand the empire to its greatest extent. With her Ally, Batu Khan, ruler of conquered Russia, Sorghaghtani, Maneuvered to have her eldest son, Mongke elected khan at a Khuriltai in 1291.

Barthold had sort to relate this name to that of Qutula-Khagan, the fourth son of Kabul Khan and celebrated figure in Mongol tradition. Qutula-Khagan is also a legendary hero, his wise resounded like thunder in the mountains. It is true that Jenjhiz Khanite tradition links Yessugei, Jenjhiz Khan's father, with the line of the ancient kings. It holds in a particular that he was the son of Bartan Baatur, himself second son of Kabul Khagan. Free men, who bore the old Turkic title of Tarkhan and who had the privilage, Theoratically, of retaining their individual plunder in war and their game in the great hunting expeditions. Incidently, several Tarkhat, for their valor, what promoted to Noyan--- Only nobles and members of the group of privilaged free men known as  Tarkhat could join this corps. A pricate soldier of the guard took precedence over a Captain of a thousands in the rest of the Army, and it was from this guard that Genghis Khan selected the greater number of his generals.

Sultan Ahmed Mirza, son of Sultan Abu Saeed Mirza was reigning. Sultan Ahmed Mirza was a powerful king and had arround him Amirs of such dignity and pretentions that they aimed at having king's in their service. One of these Amirs was Amir Abdul Ali Tarkhan, Governer of Bukhara. Before the Khan made peace with Sultan Ahmed Mirza and Married Karaguz Begum, he captured Tarkhan, who had been appointed governer of Turkistan by Mirza Sultan Ahmed and this Muhammad Mazid Tarkhan was one of the principal comes of the peace, for he was a relation, on the mother side (Togha) of Mirza Sultan Ahmed, when the Khan conquered Turkistan, he had in his service Shahi Beg Khan.
The lives of three Temurid women surveyed here, Qutlugh Tarkhan Agha, Saray Mulk Khanim and Khanzada Baighum provides an indication of the varied roled which women played within the Temurid dynasty. The distinctive familial structure to which they belong had strong ties to the Turko-Mongol past, and this heritage was transmitted to Temur's numerous descendants.

The first Dughlat ruler who received lands directly from the hands of Chagatai was Amir Babdagan or Tarkhan. The capital of emirate was "Kashgar" and the country was known as Mumlikat-e-Kashgar. Mirza Abubakar ruled Yarkand for 48 years (1416-1435).

In transoxania in particular, Tarkhan holdings-that is freedom from taxation for the holder of Mulk (lands belonged) lands if he held a Tarkhan Charter and the granting to him a number of other privilages, he became widespread in the last quarter of the 15th century. A Tarkhan was released from punishment for upto nine offences and only after the ninth was he punished. He also enjoyed free access to the "Khan". To enjoy the privilages of the Tarkhan was recognized as conferring high status. Many Tarkhans were connected with Temurid by family ties. Under Sultan Ahmed Mirza, the greatest Emir in the state was considered to be Darwish Muhammad Tarkhan. In 1496 Abdul Ali Tarkhan was appointed a Hakim (governer) of Bukhara, Karakul and Karmina designated as his soyurghal.

The Mongol practiced through going religious toleration. In their view all faiths reflected something by the divine reality and contributed to the ideal of universal peace. Temples and Priests of whatever denomination, were granted a Tarkhan or Charter of immunity, which executed them from tribute payment and other dues binding on the rest of population. Both the judiciary authority of the lord and his administrative power assumed more definite shape, specially due to the grants by the Grand Dukes of immunity charters; known in eastern Russia mostly as the Tarkhan Charter. A recipient of such a charter immunity was known in Mongol as a Darkhan, Turkish Tarkhan, the term was borrowed into Russian in that form. This institution acquired full significance only in the late period (14th and 15th centuries). Tarkhan grant (Tarkhan a document granting exemption from taxes). In Muscovite times Tarkhan charters were deeds bestowing from taxation or other immunities. Captalogues of Feudal dues and privilages have been preserved in the Tarkhan Yarlyks (charters) still extent today. Russian orthodox rulers sought the complete destrution of the Cenghizid ruling elite, represented by Karachis, Beks, Murzas, Oglans and Tarkhans, the confiscation of their most fertile land and it's redistribution among Russia.


Khoshoo Tsaidam monuments  
The titles Khagan, Yabghu and Tarkhan are found in the Orkhon inscriptions (in Mongolia). The Orkhon inscriptions are very important for study of Turko-Mughal titles and also valuable by their historical contents, appreciably stated political history of Turkic empires. There are ethno-cultural and other invaluable messages are described in the largest written monuments like Bilge Kaghan; Kul-Tegin and Tonyukuk inscriptions. The inscriptions Corpus consist of two monuments which are erected in the Orkhun valley between 732 to 735 in honour of the two Gok-Turk prince Kul-Tegin and his brother the emperor Bilge-Kaghan, as well as inscriptions on salabs scattered in the wide area. The Orkhon manuments are one of the oldest known example of Turkic wittings; they are inscribed on obelisks and have been dated to 720 (relating to Tonyukuk) to 732 (relating to Kul-Tegin) and to 735 (relating to Bilge-Kaghan). They are carved a script used also for inscriptions found in Mongolia, Syberia, and Xingiang and called by Thomsen "Turkish runs". They relate in epic language the legendary origin of the Turks, the golden age of their history, their subjugation by the Chinese and their liberation by Bilge-Kaghan.

Kultegins Momorial complex, Turkbitig:- From west--- My younger brother Kul-Tegin had died-- gave his services, My younger brother Kul-Tegin (order to sat) a watcher of the tomb of Turkish Bilge-Kaghan-- I gave him the title Inancu Apa Yaryan Tarqan-- Tengri-Like and Tengri-Born Turkish Bilge kaghan, succeeded to the thorn at this time. Hear my words, all of you, My younger brother and my sons and my nation and relatives, my people, you, Sad-apit lords in south, Tarkans and Buyruk lords in Tokuz-Oguz lords and people. Here these words of mine well, and listen hard! all people following me East wards to Sun rise, South wards to Mid day, West wards to Sunset and North ward to Midnight (listen this). I made you move, these is no false in these words. If the Turkish Kaghan rules from the Otukan mountains, then these will be no trouble in the country.
Bilge Kaghan Momorial complex, Turkbitig:- Tengri-Like and Tengri-Born in Turkic Kaghan, mounted the throne. All of you, my close people-- Nine Oguze, Two Edizes, Valorous lords (Beks) my nation-- Turkic Tengri-- Hear my words, Basmyl-- Karluks gathered and resisted-- Thrusted, killed. Nine Oguze were my people.
Tengri-Like and Tengri-Born Bilge Kaghan Turkic. Hear my words. When my father, Bilge Kaghan Turkic, ruled you, Supreme Turkic beks, Lower Tardush beks, Shad-- Apyt beks lead by Kulchur, the rest Tyules beks, Apa Tarkhan--- lead by Shad-- Apyt beks, Baruks, Tamgan Tarkhan, Tonyukuk, Boila Baga Tarkhan, Buyruks--- Inner Buyruks, lead by Sebek Kulerkin, all Buyruk beks! My father.
I-Kaghan (Prince YollugTegin), had written. So many buildings and sculptures--(Prince) YollugTegin, had written having sat one month and four days. Tengri-Like and Tengri-Born Turkic Kaghan mounted the throne-- Hear my words, you all my younger brothers and my sons, my people and relatives, my nation, Shad-- Apyt beks in the south, Tarkan and Buyruk beks in the north. Thirty (Tatars?), Beks and the people of nine Oguzes! Hear my words and listen! All people after me in the east to sunrise.

Tonyukuk Momorial complex, Turkbitig:- I was the one who rose (put announced, acknowledged) the Khagan, I the wise Tonyukuk boila Baga Tarkhan, I alliance with Elterish Kaghan, killed a lot of Tabgaches (Chinese) in the south, in the east alot of Kitans, in the north Oguzes. It was I who became his wise advisor. The messangers words were as follows: A Kaghan came to the thorn of nine Oguzes peoples. He sent Kuny Sengun to Tebgach (Chinese). He sent Tonra Semik to Kitan-- Having heard that I brought the turkic people to Otuken land and that I, wise Tonyukuk had settled in the land of Otuken, the people from south, west, north and east joined us.
We were not afraid of their numbers, we fought, we won the Tardush shad. We captured their Kaghan and their Yabgu and Shad. The whole Sogdian people leading by Asuk came and obeyed-- Those days the Turkic people reached the Iron Gates. There was no master in the mountains where Tingis son lived. When I was Tonyukuk reached that place, He presented my me Yellow gold, White silver, girls and women, treasury, silkon, camels in huge number. For the greatness of Ilterish Kaghan, Bilge Kaghan. We fought thirteen times with Tabgaches (Chinese). Seven times fought with Kitans, five times with Oguzes. An advisor then-- Only i was powerful. I was Elterish Kaghan advisor, Turkie Byeghu Kaghan, Turkic Bilge Kaghan, when kapagan Kaghan was thirty three, was not sleeping at nights.
In Bilge Kaghan country I ordered to write (this). I am- the wise Tonyukuk. If Elterish Kaghan did not ruled (the country and if he was young, I , the wise Tonyukuk wouldn't rule the country), or if I was not here. Then on the land of Kapagan Kaghan, on the land of Gracious Turks neither a family nor a single person would not have a ruler. Due to the ruling Elterish Kaghan and Bilge Tonyukuk, the noble Turks, the people of Kapagan Kaghan. Turkic Bilge Kaghan the people of noble Turks, Oghuz lived and raised.

Khan (Title):- (Mongolian, Qayan; Turkish, Kagan, Hakan; Old Turkic Kayan; Chinese, Han) is an altaic and central asian title for a sovereign or military rulers, widely used by medieval nomadic Turko-Mughal tribes having in the north of China. The Niruns were the first people who use the titles Khan and Khagan for their emperors, then it was subsequently adopted by the Ashina before the Gok-Turks (Turkic people) and the Mongols brought it to the rest of Asia. It has many equivalant meanings such as King, Prince, Commander, Leader or ruler. The female alternatives are Khatun (Hatun) and Khanum (Hanum). It was also a Bulgarien title, the early rulers (7th and 9th century) adopted the title Khan; Kavkhan (Vice Khan), Tarkhan and BoriTarkhan.
The title Khan became unprecedently prominent when the Mongol Temugin created the Mongol empire, which he ruled as Genghis Khan. His title was Khagan which means Khan of Khan. The ruling decsendant of the main branch of the Genghis Khans dynasty are referred to as the great Khans. The title Khan was also used by the Sultans of the Ottoman empire and the heads of multiple tribes-clans or nations in the Seljuk Turks dynasties.

Khagan:- (Old Turkic, Kayan; Mongolian Xagan, Qayan; Chinese, Kehan; Persian, Khakan) is a title of imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate. It may also be translated as Khan of Khans, equivalent to King of Kings.
The Rourans were the first peoples who used the title Khagan and Khan for their emperors (assumed to be Mongolic in origion), replacing the Chanyu of the Xiongnu, whom Grousset adn others assume to be Turkic, however many scholars believe the Rouran were Proto-Mongols. The Avars who may have included Juan Juan elements after the Gok-Turks crushed the Juan Juan who ruled Mongolia, also used this title. The title became associated with the Ashina rulers of the Gok-Turks and their dynastic successors among such people as the Khazar (the prominent titles were Khagan, Bek and Tarkhan). Khazar kinship was divided between the Khagan and the Bek or Khagan bek. Contemporary Arab historians related that the Khagan was purely a spirtual ruler or figur head with limited powers, while the Bek was responsible for Administration and Military affairs. The early Khagans of the Mongol empire were Genghis Khan, Ogedei Khan, Guyuk Khan, Mongke Khan. Genghis and his ruling descendants are called Khagan while other rulers are referred as Khan. "G" sound in Khagan later weakened and disappeared, becoming Khaan or Khaqan. In modern Mongolian language Khaan refers emperor or king, whoever Yekhe Khagan means Great Khagan or Grand emperor.

Tarkhan:-  Tarkhan is a Turkic word from old Turkic language meaning a "privileged class". Tarkhan is a Turkish title means "chief" or "Prince". Tarkhan is an ancient term for General, Commander, Minister and regimental Commander of Khazar Army. Tarkhan title was used among the Turks, Mongols another steppe people and was a high rank in the army of "Tamerlan". Tarkhan is a Turkic title, war lord of the Prairie who protected his herd with armed followers, the wealthiest of them, because the aristrocrate of the steppe, the Noyans or Princess. This name (Tarkhan) must be derived from the title of the Turkish commander who presumablly Pitched his tent on the Taman Peninsula in 568; Tama-Tarkhan means the chief of ten thousands, later on Chengis Khan army was organized according to that system. The title Tarkhan was an old Mongolic title and the bearer of the title enjoyed certain privileges, one of them was that he was not punished till he commit nine offences. The Tarkhan was a Mongolic title conferred by the Tarkhan chief enjoyed power and privilage next to great Mongol Khan (See Genghis Khan by Herold Lamb). The title was hereditary one, Chengiz Khan conferred it on Qishliq and Bata, under Timur a Tarkhan had free access to every place of the Palace and criminal immunity for himself and his children upto nine offences. Fiscal immunity for aristrocrates or nobles of the state might include a provision also by Mongol origin and still in use under the Timurids; the holder of the hereditary tax exemption for a particular tract of land was called "Tarkhan"; the granting of this type of immunity and also the land concerned were called "Tarkhani", originally Tarkhan was a term applied to Mongol nobles. The title Tarkhan appears in the Orkhon inscriptions, Tonyukuk, Kultegin and Bilge-Kagan. The Tarkhan is a title of Turko-Mongol rulers; Hunic, Gok-Turk, Khazar, Uyghur, Mughals etc. Gok-Turk and Khazar were belonged to Tokuz Oguz tribe; their ruler possessed the title Khan, Khakan, Tarkhan, Baghatar, Tegin, Shad and Yabghu. The prominent Turkic rulers were Tama-Tarkhan, RasTarkhan, ChorpanTarkhan, HazerTarkhan, QutlughTarkhan Sengun, Tunbaga Tarkhan etc.
The Ur-Mankakts was the leading tribe descended from Oghuz Khan, all the mughal tribes are related to that tribe. From the three sons of Alan Ku sprung a numerous tribe; in the mughal language sir named "Nirka" (Niron); that is a pure family. The descendants of the Qayan took the sir name of Kayat and those of Naguz took the sir name of Darulgin. Kayat are descendant from the sixth son of Kabul Khan and the Borzugan Kayat sprung from the five sons of Yessughi Bahadur Khan who was the father of Temujin (Genghis Khan). The Umma-uts formely called Urma-uts, from them are derived four tribes 1. Kunakhmars 2. Arlats 3. Kalkits 4. Kishlik.  The Kunakhmars sprung from a person of that name Menglik; sir name Izka for his piety and virtue, was of this tribe and married the widow Ulun-Iga, mother of Temugin. Arlats the second branch of the Urma-uts sprung from Arlats second son of Menglik Izka. The Kalkits from Kalkits third son of Menglik, so named because he couldn't speak plain. From the Kalkits  are derived Kishliks. This man who with his brother Baydu (Bata) saved the life of Genghis khan, made them and their descendants for nine generation "Tarkhan" free from all sorts of taxes. It is obvious that Tarkhans are true Mongols, family of Genghis Khan, descended from Urma-uts tribe, styled respectively BadaTarkhans and KishliqTarkhans.  The Tarkhans of Dast-i-Kapchak and Khawarazm are the descendants of Badae, while those of Turkistan are the descendants of the Kishliq. These Tarkhans who were descendant from Kishliq and Badae were relative of Timurid and Mughal rulers.  Ghiyath-al-Din Tarkhans ancestor Kishliq (Qishliq) had been made a Tarkhan by Chengiz Khan, and had later been among Chaghadais Emirs. This honor had descended in his family and lent them considerable prestige. Three of Ghiyath-al-Din daughters married son or grand sons of Timur, one of these was GawharShad, Shahrukh's powerful and influential wife. Two of the GawharShad's brothers AliTarkhan and Hassan Sufi Tarkhan had been appointed  with Shahrukh to Khorasan. These figures prominently participated most of Shahrukh's early compaigns along with four other brothers, Husayn Sufi, Sayyid Ahmed, Muhammad Sufi and Hamza Tarkhan. Tarkhan is a Turko-Mongol tribe, Amir-Timur in his institutes, enumerates twelve of fourty tribes which had sumitted to his government; Barlas, Tarkhan, Arghun, Jalair, Tulkchi, Duldi, Moghul, Sulduzi, Tughai, Kipchak, Arlat and Tatar.

The two youths, Badae and Kishlik, who had warned him of his danger, were made Tarkhans-- The meaning of Tarkhan is thus explained; the person so called is secure and safe from all troubles and annoyance, in every place in which her service, what every booty he may take is his own, and he is not deprive of it; he can entered the place of audiance of his sovereign without being summoned, and without first asking permission; and he can commit or he guilty of nine offences-- Nine is a number, as i have already notice held in great veneration by the Mughals, without being questioned; and Temurchi decreed that for nine generations; the offspring of these Tarkhans should be exempt from all burdens and imposts. In the general description of Kashghar, contained in the report of the Yarkand mission, previously referred to, we are told (p-100) as to the Ancient Punishment before the tenth century (Moghul), that under the mughals a noble was entitled to forgiveness nine times but for the tenth was imprisoned. Something respecting the privilages of the Tarkhans has apparently being mentioned to the writer who straight way turned all the Mughal nobles into Tarkhans. In another place we are informed that the descendants of these Khans were still met with in Khurasan in the 15th century; which is quite correct. They are also met with in several other centuries and in this 19th century in many other parts besides Khurasan. The descendants of the two persons above referred to were the progenitors of two tribes, styled respectively Badae Tarkhans and Kishlik Tarkhans. The Tarkhans of the Dasht-i-Kibchak and Khawarazm are the descendants of the Badae, which those of Turkistan are the descendants of Kishlik. Several great Amirs arose from these tribes among whom was the Tarkhan Haji, who was the founder of a city the Atil, to which he gave his name. It was known as Haji Tarkhan, which in after-years was styled Hashtar Khan (AsTarkhan).
In the battle with the Awang Khan, among other booty captured was the Khargah of that sovereign, which was of cloth of gold. This Temurchi bestowed, with other things upon Badae and Kishlik and in after times the distinguishing "Mark of a Tarkhan" was a peace of the golden cloth tent of the Awang  Khan which they used to wear hanging from their turbans.

Sultan Ahmed Mirza was born in 855 AH (1451 AD), the year in which his father took the Thorne of SamarKand. He was Sultan Abu Saeed Mirza’s eldest son; his mother was a daughter of Aurdu-bugha Tarkhan (Arghun), the elder sister of Darwesh Mohammad Tarkhan and the most honoured of the Mirza’s wives. Mihr ngar Khanam was his first wife, set a side for him by his father, Sultan Abu Saeed Mirza. She was Yunus Khan’s eldest daughter and my mothers full sister. Tarkhan begim of the Tarkhan was the another of his wives. Qtaq Begim was another, the foster sister of the Tarkhan begim just mentioned. Darwesh Mohammad Tarkhan (Arghun) was another, the son of Aurdu-budha Tarkhan and full-brother of the mother of Sultan Ahmed Mirza and Sultan Mohammad Mirza; of all begs in Sultan Ahmed Mirza’s presence, he was the greatest and most honored. He was an Orthodox, kindly and Darwesh like and was constant transcriber of the Quran. Abdul Ali Tarkhan was another, a close relative of the Darwesh Mohammad Tarkhan, possessor also of his younger sister, that is to say, Baqi Tarkhan’s mother.

The Arghun dynasty was a dynasty of either Mongol (davies P 627); Turkish or Turko-Mongol (boswrth, new Islamic dynasties P 329) ethnicity that ruled parts of Afghanistan in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, as well as the region of Sindh for most of the 16th century. The Arghuns can be divided into to branches, the Arghun branch of Dhul-Nul beg Arghun that ruled until 1554 and the Tarkhan branch of Mohammad Isa Tarkhan that ruled until 1591. Tarkhan Dynasty was established by Turkic Tarkhan and they ruled Sindh, Pakistan, from 1554 to 1591 AD. General Mirza Isa Beg founded the Tarkhan Dynasty in Sindh after the death of Shah Hassan Arghun of the Arghun Dynasty. Mughal emperor Akbar annexed Sindh after defeating the last Tarkhan ruler. The rulers of the Tarkhan dynasty of Sindh were:- Mirza Shah Beg Arghun Tarkhan (915-928), Mirza Shah Hasan Arghun Tarkhan (928-949), Mirza Isa Khan Tarkhan (949-974), Mirza Mohammad Baki Tarkhan (974-993), Mirza Painda Beg Tarkhan (993-993), Mirza Jani Tarkhan (993-1011), Mirza Ghazi Tarkhan (1011–1039) and Mirza Isa Tarkhan (second) (1039–1061). The Tarkhan of Sindh may have local historians assert be able to trace their origin to Eku-Timur, who as we have seen in the preceding note was the Grand son of Arghun Khan and was the member of the imperial family from the Arghuns also were descendants. The Arghun Khan was himself a Tarkhan. (History of Sindh by sir Elliot P303,497,499) and had ancestral relationship with Genghis Khan. The lineage is traced as, Mirza Isa Tarkhan, son of Mirza Abdul Ali, son of Mirza Abdul Khaliq, son of Arghun Khan, son of Abagha Khan, son of Hulagu Khan, son of Chengiz Khan, succeeded to the thorne of Thatta after the death of Mirza Husain Arghun. Mirza Isa made Mirza Salih Tarkhan his heir, apparent and placed the reins of government in his hands, reserving to himself only the name of King.

Baghatur:- (Mongolian "Baghatur" "Baatur", Turkish "Batur" "Bahadir", Russian "Boghatir", Bulgarian "Bagatur", Persian "Bahadur", Uzbek "Batyr") Is a Turko-Mongol honorific title, in origion a term for "Hero".
The term was first used in Mongolia (China), as early as the 7th century as evidence in the Sui dynasty records. It is attested for the Kokturk Khanate in the 8th century and among the Bulgars of the first Bulgarian empire in the 9th century. The word was common among the mongols in Genghis Khan's Mongol empire in the 13th century; the title persisted in its successor states, Il khanate, Timurid and Mughal dynasty of India.
Now we mention some examples from history about princes who adopted the title Baghatur.
1. Mudu shanyu of the Xiongnu empire.
2. Baghatur Khagan of the Khazar C 760.
3. Baghatur 9th century commander in Bulgaria.
4. Yesugei Baghatur, the father of the Genghis Khan.
5. The Mongol general Subutai Baghatur.
6. Il Khan Abu Saeed took the title Baatur.
7. Bayan of the Merkid of the Yuan dynasty was awarded title Baghatur.
8. Two Mughal emperors were named Bahadurshah (1) and Bahadurshah zafar (2).

Shad (Ishad):- Shad (Ishad) was a state office in the early central Asian Turkic states, roughly equivalent to "Governer". The position of Shad was traditionaly given to the member of a ruling clan (Ashina). Frequently Shad was a blood prince a representative of the next generation. Muhammad Kashgri defined the title Shad as an heir apparent a step above Yabgu. In the early Turkic Khagnate, Shad was a ruler of the east wing and Yabgu was the ruler of the west wing of the state, both directly subordinate to the Kaghan. Shad (Ishad) was an old Turkic word used to designate the highest ranking Gok-Turk generals e.g. Bori Shad.
Bori Shad (Wolf governer) was title of an appointed head of province type principality in the western Turkic Khagnate. Bori Shad was a Gok-Turk prince and an "Ishad" or "General" in the Army of the western Turkic Khagnate. He was the son of Baghashad, who may have the Yabgu or prince of the Khazars. Bori Shad's uncle was Tong Yabgu Khagan, the Khagan of the western Gok-Turks. In April 630 Bori Shad took advantage of dynastic disorders in the Sassanid empire and dispached Chorpan Tarkhan to conquer Armenia. Although the compaign was successful, Bori Shad had to flee to central Asia after learning about the murder of Tong Yabgu later that year.

Yabgu:- Yabgu was a state office in the early Turkic states, roughly equivalent to "Viceroy". The title carried Autonomy in different degrees and its links with the central authority of Kaghan varied from economical and political subordination to superficial political difference. The position of Yabgu was traditionally given to the second highest member of a ruling clan (Ashina), with the first member being the khagan himself. Frequently Yabgu was the younger brother of the ruling Khagan, or a representative of the next generation, called Shad (blood prince). Muhammad Kashgari define the title Yabgu as position two steps below Kaghan, listing heir apparent Shad a step above Yabgu. As the centralized state disintrigrated, the Yabghu was gaining more Sovereignty and historical records name of independant state with Yabgu being the title of Supreme ruler.
One prominent was Oghuz Yabgu state in middle Asia, which was formed after the fragmentation of the second Turkic Khagnate in the 840. Another example was Karluk Yabgu, the head of the Karluk confideration within the 766 occupied Suyab in the Jeti-su area and eventually grew into a powerful KaraKhanid state.
Another example is Tong Yabgu Qaghan (also known as Ziebel) was the khagan of the western Turkic Khagnate from 618 to 628 A.D. His name is usually translated as tiger Yabgu in old Turkic. He was the brother of Shekuei (611-618), the previous Khagan of the western Gok-Turks and was a member of Ashina Clan. Tong Yabgu maintained close relations with the Tang dynasty of China and may have married into the imperial family.
Another example is Kutlug Yabgu Kaghan was a ruler of second eastern Turkic Khagnate from 741-742. He was the son of Ilterish Qaghan.

Tegin:- Tegin is a turkic title, commonly attachable to the names of the junior members of the Khan family. History recorded many personages carring the title Tegin, from incidentally noted to heading their own states. The most known as Kultegin. He was a general of the second turkic Khagnate. He was a second son of Ilterish Shad and the younger brother of Bilge Kaghan. They defeated Kyrgyz, Turgesh and Karluks, extending the Khagnate territory all the way to the iron gates. They also subjugated all nine of the Tokuz Oguz tribes.
Prince Kultegin descended from the Gold clan of the ancient Turkic dynastic tribe Ashina called Shar-Duly (Golden bird duli). All royal Oghuzes trace their descent from their Mythical bird Dulu/Tulu. Kultegin died in 731, Stele in his memory was erected at his memorial complex at the present site of Khoshoo Tsaiddam. Another examples are Alptegin of the Ghazna state which grew into the Ghaznavid Empire. Arslan Tegin and Bughra Tegin instrumental in the creation of the Kara-Khanid Kaganate.

IlKhan:- According to the Rashid-Al-Din Hamdani, Kublai Khan granted Hulagu the title of Ilkhan after his defeat of Ariq Boke. The term Ilkhan means subordinate Khan. The title Ilkhan born by the descendants of Hulagu Khan who was the actual founder of the Ilkhanate dynasty, Grand son of Genghis Khan and brother of Both Mongke Khan and Qublai Khan. In 1229, "Ogodei" Genghis Khan's third son, proclaimed second great Khan (later known as Yuan Emperor Tai Zong).
Hulagu became Ilkhan (in 1263); Abaga Hulagu's son became Ilkhan (in 1265); Teguder Ahmed Abaga's brother, became Ilkhan, Mongol troops invaded Java (in 1282); Arghun Abaga's son, became Ilkhan attempt to establish Buddhism (in 1284); Geikhatu Arghun's brother became Ilkhan (in 1291); Ilkhan Ghazan wrote to Pope Boniface (in 1302); Oljeitu Ghazan's brother became Ilkhan (in 1304); Abu Said, a Sunni, succeeded Oljeitu as Ilkhan (in 1316); Abu Said last Ilkhan of Hulagu's line died (in 1335).

Bek:- (Bey, Beg, Baig) Khazar kinship was divided between the Khagan and the Bek or Khagan bek. According to the Arab historians, the Khagan was purely a spirtual ruler or figure head with limited powers, while the Bek was responsible for Administration and Military affairs. Some sources referred to the Khazar Bek as Ishad (a Gok-Turk military rank). He was the subordinate of the Khagan but in reality controlled the military and civil government for the Khazar khagnate. Bey is a title for Chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. According to some sources the word Bey is of Turkish language. In Historical accounts many Turkish and Persian leaders are titled Bey, Beg, Bek, Baig; they are all the same word with the simple meaning of "Lord". The title of Atabeg was common during the Seljuk rule of the near east in the 12th century. The word Atabeg is a compound of two Turkic words from Ata "Ancestor" and Beg or Bey "Leader, Prince".
The name Baig is drived from Turkic word Beg or Bey, which means "Cheif, Lord or Leader". Baig was a title given to honorary members of Barlas Clan and was used as the family name for their children. The members of the Mughal dynasty belong to the Chaghtai and Barlas Clans and Baigs were high ranking military leaders and advisors to the mughal royal families. Beg was also subsequently used as a military rank in the Ottoman empire. It was also used during the Qing dynasty in China. Bagum is a Turkic title given to female family members of a Baig or Beg, a higher official. The term Bagum is derived from the word Beg and means a female member of the Begs family.

Mirza:- (Persian "Mirza", Kazakh "Myrza, Morza") The word Mirza is derived from the Persian term Amirzada which means "Child of the Amir" (Child of the ruler). "Amir" meaning "commander" and "Zada" in persian meaning "birth" or "lineage". Due to the Vowel harmony in Turkic language, the alternative pronunciation Morza is also used.
Mirza denotes the rank of high "noble man" or "Prince". It usually translated into english as a royal or imperial prince of the blood. It signified male-line descent and relationship to the imperial families of Turkey and Tatar states (Turko-Mongol), such as Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Astarkhan in Russia. After the fall of Kazan some Morzalar joined to russian service, another were executed. Some Morzalar lost their land ownership and became tradesman. Under Catherine the Greats ruler Morzalar gained the equal rights with russian nobility. Mirza prince surname and notable titles Beg, Baig, Bey, Begum, Begovic, Beigh (are used in indian people, Pakistani people, Turkish people etc). The titles themselves were given by the Kings, Sultan and emperors to their sons and grand sons or even distant Kins noblemen. Mirza title was given to the imperial prince, who have relationship to the Turk dynasties and also with the mughal dynasties espacially imperial family of India.

Khatun:- (Persian "Khatun", Turkish "Hatun") Khatun is a female title of nobility and alternative to male "Khan" prominently used in the first Turkic Empire and in the subsequent Mongol Empire. it is equivalent to "Queen" or "Empress" approximatly. Although the title gained prominence. It is like the titles "Tarkhan", "Beg" and "Yabghu". According to the encyclopedia of Islam, before the advent of Islam in central Asia, Khatun was the title of the "Queen of Bukhara". Khanum is also another female derivation of "Khan" in Turkic language, it is common term for "Miss" and unmarried women.
The notable Khatuns were Borte the first wife of "Genghis Khan"; Toregene Khatun and Doquz Khatun wife of "Halagu"; Bulughan Khatun the wife of Abagha Khan; Bulugan wife of great Khan Temur; Mandukhai Khatun wife of Manduul Khan.

Agha:- (Aga) Agha from Turkish Aga means "Chief", "Master", "Lord" as a title for a civil of military officer or often part of such title was placed after the name of certain military functionaries in the Ottoman Empire. The word Agha entered english from Turkish, old Turkish word Aqa, meaning elder brother, along with it's Mongolian Cognate Aga.
Aga Khan is the title of the leader of the Shia Muslim Nizari Ismaili sect. The title Agha Khan was an honorific title bestowed by Fath Ali Shah Qajar of Iran on his son-in-law Hassan Ali Shah (1800-1881), the leader of the Ismaili Shias of Persia.
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