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How much MONGOL BLOOD do Russians have?

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Ruslan View Drop Down

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    Posted: 12-Sep-2012 at 20:48
After the publication of Putin's photos at a pro-Kremlin youth forum in a summer camp on Lake Seliger in the Russian Tver Region , 350 km north of Moscow, discussions about a strange unrecognizable face of the Russian leader erupted on Russian Internet blogs.

Many Russians state that Putin now has a Mongolian-type eye shape and cheek.

"Putin is a Mongol!", says a young Democratic opposition leader Roman Dobrokhotov who is also known in the West. Seeing a close-up photo of Putin with two narrow slits as eyelids, Mr. Dobrokhotov writes: "Botox is evil. A little more and he would have to hide his face behind a handkerchief, like Michael Jackson did".

Source: Kavkaz Center

After the Mongol invasion of Russia, the Rurikid rulers of Russian principalities were eager to obtain political advantages for themselves and their countries by marrying into the House of Genghis. Alexander Nevsky was adopted by Batu Khan as his son. Alexander's grandson Yury of Moscow married a sister of Uzbeg Khan; however, they had no progeny. On the other hand, petty Mongol princelings of Genghisid stock sometimes settled in Russia. For instance, Berke's nephew adopted the Christian name Peter and founded St. Peter's Monastery in Rostov, where his descendants were long prominent as boyars.

St. Theodore Stratelates, the patron saint of Fyodor the Black, as illustrated in his personal Gospel Book.

The issue of three Russian-Mongol marriages may be traced down to the present. The most famous was the marriage of St. Fyodor the Black, later proclaimed a patron saint of Yaroslavl, to a daughter of the Mongol khan Mengu-Timur.[3] Fyodor's relations with the khan were idyllic: he spent more time in the Horde (where he was given extensive possessions) than in his capital. Male-line descendants of Fyodor's marriage to the Tatar princess include all the later rulers of Yaroslavl and two dozens princely families (such as the Shakhovskoy, Lvov, or Prozorovsky, among others), which passed Genghis genes to other aristocratic families of Russia.

Prince Gleb of Beloozero, a grandson of Konstantin of Russia, was another Rurikid prince influential at the Mongol court. Gleb married the only daughter of Khan Sartaq. From this marriage descends the House of Belozersk, whose scions include Princes Ukhtomsky and Beloselsky-Belozersky.
The most problematic is the marriage of Narimont, the second son of Gediminas of Lithuania, to Toqta's daughter. The earliest source for this marriage is the "Jagiellonian genealogy", compiled in the 18th-century from Ruthenian chronicles by one Joannes Werner. While the marriage is not utterly impossible (Narimont spent several years in the Horde), there are no extant chronicles which mention Narimont's wife. This highly uncertain gateway derives particular interest from the fact that the Galitzine, Khovansky and Kurakin princely families are Narimont's agnatic descendants.

Ivan the Terrible,his mother Elena Glinskaya is a descendant of Mongol Mamai Khan

Sain-Burat (Simeon Bekbulatovich),Tsar of Russia,direct descendant of Genghis Khan

Boris Godunov,Tsar of Russia,Mongol-tatar origin

Peter the Great

Mikhail Kutuzov,the Russian general who defeated Napoleon.Mongol-Tatar origin

Russian alcoholism and the "Mongoloid gene"

Russian alcoholism and the "Mongoloid gene"

SCIENTISTS researching cures for alcoholism and hangovers say that they have found a genetic link between Russians’ traditional weakness for drink and the marauding Mongol armies.

As many as 50 per cent of Muscovites are estimated to have inherited Mongol genes that make them absorb more alcohol into the bloodstream and break it down at a slower rate than most Europeans, they say.

That means that they get more drunk and have worse hangovers, and are more likely to become addicted to alcohol, given Russia’s taste for vodka, its harsh climate and the social and economic chaos after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

“The difference is huge — in reaction speed, memory, hand tremor — and in how they recover,” Vladimir Nuzhny, of the Health Ministry’s National Narcology Research Centre, said. “On average, 50 per cent of people in Moscow have this Mongoloid gene. So this, we think, is part of the problem.”

As part of the study, the scientists paid 12 volunteer students to drink 350 grams, about a third of a bottle, of vodka in an hour, and then monitored their behaviour.

“That’s a lot by Western standards, but it’s normal for Russia,” Dr Nuzhny told The Times. “At first they thought it was great, because they were being paid to drink, but after a while they realised it was more like work.”

The intoxicated students had to perform a series of tests, including answering questionnaires and playing rally-driving computer games, and they were breathalysed at regular intervals. The scientists even measured their ability to stand up straight.

After sleeping off the effects in a dormitory at the laboratory — which had a karaoke machine — the students were given a slap-up breakfast before doing more tests to measure their hangovers. The study showed that those with the Mongol genes absorbed 50 per cent more alcohol into the bloodstream at peak levels and metabolised it much more slowly than the other students.

“The way they get drunk is completely different. They are also more likely to feel aggressive or depressed,” Dr Nuzhny said. “They do not necessarily look Mongolian, but the gene that governs how they metabolise alcohol is Mongoloid.”

The Mongols swept across Asia and Russia and into Europe in the 13th century and ruled Russia for two centuries. Inter-marriage with the Slavs and other ethnic groups was common.

Scientists have long known that people of Mongol extraction, including Japanese,Koreans and Northern Chinese, have an enzyme for metabolising alcohol that is different from that of Caucasian Europeans.

Dr Nuzhny claims that his study is the first to look at the effect of alcohol on Russians who have inherited Mongol genes. He says that the phenomenon can be explained partly by evolution. The nomadic Mongols, whose only indigenous form of alcohol was fermented mare’s milk, evolved with a different enzyme from the settled Europeans, with their long tradition of producing stronger grape and grain-based alcohol.

Dr Nuzhny’s research is partly funded by pharmaceutical companies trying to develop drugs to cure hangovers and alcoholism.

Russians drink about 15 litres of pure alcohol a head each year, one of the highest rates in the world, and by some estimates one in seven Russians are alcoholics. Alcohol is largely to blame for a fall in life expectancy to less than 59 since the fall of the Soviet Union.

Lenin is 1/4 Kalmyk Mongol

Semen Budyonnuyy,the greatest Russian military commander

Basan Gorodvikhov,the man who led army to Berlin in 1944

Stalin Khan lol

Semyon Timoshenko

Petorov Ivanovivh

Andrey Yeryomenko

Leonid Brezhnev,the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1964 until 1982

The Effects of the Mongol Empire on Russia
By Dustin Hosseini


The history of Russia has always been a relatively sad and tumultuous one wrought with wars, power struggles, and abrupt changes. These changes have often been forcibly thrust wholesale upon Russia, rather than evolving through gradual, measured methods as in most peoples’ histories. From an earlier time, in which we know Russia as ‘Kievan Rus,’ the princes of the various cities (such as Vladimir, Pskov, Suzdal, and Kiev) constantly battled and bickered for power and control of the small semi-united state. Under the reigns of St. Vladimir (980-1015) and Yaroslav the Wise (1015-1054), the Kievan state was at its highest point and attained relative peace in contrast with years past. However, as history went, once the reigning rulers died, a power struggle ensued and wars once again flared.

It was perhaps the decision of Yaroslav the Wise before his death in 1054 to assign princedoms to his sons that set the future of Kievan Russia for the next two hundred years. Following this decision, civil wars between the various sons ravaged much of the Kievan confederation, draining it of essential resources it would later need. As the princes incessantly fought with each other, the confederation of cities known as the Kievan state slowly decayed, declined, and lost its former glory. Further weakened by the incursions of steppe tribes such as the Polovtsy (aka Cumans/Kumans or Kipchaks) and previously by the Pechenegs, eventually the Kievan state was ripe for a takeover by more powerful invaders from distant lands.

Yet before this, the Rus had a chance to change their fate. It was around 1219 when the Mongols first entered the areas nearest Kievan Russia in a move against the Polovtsy, who, in turn, asked for the assistance of the Rus princes. A council of princes convened in Kiev to consider the request, an act which worried the Mongols. According to historical sources, the Mongols declared that they had not attacked the cities or people of the Rus nor attacked their lands. The Mongol envoys requested peace of the Russian princes. Yet the princes did not trust the Mongols, suspecting that the Mongol advance would continue into Rus. Subsequently, the Mongol emissaries were promptly killed and any chance for peace was destroyed at the hands of the princes of the fractured Kievan state. Within twenty years, Batu Khan marched from Mongolia with an army of 200,000 men. One by one, Russian principalities such as Ryazan, Moscow, Vladimir, Suzdal, and Rostov fell to the Batu and his armies. The armies looted and razed the cities, slaughtered the people, and took many as prisoners and slaves. The Mongols eventually captured, sacked, and destroyed Kiev, the symbolic center of Kievan Russia. Only outlying northwesterly principalities such as Novgorod, Pskov, and Smolensk survived the onslaught, though these cities would endure indirect subjugation and become tributaries of the Golden Horde. Perhaps a decision by the Russian princes to make peace could have averted this. However, that was not the case and for their miscalculations, Russia would be forever changed in terms of its religion, art, language, government, and political geography.

The Orthodox Church

With the initial Mongol onslaught, many churches and monasteries were looted and destroyed while countless adherents to the church and scores of clergy were killed; those who survived often were taken prisoner and enslaved (Dmytryshyn, 121). The mere shock of the force and size of the Mongol army was devastating. The distress was just as political and economic in nature as it was social and spiritual. The Mongol forces claimed that they were sent by God, and the Russians believed that the Mongols were indeed sent by God as a punishment for their sins. The Orthodox Church would become a powerful beacon during the “darker” years of the Mongol subjugation. The Russian people would eventually turn inward, seeking solace in their faith and looking to the Orthodox Church for guidance and support. The shock of being conquered by this steppe people would plant the seeds of Russian monasticism, which would in turn play a major role in the conversion of such people as the Finno-Ugrian tribes and the Zyrianians (now known as the Komi), as well as the colonization of the northern regions of Russia (Vernadsky, 379).  

The humiliation suffered by the princes and the town assemblies caused fragmentation of their political authority. This loss of political unity allowed the Church to rise as an embodiment of both religious and national identity while filling the gap of lost political identity (Riasanovsky, 57). The unique legal concept of iarlyk (pronounced ‘yarlīgh’), or charter of immunity, also contributed to the strengthening of the Church. With the reign of Mönke-Temür, a iarlyk was issued to Metropolitan Kirill for the Orthodox Church in 1267. While the church had been under the de facto protection of the Mongols ten years earlier (from the 1257 census conducted under Khan Berke), this iarlyk formally decreed protection for the Orthodox Church. More importantly, it officially exempted the church from any form of taxation by Mongol or Russian authorities (Ostrowski, 19). And permitted that clergymen not be registered during censuses and that they were furthermore not liable for forced labor or military service (Hosking, 57). 

As expected, the result of the iarlyk issued to the Orthodox Church was profound. For the first time, the church would become less dependent on princely powers than in any other period of Russian history. The Orthodox Church was able to acquire and consolidate land at a considerable rate, one that would put the church in an extremely powerful position in the centuries following the Mongol takeover. The charter of immunity strictly forbade both Mongol and Russian tax agents from seizing church lands or demanding any services from the Orthodox Church. This was enforced by a simple penalty – death (Vernadsky, 377).

Another prominent reason the church developed so quickly laid in its mission – to spread Christianity and convert those still practicing paganism in the countryside. To strengthen the internal structure of the Orthodox Church, metropolitans traveled extensively throughout the land to alleviate administrative deficiencies and to oversee the activities of the bishops and priests. Moreover, the relative security (economic, military, and spiritual) surrounding hermitages lured peasants from the countryside. As this heightened urban development within the periphery of church properties destroyed the peaceful atmosphere the hermitage was originally established to give, members of the monastery would move further out into the wilderness to establish a new hermitage, beginning the process anew. This system of founding religious settlements continued for some time and contributed to the augmentation of the Orthodox Church (Vernadsky, 377-8).

One last significant change that occurred was the location of the center of the Orthodox Church. Before the Mongols invaded Russian lands, Kiev was the ecclesiastical center. Following the destruction of Kiev, the Holy See moved to Vladimir in 1299, and eventually to Moscow in 1322 (Hosking, 72), helping to bolster the importance of Moscow significantly. 


While the arts in Russia first suffered mass deportations of its artists, the monastic revival and the focus of attention that turned toward the Orthodox Church led to an artistic revival. What defined the Russians – at this crucial moment when they were without a state – was their Christianity and ability to express their devout beliefs. During this Time of Troubles, such great artists as Theophanes the Greek and Rublev came into play (Figes, 299-300).

It was during the second half of the Mongol rule in the mid-fourteenth century that Russian iconography and fresco painting began once again to flourish. Theophanes the Greek arrived in the late 1300s. He decorated and worked on various churches throughout the land, especially in Novgorod and Nizhniy Novgorod. In Moscow, he painted the iconostasis for the Church of the Annunciation as well as worked on the Church of the Archangel Michael (Martin, 233). A few decades after Theophanes’ arrival, Rublev would become one of his most aspiring and important students. Iconography came to Russia from Byzantium in the tenth century, but the Mongol invasion in the thirteenth century cut Russia off from Byzantium.


While the linguistic effects may seem at first trivial, such impacts on language help us to determine and understand to what extent one empire had on another people or group of people – in terms of administration, military, trade – as well as to what geographical extent the impact included. Indeed, the linguistic and even socio-linguistic impacts were great, as the Russians borrowed thousands of words, phrases, other significant linguistic features from the Mongol and the Turkic languages that were united under the Mongol Empire (Dmytryshyn, 123). Listed below are a few examples of some that are still in use. All came from various parts of the Horde. 

  1. амбар                          ambar                                    barn
  2. базар                          bazar                                     bazaar
  3. деньги                        den’gi                                     money
  4. лошадь                       loshad‘                                    horse
  5. сундук                        sunduk                                   truck, chest
  6. таможня                      tamozhnya                              customs

One highly important colloquial feature of the Russian language of Turkic origin is the use of the word давай which expresses the idea of ‘Let’s…’ or ‘Come on, let’s...’ (Figes, 370-1). Listed below are a few common examples still found commonly in Russian.

  1. Давай чай попьем.              Davai chai popem.             ‘Let’s drink some tea.’
  2. Давай выпьем!                    Davai vypem!                   ‘Come on, let’s get drunk!’
  3. Давай пойдём!                    Davai poidyom!                 ‘Come on, let’s go!’

In addition, there are dozens of place names of Tatar/Turkic origin in southern Russia and the lands of the Volga River that stand out on maps of these areas. City names such as Penza, Alatyr, and Kazan’ and names of regions such as Chuvashia and Bashkortostan are examples.  

Administration and Institutions

Images of totalitarianism spring to mind when one at first ponders that which is Russia: from the current times of Vladimir Putin’s presidency, to when the Soviet Union was still a nation, and even before to Imperial Russia. However, in Kievan Rus, a form of democracy did exist. Comprised of all free male citizens, the veche (вече) was a town assembly that met to discuss such matters as war and peace, law, and invitation or expulsion of princes to the veche’s respective town; all cities in Kievan Russia had a veche. It was essentially a forum for civic affairs to discuss and resolve problems. However, this democratic institution suffered severe curtailment under the Mongols.

By far the most influential of the assemblies were in Novgorod and Kiev. In Novgorod, a special veche bell (in other towns, church bells were ordinary used for this purpose) was created for calling the townspeople together for an assembly, and in theory, anyone could ring it. In the times after the Mongols had conquered the majority of Kievan Russia, veches ceased to exist in all cities except Novgorod, Pskov, and others in the northwestern regions. Veches in those cities continued to function and develop until Moscow itself subjugated them in the late fifteenth century. However, today the spirit of the veche as a public forum has been revived in several cities across Russia, including especially Novgorod.

Of great importance to the Mongol overlords was census tabulation, which allowed for the collection of taxes. To support censuses, the Mongols imposed a special dual system of regional administration headed by military governors, the basqaqi (баскаки), and/or civilian governors, the darugi (даругы). Essentially, the basqaqi were given the responsibility of directing the activities of rulers in the areas that were resistant or had challenged Mongol authority. The darugi were civilian governors that oversaw those regions of the empire that had submitted without a fight or that were considered already pacified to Mongol forces (Ostrowski, 273). However, the offices of the basqaqi and the darugi, while occasionally overlapping in authority and purpose did not necessarily always rule at the same time.

As we know from history, the ruling princes of Kievan Russia did not trust the Mongolian ambassadors that came to discuss peace with them in the early 1200s; the princes regrettably put the ambassadors of Genghis Khan to the sword and before long paid dearly. Thus, in the thirteenth century the basqaqi were stationed in the conquered lands to subjugate the people and authorize even the day-to-day activities of the princes. Furthermore, in addition to ensuring the the census, the basqaqi oversaw conscription of the local populace (Martin, 150).  

Existing sources and research indicates that the basqaqi had largely disappeared from the Rus’ lands by the mid-fourteenth century, as the Rus more or less accepted the Mongol overlords. As the basqaqi left, the darugi replaced them in power. However, unlike the basqaqi, the darugi were not based in the confines of the lands of the Rus; in fact, they were stationed in Sarai, the old capital of the Golden Horde located not far from present-day Volgograd. The darugi functioned mainly as experts on the lands of the Rus’ and advised the khan accordingly. While the responsibility of collecting and delivering tribute and conscripts had belonged to the basqaqi, with the transition from the basqaqi to the darugi these duties we actually transferred to the princes themselves when the khan saw that the princes could complete such tasks (Martin, 151).

The first census taken by the Mongols occurred in 1257, just seventeen years after their conquest of Rus’ lands. The population was divided into multiples of ten, a system that had been employed by the Mongols who extended its use over the entirety of their empire; the census served as the primary purpose for conscription as well as for taxation. This practice was carried on by Moscow after it stopped acknowledging the Horde in 1480. The practice fascinated foreign visitors to Russia, to whom large-scale censuses were still unknown. One such visitor, Sigismund von Herberstein from Hapsburg made note of the fact that every two or three years, the prince conducted a census throughout the land (Wittfogel, 638). Census taking would not become widespread in Europe until the early 19th century. One significant observation that we must make is that the extent to which the Russians so thoroughly conducted the census was not achieved elsewhere in Europe for another 120 years or so, during the Age of Absolutism. The impact of the Mongol Empire at least in this area was obviously deep and effective and helped to create a strong central government for Russia.   

One important institution that the basqaqi oversaw and maintained was the yam (a system of posts), which was constructed to provide food, bedding, horses, and either coaches or sleds, according to the season (Hosking, 89). At first constructed by the Mongols, the yam allowed relatively rapid movement of important communiqués between the khans and their local leaders, as well as a method of quickly dispatching envoys, local or foreign, between the various principalities across the vast the empire. Each post had horses ready for use by authorized persons as well as to replace tired horses for especially long journeys. Each post was usually located about a day’s ride from the nearest post. The local people were obliged to maintain the posts, to feed the horses, and to meet the needs of emissaries traveling through their posts.

The system was quite efficient. Another report by emissary Sigismund von Herberstein of the Hapsburgs stated that the yam system allowed him to travel 500 kilometers (from Novgorod to Moscow) within 72 hours – much faster than anywhere in Europe (Wittfogel, 639-40). The yam system helped the Mongols to maintain tight control over their empire. During the twilight years of the Mongol’s hold on Russia in the late fifteenth century, Prince Ivan III decided to continue the use of the idea of the system of the yam in order to keep an established system of communication and intelligence. However, the idea of a postal system as we know it today would not come into existence until after the death of Peter the Great in the early 1700s.

Some such institutions brought to Russia by the Mongols transformed to meet Russian needs over time and lasted for many centuries after the Golden Horde. These greatly augmented the development and expansion of the intricate bureaucracy of the later, imperial Russia.

The Rise of Moscow

Founded in 1147, Moscow remained an insignificant town for more than a hundred years. At that time, the location lay at the crossroads of three major roads, one of which connected Moscow to Kiev. The geographic location of Moscow merits attention, as it sits on a bend of the Moscow River, which connects to the Oka and Volga River. Via the Volga River, that allows access to the Dniepr and Don Rivers, as well as the Black and Caspian Seas, huge opportunities for trade and commerce with distant lands have always existed. With the Mongol onslaught, droves of refugees began to arrive from the devastated southern portion of Rus, namely Kiev (Riasanovsky, 109). Moreover, the actions of the Muscovite princes in favor with the Mongols helped Moscow’s rise as the center of power.

Leading up to the point that the Mongols granted Moscow the iarlyk, Tver and Moscow were constantly struggling for power. The major turning point surfaced in 1327 when the populace of Tver started to rise in rebellion. Seeing this as an opportunity to please the khan of his Mongol overlords, Prince Ivan I of Moscow took a huge Tatar contingent and quashed the rebellion in Tver, thereby restoring order in that city and winning the favor of the khan. For his show of loyalty, Ivan I was also granted the iarlyk and with this Moscow took yet another step towards prominence and power. Soon the princes of Moscow took over the responsibilities of collecting taxes throughout the land (and in doing so, taking part of these taxes for themselves) and eventually the Mongols gave this responsibility solely to Moscow and ended the practice of sending their own tax collectors. Yet Ivan I was more than a shrewd politician and exchequer of good judgment: he was perhaps the first prince to replace the traditional lateral line of succession with the vertical line (though this would not be fully achieved until the second Prince Vasilii’s reign in the mid-1400s (Hosking, 71-2)). This change brought more stability to Moscow and thus strengthened her position within the realm. As Moscow grew wealthier through being the main tax collector of the lands, its authority over several principalities became greater and more consolidated. The lands that Moscow gained equated with more taxes and more access to resources, and thus more power.

During the time that Moscow grew wealthier and more powerful, the Golden Horde was in a state of general decay, wrought with rebellions and coups. Prince Dmitrii decided to attack the Kazan khanate in 1376 and was successful. Not long after, one of the Mongol generals, Mamai, sought to create his own horde of sorts in the steppes west of the Volga River (Hosking, 79) and he decided to challenge the authority of Prince Dmitrii on the banks of the Vokha River; Dmitrii defeated Mamai, exciting his Muscovites and, naturally, angering the Mongols. However, Mamai chose to fight again and organized a contingent of 150,000 men; Dmitrii matched this number and their two armies met near the River Don at Kulikovo Pole (Kulikovo Field) in early September of 1380 (Dmytryshyn, 140). Dmitrii’s army, though suffering losses of some 100,000 men, defeated Mamai; Tokhtamysh, one of Tamerlane’s generals, soon captured and executed the general. Prince Dmitrii became known as Dmitrii Donskoi (of the Don). However, Moscow was soon sacked by Tokhtamysh, and once again had to pay tribute to the Mongols.

Yet the great battle of Kulikovo Pole in 1380 was a symbolic turning point. Even though Moscow suffered retribution for attacking Mongol armies, the power that Moscow welded would continue to grow and its influence over other Russian principalities would continue to expand. Novgorod finally succumbed to future capital in 1478, and Moscow soon shed any allegiance to the Mongol and Tatar overlords thus ending over 250 years of Mongol control.


As the evidence stands, the effects of the Mongol invasion were many, spread across the political, social, and religious facets of Russia. While some of those effects, such as the growth of the Orthodox Church generally had a relatively positive effect on the lands of the Rus, other results, such as the loss of the veche system and centralization of power assisted in halting the spread of traditional democracy and self-government for the various principalities. From the influences on the language and the form of government, the very impacts of the Mongol invasion are still evident today. Perhaps given the chance to experience the Renaissance, as did other western European cultures, the political, religious, and social thought of Russia would greatly differ from that of the reality of today. The Russians, through the control of the Mongols who had adopted many ideas of government and economics from the Mongols, became perhaps a more Asiatic nation in terms of government, while the deep Christian roots of the Russians established and helped maintain a link with Europe. It was the Mongol invasion which, perhaps more than any other historical event, helped to determine the course of development that Russian culture, political geography, history, and national identity would take.


Baiburov, R. “Russkie v dopetrovskuiu epokhu”, Nauka i Zhizn’. Accessed February, 2005.

Chronicle of Novgorod 1016 – 1471, The. Trans. Nevill Forbes and Robert Mitchell. Hattiesburg: Academic International/Orbis Academicus, 1970.

Crummey, Robert O. The Formation of Muscovy: 1304 – 1613. New York: LongmanInc., 1987.

Dmytryshyn, Basil. A History of Russia. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977.

Fennell, John. The Crisis of Medieval Russia: 1200 – 1304. New York: Longman Inc., 1983.

Halperin, Charles J. “George Vernadsky, Eurasianism, the Mongols, and Russia,” Slavic Review, Vol. 41, No. 3, Autumn, 1982: 477-493.

_____  Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

_____ “Russia in The Mongol Empire in Comparative Perspective”, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, V. 43, No. 1, June 1983: 239-261.

Hosking, Geoffrey. Russia and the Russians: A History. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001.

Kadyrbaev, A. Sh. «Золотая орда как предтеча российской империи», Центральная Азия и Кавказ. Accessed February, 2005.

Kargalov, V. V. Vneshne-Politicheskie Faktory Razvitiia Feodal’noi Rusi. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo “Vysshaia shkola”, 1967.

Martin, Janet. Medieval Russia, 980—1584. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Morgan, David. The Mongols. New York: Basil Blackwell Inc., 1987.

Nasonov, A. N. Mongoly i Rus’ (istoriia tatarskoi politiki na rusi). Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1940. Ed. C. H. Van Schooneveld. The Hague: Mouton, 1969.

Ostrowski, Donald. Muscovy and the Mongols: Cross-Cultural Influences on the Steppe Frontier, 1304 – 1589. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Ostrowski, Donald. “The “tamma” and the Dual-Administrative Structure of the Mongol Empire”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 61, No. 2, 1998: 262-277.

Rempel, Gerhard. Lecture: “The Tartar Yoke,” Accessed January 2005.

Riasanovsky, Nicholas V. A History of Russia. Sixth ed. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. 2000.

Shirokorad, A. B. Rus’ i Orda. Moscow: Izdatel’stskii dom “Veche”, 2004.

Wittfogel, Karl A. “Russia and the East: A Comparison and Contrast”, Slavic Review, Vol. 22, No. 4, December 1963: 627-643.

Edited by Ruslan - 17-Sep-2012 at 05:30
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Bushido View Drop Down

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  Quote Bushido Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-Sep-2012 at 21:22
Mongol influence in Russia is huge,there is a historical documentary filmed by NHK Japan which tells about that. however it doesn't have English translation:

Edited by Bushido - 12-Sep-2012 at 21:29
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Bushido View Drop Down

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  Quote Bushido Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Sep-2012 at 19:34
that's why Russians are so powerful on battlefield
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Ollios View Drop Down

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  Quote Ollios Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Sep-2012 at 23:29
a famous idiom; "Scratch the Russian and you will find the Tartar"
Ellerin Kabe'si var,
Benim Kabem İnsandır
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Nick1986 View Drop Down
Mighty Slayer of Trolls

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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Sep-2012 at 20:10
Budyonny in particular bears a close resemblence to my own grandfather. I wouldn't be surprised if he had Tatar blood, though it's impossible to prove as the records have long since been destroyed
Me Grimlock not nice Dino! Me bash brains!
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heyamigos View Drop Down

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  Quote heyamigos Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Sep-2012 at 06:12
20-25% of Russians have the Haplogroup N (Y chromosome paternal genetic marker).  This is good enough evidence they have genes from Huns, Cumans, Pechenegs, Mongol/Tatars, etc.  BTW, Rurik (the supposed first Viking king of Russia) also was found to have Haplogroup N marker.  They later found, he was of Finnish, not Swedish descent. 
Russians are not good drinkers.  They turn red after a few drinks and get drunk easily.  This another sign of Mongoloid admixture
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Nick1986 View Drop Down
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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Sep-2012 at 21:19
Originally posted by heyamigos

20-25% of Russians have the Haplogroup N (Y chromosome paternal genetic marker).  This is good enough evidence they have genes from Huns, Cumans, Pechenegs, Mongol/Tatars, etc.  BTW, Rurik (the supposed first Viking king of Russia) also was found to have Haplogroup N marker.  They later found, he was of Finnish, not Swedish descent. 
Russians are not good drinkers.  They turn red after a few drinks and get drunk easily.  This another sign of Mongoloid admixture

Most Slavs love a good drink. They invented vodka, after all
Me Grimlock not nice Dino! Me bash brains!
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  Quote TheAlaniDragonRising Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Sep-2012 at 22:29
Originally posted by Nick1986

Originally posted by heyamigos

20-25% of Russians have the Haplogroup N (Y chromosome paternal genetic marker).  This is good enough evidence they have genes from Huns, Cumans, Pechenegs, Mongol/Tatars, etc.  BTW, Rurik (the supposed first Viking king of Russia) also was found to have Haplogroup N marker.  They later found, he was of Finnish, not Swedish descent. 
Russians are not good drinkers.  They turn red after a few drinks and get drunk easily.  This another sign of Mongoloid admixture

Most Slavs love a good drink. They invented vodka, after all
I wouldn't be so sure about that, Nick. Ossetian Arak is also considered to be Ossetian Arak Vodka, and is thought to be thousands of years old. Being Alani in origin they are perfectly positioned for those usual stories circulating about vodka origins, and as it happens Scotch Whisky too.
What a handsome figure of a dragon. No wonder I fall madly in love with the Alani Dragon now, the avatar, it's a gorgeous dragon picture.
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  Quote Ruslan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Nov-2012 at 23:55
Sergey Kuzhugetovich Shoygu (Russian: Серге́й Кужуге́тович Шойгу́) (born May 21, 1955) is a Russian political figure who was Minister of Emergency Situations from 1994 to 2012. He holds the military rank of General of the Army. He is also the President of the International Sport Federation of Firefighters and Rescuers. 

Sergey was born Chadan, Tuva to a Tuvan father and a Russian mother. In March 2012, he was announced as one of the potential candidates for the Governor of Moscow Oblast.

 In April 5, 2012 he was elected as the 3rd Governor of Moscow Oblast, and entered into his office in May 11, 2012.[4] On November 6th, 2012 he was appointed to the Minister of Defence of Russia.

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  Quote heyamigos Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Nov-2012 at 03:59
The gymnast girl Mustafina.  Must be Tatar name.
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  Quote SergejJego Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Nov-2012 at 05:07
V.Putin: - The Kulikovo field battled Russian troops are not hordes of Horde, Tatar cavalry was a shock force of Russian troops.


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  Quote heyamigos Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 19-Nov-2012 at 03:26
The Russian Cossaks shared many similar Tatar customs.  It didn't matter the religion, if there was treasure and slaves to take both sides would fight to get them
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  Quote Ruslan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20-Nov-2012 at 18:25
Based on Francis Fukuyama, the Russian government strucuture is based on the traditional Mongol predatory techniques. Russia never had democracy. Stalin applied same government principles as the Mongols. And Putin is a 21st century Mongol, nothing else.

Now, because Russia is also a rich country, the Mongol in realises that in order for him to get legitimacy and love of his subjects, he is willing to trade this legitimacy against some distribution of wealth, that is why there are so low taxes and no significant debts to speak about.Therefore, the current Russian protest movement, while we have to applaud and encourage it, will never be able to beat the Mongol system.
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  Quote balochii Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Nov-2012 at 01:27
it depends where the Russians are located, it's a huge country, the western russians are very similar to their european neighbors genetically, but yes if you start moving east words from Moscow, slight mongol and Siberians genes start to appear. The central and eastern Russians are basically mongolid people 
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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Nov-2012 at 13:13

The Cossack in the centre looks European, but the other two look more Eastern
Me Grimlock not nice Dino! Me bash brains!
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  Quote medenaywe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Nov-2012 at 13:23
I prefer more Hindu than Mongol!Hindu&China examples=Mongols...Hindu&European=Hindu Europeans.
How did they come there?That's a long story to tell.Lot of them have no idea i suppose.Click above for DNA
check.SmileSurprise follows it...
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  Quote Ruslan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 25-Nov-2012 at 00:48
Sergey Kuzhugetovich Shoygu, is a Russian political figure who was Minister of Emergency Situations from 1994 to 2012. He holds the military rank of General of the Army. He is also the President of the International Sport Federation of Firefighters and Rescuers.  Sergey was born Chadan, Tuva to a Tuvan(Mongol) father and a Russian mother.

Yuriy Ivanovych Yekhanurov, is a Ukrainian politician who was Prime Minister of Ukraine from 2005 to 2006 and Minister of Defense in from 2007 to 2009. On July 14, 2009 he was appointed as the first deputy head of the Ukrainian Presidential SecretariatYekhanurov was born in the village Belkachi in the far-north Yakut ASSR, which is currently the Sakha Republic within the Russian Federation. Yekhanurov, an ethnic Buryat (Mongol),moved to Ukraine during Soviet time.

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  Quote Ruslan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 25-Nov-2012 at 00:55

Edited by Ruslan - 27-Nov-2012 at 08:47
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  Quote Ruslan Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Nov-2012 at 08:44
information in Japanese 





    "プーチンはモンゴルです!"プーチンの若い民主党リーダーローマの絵を指摘多布洛霍托夫小さな目は言った。彼は書いた: "彼は彼の顔がマイクジャック速いように、背後に隠されたハンカチかけることになりながら、ジルベルトアレックスが短く、悪である。"


ロシアの後もともと容易ではない酔ってますが、モンゴル人によって、何百年もの間の結婚やその他の理由により1月19日に報告されたイギリスの "タイムズ"、モンゴルの遺伝子を残した多くのロシア人、従ってアルコールを支配していたの代謝やモンゴル、他のヨーロッパ諸国に比べてかなり遅く、そう簡単に酔って。




専門家は寒いロシア気候と指摘したので、人々は暖かい飲むことを余儀なくされ、かつなぜなら政治的·経済危機のソ連崩壊後、あるケースでは、トラブルに多くの人々の生活、神経を麻痺させるために大量の飲酒を通過する必要があり、地元産のウォッカのうそと相まってワイン、こうしてモンゴル遺伝子ロシア人はロシアの酔っぱらいのような印象を引き起こしも​​っと酔って、結果をより速く "飲む。











また、13世紀前にヨーロッパ全土に広がるゲルマン民族的侵略、男性どこでもゲルマン人々とレイプされた女性を、モダンなヨーロッパ大陸法、西洋の人々の男系、ポルトガル、イタリア、バルカン諸国やイギリスゲルマン人の80%以上を作り、モスクワ惜しまれていません。モスクワの住民は、11世紀にモスクワの住民、8世紀には、母親の遺伝子が完全にリンクされていることがわかった考古学的な遺伝子の研究では、東スラヴ人で、父方の遺伝子はほぼ半分に変更します。 13世紀に、モスクワ、より強力な生殖侵略者の到来を告げるに周囲の領域である、モンゴル人、モンゴル人、ゲルマン人、本当の意味での白人、モンゴロイドと白人の濁った血濁った血も、強大なモンゴル氏族長とは、ビザンチンの王女と結婚した。もっと致命的な、モンゴル人は、地元の女性たちが降下を持つ子どもを出産した。

モンゴルの習慣に従って行わなければならないことは、大規模な虐殺の領域をキャプチャし、車軸の男性よりも背の高いものがぞろぞろの略奪の女性の冷酷な虐殺され​​ています。 Fubeishoudiを避けるためにそうすることを目的として、; 2つの生物学的植民地、モンゴルの人口は非常に希少なものであり、これらの捕食女性の子孫は、自分自身の一部となります。






モスクワ大公アブグレイブ王子とモンゴルサルタカーン結婚の唯一の子の空のSi Tandingの孫は、彼らがロス焦点マグニトゴルスクファミリを行うために出産しました。纳里曼塔斯モンゴルTuotuoカーンの娘、グリッド下部ミナス次男より結婚。


モンゴルスモレンスクとヤロスラブリ大公とintermarried [図の世代 - フィデル·ローズTISIラ、アブラモビッチ


[図レース - ブラッター(ロシア語:セミヨンはKebuラトアルビオンを行う)。ロシア皇帝、チンギス·ハーンの直系の子孫






[図]闘神 ブジョーンヌイ





ロシアは世界最大の国は、今日明白モンゴル因子の形成。 1920年代、ロシアのユーラシア教義は言った: "ロシア系と無関係西部、スラブは、(スラヴ民族)は何の関係もないと、" G柳Qiefuチョムスキーと彼の学生は、ロシア、モンゴルの統一、信用の少なくとも半分。ロシア文化トゥレイン成分に彼の名著 "のもう一つのユーラシア哲学トルベツコイは"モスクワはモンゴルのルールに感謝したいと指摘し、政府のロシアのシステムはまた、モンゴルです。本質的には、ロシアは正教会モンゴル国立です。モンゴルの影響借用語、郵便サービス、税金、衣類によってモンゴルの多数のモンゴルの影響でロシアの人々の日常生活は、軍事司法制度はモンゴルから学ぶことです。


ロシア国家のほか、モンゴル文化と芸術は深い押印、ロシア文学佗ドストエフスキーとツルゲーネフそこモンゴル降下、唯一モンゴルで最大の小説家のうち3つを残している草原小説の淡い草原 "など他に類を見ない深い理解と経験を書き留めてツルゲーネフの降下。ダンサーウラーノワ;アンナバスPuのペトロワは、モンゴルの祖先を持っています。



ソ連時代には、モンゴルのシニアリーダーシップのメンバーで、ソ連、多くの人の娘、有名なモンゴルの政治局メンバー、Maidar評議会第一副会長の大臣と結婚した。政治局補欠委員、ウランバートル、市立の第一号秘書アルタンナイチンゲールル、中央委員会の政治局補欠委員、Mengsu CPAFFCメイン席贡布扎布、ベネズエラ、国家計画委員会の閣僚理事会の副会長、メイン席索德诺姆、ベネズエラ、国防第一学科クラウド·テン、ベネズエラ、外務省第一副大臣、副大臣にマネクチョウク。モンゴル、中間レベルの幹部夫人ソ連はもっと多かった。







歴史的には、スウェーデン、フランス、ドイツ、部門決勝のこれらのトラはロシアの広大な土地で無敗。ロシアの強力な独自の遊牧民遺伝子は---すべて、ベーズを破壊勝ち - 遊牧民ので、彼らが失敗したときに、離れて漂流遊牧民はすべての物資を運ぶために必要はありませんが、略奪は方法の主な稼ぎ手であり、そこには "固定資産"がないので、その広大な敷地のおかげで、遊牧民に固執する必要はありませんでした - 草 - オリジナルと砂漠の緩やかな死の敵を。

20世紀、19世紀、第二次世界大戦でフランス軍遠征、ロシアは戦争の結果を決定するためにすべての方法を実行している恐ろしいと東に向かってドイツ語。戦いは、モンゴルの人たちクトゥーゾフ公爵実装されている場合でも同様です。フランス人のタタール人は(ヨーロッパ、ロシア - ロスと呼ばれる)ときに実際に旅団を旅して、自分の家や資本を燃やした。すべてのフランス軍の遺体はモスクワからダボランへの道に沿って凍死した餓死する。

第二次世界大戦、独ソ戦争、似たような状況でフランスとロシアとの戦争。凍死と餓死するのが最も生きている150万の死にスターリングラード。 4年間、巨大な戦いの数十、そしてフランス軍の強力なドイツ人はロシアで氷や雪を飲み込んだとして - ローズ。

敵、彼らは作戦土政策の究極の失敗に直面したロシアの領土の敵は泥沼に陥るようなものであるように、偉大な深さ、常に不十分で物資や部隊、ロシア、正確遊牧民道、ロシアの広大な領土、遊牧民のような大規模な草 - - オリジナルと砂漠の対戦相手はどこでも、すべての占領軍の不足どこでも四面楚歌のジレンマ、ロシアの広大な領土と疲労状況に焦げた土のポリシー相手に基本にこだわって、焦土作戦は遊牧民の戦略的な大規模な移行です - ライン - など。後で先進国では農業国、あるいは本当に "焦土戦争"ではありませんが、ロシアだけが無敗の状況で常にできるように、ロシアの遊牧民の遺伝子がこれを行うことができます、我々はそれを他の帝国を行うことはできません - 。


欠点から生まれた農業国は農業国は無限の遊牧民の移動性に直面して、たとえ農業民族攻勢遊牧民、しばしば、生き残るためには "軒並み守備崩壊の全範囲を"自分の家を維持しなければならず、その固定資産です草 - 元、砂漠は、十分な資金と人材と遊牧民Zhouxuandaodiはありません。前漢全国民軍は依然としてフン族を倒すことができませんが、フン族はその後、中国への長期的な脅威であり続ける。一見、畏敬の念を起こさせるが、実際には初期の明皇帝朱ディ征服ノース元 - 図 - 顔の風景は、単に相手を打ち負かすが、偉大な明の皇帝朱QizhenまもなくモンゴルZhuozouすることはできません。

ロシアの征服の歴史は完全に例外なく、すべての深刻な国と国とロシアとの国境を罰せられる、頑丈な遊牧民の遺伝子を継承しています。ヨーロッパの植民野蛮な世界を征服するための方法が、ほとんどの誰も - ロシア人の終わりは、資本主義のビジネス誘惑の欲に属しているに似ているので、特にヨーロッパの植民者、ある程度の物事の英国の道の挙動自らのモラルや価値観の影響と励ましによって。ロシアはすべての制約に縛られていない - 、 - ロシア、征服と略奪は、遊牧民の生得的な概念である普遍的な価値である。膨張過程におけるロシアも挫折しても一時的な障害を被ったが、国は、ロシア、ロシアの人々を破壊することができなかった - である - なぜならこれを行うことができるため、その遊牧民の遺伝子。ロシアに対してのみロシア隣国の侵略と他国侵略は自滅する運命にある。

現代技術遊牧民後継装備ほとんど横行ロシアの遊牧民を征服しようとしている自分の脳をラックの世界帝国がナポレオンの人外の敗北を継承し、ヒトラーの終焉、日本が失敗し、封じ込めの英国の戦略的な政策で一定のついにバルト海におけるロシア包囲、黒海、ペルシャ湾、アフガニスタン、極東、守備サークル、正直に多数の挫折の後、英国に封じ込め政策を実施する、しない - 程度、実装を成功させるの - 、全体でロシア包囲、 - 人間 - 祝福。これらの成功は、しかし、なぜなら火器武装遊牧民本当の無敗の "キングコング"、彼らがどんなに強力な、または失敗する運命にしていたとしても、攻撃的政策のイギリス人やアメリカ人が実装した場合、防衛の前提を確立することである - 根本的な - それを打つことができない。





ほとんどの人々の歴史のように徐々に、測定方法。早い時間から、ここで我々は "キエフ·ロシアを知る

RUSは、 "様々な都市(例えばウラジミール、プスコフ、スズダリ、キエフなど)の王子は常に戦っと口論









結局ペチェネクによって以前Cumans / KumansまたはKipchaks)と、キエフ状態による買収の機が熟していた








と平和のための任意のチャンスを骨折キエフ状態の君たちの手で破壊された。 20内














教会はモンゴルの征服の "暗い"時代に強力なビーコンになるだろう。ロシア人だろう







失われた政治的アイデンティティのギャップ(Riasanovsky、57)を充填しながら。 iarlykのユニークな法的概念(発音は '

yarlīgh ')、または免疫のチャーターは、また、教会の強化に貢献した。 M?NKE-TEMの治世と











シンプルなペナルティ - 死(ベルナドスキー、377)。

教会がこんなに早くその使命に敷設され開発されたもう一つの顕著な理由 - キリスト教を広め、変換する














正教会のほうに向き直った注目は芸術の復活につながった。何がロシアを定義 - これで

彼らが状態なしであった決定的な瞬間は - 彼らのキリスト教とその敬虔な信仰を表現する能力であった。



絵は繁栄を再び始めました。 Theophanesギリシャは後半1300年代に到着した。彼が飾られていて作業



233)。 Theophanes '到着後数十年、アンfは、彼の最も意欲的かつ重要な生徒の一人になるだろう。





どの程度1帝国は人々の別の人またはグループに与えたため - 行政、軍事、貿易の面で -





    лошадьloshad '馬


これは、 "レッツ... 'のアイデアを表現したり'してみましょう、さあ..."(Figes、370から1)。一般的ないくつかを以下に示します


    Давайчайпопьем。 Davaiチャイpopem。 'のお茶を飲みましょう。'
    Давайвыпьем! Davai vypem! 'さんを酔わせて、さあ! "
    Давайпойдём! Davai poidyom! "行こう、行こう!"


これらのエリアのマップ上で目立つ川。そのようなペンザ、アラトゥイリ、そしてカザン 'や地域の名前などの都市名












ロシア、vechesは、北西部地域でノヴゴロド、プスコフなどを除くすべての都市で消滅した。 Veches








モンゴルの権威。 darugiは提出していた帝国のそれらの領域を監督した民間人の知事であった










十四世紀には、ロシアのように、多かれ少なかれ、モンゴルの君主を受け入れた。 basqaqiの左のように、darugiは交換



darugiはルーシ "の土地に関する専門家として主に機能し、それに応じてカーンを助言した。つつ
























山芋システムは彼が72時間以内に500キロを(ノブゴロドからモスクワまで)走行可能 - よりもはるかに高速


帝国。 15世紀末、王子イワンIIIにおけるロシアへのモンゴルのホールドの黄昏時年の間に







Edited by Ruslan - 27-Nov-2012 at 08:54
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medenaywe View Drop Down
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  Quote medenaywe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 27-Nov-2012 at 12:43
If i knew at least 20 000 words of Japanese language will be new Bub in Japanese beginners online school Rusian!It is evident mixing of different DNA inside characters above and thats good!Love&Travel works till today as we can see!SmileRegards.
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