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Topic ClosedPre-Ottoman Anatolia

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Al Jassas View Drop Down
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Direct Link To This Post Topic: Pre-Ottoman Anatolia
    Posted: 04-Nov-2007 at 15:10

Hello to you all

 
I was reading Ibn Battoutah's travels through Anatolia and I was interested in his account about the Turkish Beyliks that ruled the Area round that time. What made this even more interesting, aside of his obvious preference to the ottoman, is that he never mentioned any conflicts among those beyliks, my question is what were those Turkish Beyliks, how many were there, what is their history and is there a good book about these beyliks? I know about the Karamanoglu, the Kastamonu Beylik and the Aydinoglu but were there others?
 
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Nov-2007 at 03:47
There were certainly conflicts between them. The story of the Ottoman expansion in anatolia is filled with wars between them and the other beyliks.
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Nov-2007 at 11:58
The Seljuk and Beylik period infact earned Anatolia the name "Turchia" by Europeans who couldn't recognise the area any more.
 
Ibn Battuta's descriptions of the region is as if he travelled into the depths of Central Asia.
 
I feel that it was the Seljuks and especially the Beylik era which Turkified the region. The Seljuks policy was to move unruly Oghuz clans to frontier terretories so that they could be a headache for border states and not be the Seljuks problem anymore. The clans bands of warriors entered Anatolia and had great success in the Central region which resembled their Steppe homeland. The clanspeople followed the warriors after they bought the area under control.
 
The main Beyliks were
 
 - Artukoğulları
 - Danishmends
 - Saltukids
 - Eretna/Kadi Burhaneddin
 - Ahlatshahs
 - Menguchlu
 - Aydınoğlu
 - Dulkadirs
 - Karamanoğulları 
 - Beylik of Teke
 - Saruhan
 - Ramazanoğlu
 - Osmanoğlu
 
There were also many other smaller ones, if we take into account all of these were founded by either an "Oghuz Turk" clan leader or a confederation of them (there were exceptions, like the Eretna Beylik was an Uygur Beylik) it becomes clear that there was a large Turkic migration to the area in that era.
 
These Beyliks had battles and squirmishes with each other, in the end the main Beyliks left were the Osmanogullari, Karamanogullari, Duklkadirogullari, Ramazanogullari, the Osmanogullari later known as the Ottomans through war, force and diplomacy united the Beyliks under the Ottoman beylik.
 
Mehmet Fuat Koprulu has written some books which I think have been translated into English about the Beylik era.
 
This period was one of the most diverse in terms of arts, architecture, culture, literature and legacy. There sites are on the Unesco world heritage list, Divrigi, Ahlat tombstones, Mardin cultural landscape. Alot of legends, folklore and literary figures appeared during this era. The different Beyliks all produced dfferent stlyes, there are Central Asian style wooden pillar mosques, tombstones and other monuments. The mix of the ways they bought with themselves and what they found led to an explosion in creativity.
 
Also the Beyliks had an organised civic organisations, the Ahi Evren brotherhood, the first female organisation Bac-i-yan Rumi, infact Battuta comments on the brotherhoods looking after him and treating him well.
 
 


Edited by Bulldog - 05-Nov-2007 at 12:18
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06-Nov-2007 at 19:21

Hello Bulldog

 
In his account, ibn Battouta says that the Aydinoglu beylik was pretty rich and powerful contolling the lands from Akhisar to Mugla as well as Izmir. Ibn Battouta even mention that the "King" had a summer resort and two capitals where his own horse died from cold in the middle of summer time.
 
Another question is what happened to the beylik ruling families especially the Karamanoglu, did they turn into a an aristocracy or became fuedal lords or were exterminated.
 
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Nov-2007 at 11:03
Hallo,
 
Those beyliks can be specified into two separate eras.
 
One group is the Danishmend, Mengucek, Artukid, Saltukid, aka Bey's beyliks. They were founded within the Greater Seljukid Empire. They were commanders of the Seljukid Empire who were assigned with land in Anatolia to govern and expand.
 
The second group is formed after weakening of Anatolian Seljuk Empire due to Mongol invasions, especially after the Battle of Kosedag(1243)
 
Tens of beyliks were founded due to lack of authority by the weakened Anatolian Seljuks.
 
Among them were:
 
-Karasi of Northwest Anatolia
-Saruhan, Mentese and Aydin of Western and Southwestern Anatolia
-Eretna, Karaman and Qadi Burhaneddin of Middle Anatolia
-Candar of Northern Anatolia
-Dulkadir and Ramazan of Southeastern Anatolia
-Ottoman and Germiyan of Midwest Anatolia
- Hamid of Midsouthern Anatolia
 
Initially, those beyliks were not in fights among each other. Especially the Ottomans, who were neighboring the Byzantines. They didn't fight with the other beyliks, but within the concept of gaza they fought against the Byzantines and expanded towards them, and the other beyliks were happy with that.
 
Some other beyliks got other problems. Like the Aydin, who was consistently fighting with the Crusade armies directed over Western Anatolia, and they also had other neighbors in other borders, like White Sheep, Black Sheep and Mamelukes etc.
 
Al Jassas, the wealth of Aydin beylik, was coming from the sea and richness of the area they were settled in. That region is greatly fit for agricultural production and just nearby the Aegean Sea, a great position for trade and gaining wealth from the sea.But they were consistently in fight with Crusader armies.
 
At the end, two of those beyliks which singled out became the Karaman and the Ottoman.
 
Ottoman Empire pursued a wise policy of incorporating other beyliks' lands into theirs in a peaceful method.
 
They gained property from Germiyan by a marriage in between the families, as a gift in form of bride's dowry, Hamid by paying money, Karesi by death of the Karesi Bey without a heir, who left his soil to the Ottomans, like the Germiyan Bey doing the same later on.
 
Also, some beyliks got dissolved by themselves, like the Eretna and replaced...
 
After Ottomans got stronger and came out successful in fights against Byzantines, Yildirim Bayezid got into the conquest of all the other remaining beyliks, and actually succeeded. However this was ended by Battle of Ankara(1402) and Tamerlane's victory in that. He dominated Anatolia after that for a while and Ottomans got into an interregnum period. The most of the dominated beyliks gained their independence back.
 
Karamanoglu, which was nearly as strong as Ottomans, constantly cooperated with the Byzantines and became the hardline enemy of the Ottomans at the end. Their beylik was annexed by Mehmed II the Conqueror.
 
By the end of Mehmed II's rule(1481), all the beyliks except far eastern Dulkadir was incorporated into Ottomans. Dulkadir was annexed by Selim I the Grim before his strike into the Mameluke Empire, and unification was complete.
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Nov-2007 at 13:40
Originally posted by Al Jassas

Another question is what happened to the beylik ruling families especially the Karamanoglu, did they turn into a an aristocracy or became fuedal lords or were exterminated.
Most of them are exiled to the newly conquered balkan proviences in order to prevent them from future rebellions (ex-begs helped Tamerlane to regain their independence earlier).

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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Nov-2007 at 14:01
Thanks Kapikulu veryy much also thank you Seljuk
 
Can you tell me about a good english book about how the ottomans started from Sogut, the tiny village in Bilecik province to rule the entire middle east and half of southern Europe because I know of stroy such as good.
 
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 08-Nov-2007 at 14:48
Al_Jassas
Another question is what happened to the beylik ruling families especially the Karamanoglu, did they turn into a an aristocracy or became fuedal lords or were exterminated.
 
The Karamanogullari were explained above, today there is still a province in Turkey called "Karaman".
 
Also an important point is that the Bey's usually were head of an Oghuz clan or a branch of one.
 
For example Dulkadirogullari was founded by the Bayats and Afshars, today in ex-Dulkadirogullari beylik regions you can find many Afshar villages and descendants.
 
Kadi Burhanneddin beylik was founded by the "Salurs", the Oghuz Salur clan today inhabbits regions from China to Afganistan, Turkmenistan to Turkey.
 
The Teke beylik, Teke is one of the most influencial clans today in Turkmenistan.
 
Today you can find descendants of some of these beyliks. Some of them even were allowed to carry on governing their beyliks if they accepted Ottoman authority, the Ramazanogulari for example carried on ruling untill the 17th century in the Adana (South Eastern-Mediterranean) region and are a prominant family still today.
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Nov-2007 at 01:44
Originally posted by Al Jassas

Thanks Kapikulu veryy much also thank you Seljuk
 
Can you tell me about a good english book about how the ottomans started from Sogut, the tiny village in Bilecik province to rule the entire middle east and half of southern Europe because I know of stroy such as good.
 
Al-Jassas
 
You are most welcome ;)
 
The best-ever book written by the most famous, wise, knowledged,best Early-Ottoman historian ever...
 
The Ottoman Classical Age (1300-1600) by Halil Inalcik
 
It is internationally available. And you can see it in many bookstores in English.


Edited by Kapikulu - 09-Nov-2007 at 01:45
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Nov-2007 at 14:09
Hello to you All
 
What about the relationship between the beyliks and the ottomans, did the nearby beyliks help the ottoman's military expedition or ally themselves against them and what is the beylik that might have been the next Ottoman empire if the ottomans did not choose to go to war?
 
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Nov-2007 at 14:25
I'm currently reading Osmans dream by Caroline Finkle

Lots of Info abou the Beyliks.


Well no Not realy.

A beylik is a independant state most of the Times.

However the Beys would fight for booty this was custome untill Sultan Murad Introduced the regular army AKA the jannisaries
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Nov-2007 at 17:24
Originally posted by Al Jassas

Hello to you All
 
What about the relationship between the beyliks and the ottomans, did the nearby beyliks help the ottoman's military expedition or ally themselves against them and what is the beylik that might have been the next Ottoman empire if the ottomans did not choose to go to war?
 
Al-Jassas
 
Depends on the Ottomans if the once proud states of conquered Anatolia would ally with the Sultan. Beyazid, for instance, had animosity towards nobles from rival sanjaks. Many of them were happy to side with Timur during Angora. Those were not Beys in the traditional Ottoman sense though. A provincial Ottoman owned Beylik had a BeylerBeyi who was both an administrator, military commander and/or advisor to the Sultan. Two of the most dominant Beylerbeyi were from Rumeli and Anadolu, from Kutahya. As the empire grew more Beys would have there own districts in the border regions.
 
The capacity of the Ottoman military came from manpower that was a mixture of imperial Kapikulu Janissaries and Sipahi Cavalry, as well as, the Timarli Sipahi (timar land holders). During Suleyman's reign the largest part of the military branch came from the provincial Sipahi Timars, these also included akinji raiders. A timar holder was provided compensation to maintain the land and those under him. The order of summons came from the Sultan or Grand Vezier, down on to the Beylerbeyi, onto the Bey, who would collect sources from the timar holder (Timariot) or Sipahi who would then collect men under them; whom were Cebeli, thay would eventually offer arms, goods or military service. The Kapikulu were usually recruited from slaves and the devsirme system. The Timarlis of Anatolia happened to mostly come from Turk stock during Mehmed's reign and after.
 
Suleyman had resources to about 38,000 timars of whom less than that were the Sipahi. These numbers would also include Timariots and Cebelis too (retainers). In total the numbers of the Cavalry would amount to around 70,000 to 80,000 men. This number would increase with the Kapikulu being added to the ranks once called upon during an invasion. However, the Kapikulu would not amount to more than 28,000 men.
 
Some men from surrounding garrisons could also be employed when needed. The eventual total of all of these men-at-arms would roughly come to about 100,000 men. Anything deviating too far from this figure would not be very accurate. European stories about 200,000 Ottomans taking on lesser numbers of 'infidels' is generally an exageration. One would have to look at other viable explanations for Ottoman dominance at the time of Suleyman.
 
In summary, Beyliks were Ottoman provinces. Anything outside of them would be called a rival or friendly principality, or empire. The Ottoman Bey would run a province, made up of sanjaks and smaller Kazas. This overall the concept of beyliks is necessary and partial to Ottoman methods of taxation, recruitment, farming and trade.
 
 
 
 
 
 


Edited by Seko - 13-Nov-2007 at 17:27
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Nov-2007 at 18:10
I was suprised when i read that 3 out of the 4 original Akinci Families were of Non Turkish stock
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Nov-2007 at 17:08
which families and what are their orginal stock?
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Nov-2007 at 17:30
Mihalogulari, Malkocogulari, evrenosogulari

I think the Turanogulari were of Turkmen origin




Edited by xi_tujue - 14-Nov-2007 at 17:31
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Nov-2007 at 20:38
Mihaloğlu and malkooğlu should become greeks.
 
what is nationality of evrenosogulları?
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Nov-2007 at 21:58
Xi_Tujui
I was suprised when i read that 3 out of the 4 original Akinci Families were of Non Turkish stock
 
You mean the Ottoman Akinci's? there were many Akinci groups many more than 4 outside the Ottomans.
 
Xi_Tujui
Mihalogulari, Malkocogulari, evrenosogulari

I think the Turanogulari were of Turkmen origin
 
Gazi Evren was the leader of a powerfull Turkmen tribe in the region, they gave the name Evren to many villages. There is also a legend that he was a Byzantine renegade who rebelled against them. According to the geneology; Gazi Evren was from the Kayi clan from the Boz-Ok branch of the Oghuz Turks like the Ottoman family.
 
Boz Oklu Han is the ancestor of 7 brothers: Vırsk Han, Kasun Han, Yoregr Han, Pranko İsa Bey, Ko Demir Han, Ozar Han, Gndz Alp Han. Gazi Evrenos is the only son of Pranko İsa Bey,[9] and today's Evrenos Family (Evrenosoğulları) descend from Gazi Evrenos Bey. His son İkiyrekli Ali Bey, grandson Gazi Ahmet Bey and grandgrandson Musa Bey are some of the famous descendants who continued to serve under Ottoman Empire until early 20th century.
Malkacogullari were originally a Byzantine family who defected to join the Ottomans.
 
Mihalogullari were a Byzantine family descended from Mikhael Kosses, later known as Gazi Mihal Kose Bey after he defected he lost a battle to "Osman Ghazi", afterwards he was taken prisoner, however, Osman Gazi was impressed by his heroism and released him as respect of this. Mikhael bey was appreciated this gesture and formed a friendship with Osman bey, later joined him and what was to become the Ottomans.
 
 
 


Edited by Bulldog - 14-Nov-2007 at 22:59
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Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Nov-2007 at 22:04
malkoc comes from malkovic I read somewere
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