The 9th and last battle site of Arthur where his 12th battle was fought is Badon or Bath. Here is what our main source texts say about this battle site:
"... until the year of the siege of Badon/Bath-hill, when took place also the last almost, though not the least slaughter of our cruel foes, which was (as I am sure) 44 years and 1 month after the landing of the Saxons, and also the time of my own birth." (- DEB 26, Gildas.)
Duodecimum (fuit bellum) in monte Badonis, in quo (bello) corruerunt (in uno die) nongenti sexaginta uiri de uno impetu Arturi (;) et nemo prostrauit eos nisi ipse solus / auxiliante Domino Iesu Christo ,/.
a do deag is ann ro marbhadh la láimh Artuir xl. ar ocht chetaib i n-aen lo,
The twelfth (battle was / was a most severe contest,) (when Arthur penetrated to) / on (the) mount/hill (of) Badon ,/. in which/this battle/engagement (,) 960/940/470 (men) fell in a single attack by Arthur / by his hand alone, (and) no-one brought them low except he / no one but the Lord affording him assistance / with the help of the Lord Jesus Christ. (- HB of "Nennius", Irish HB, LF of Omer.)
in the twelfth battle there were slain, by the hand of Arthur, 840 men in one day,
"516/518 The battle of Badon, in which Arthur carried the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ for 3 days and 3 nights on his shoulders and the Britons were the victors". .... '665 bellum badonis secundo' / "665 the 2nd battle of Badon". (- Annales Cambriae / Welsh Annals. Compare the first one with the details of the battle of Guinnion in the HB.)
"...the battle of Badon with Arthur, chief giver of feasts... the battle which all men remember." (- Taliesin.)
"Henry of Huntingdon in his Historia Anglorum of 1133 says that the providence of God had masked the real locations of the 12 battles he incorrectly credits to Gildas."
"The baths of Badon shall grow cold". (- Prophecy of Merlin, HRB.)
"The 4th wonder is (:) the spring(s)/fountain(s)/well(s) (of) salt(water) (which is) there / (found/discovered) in the same (place), from which springs/fountains salt is boiled/cooked ,/: from-that-place/with-which various/diverse (plain-)foods can be/are salted (;) and they are not near the sea, but emerge from the ground/earth." (- Wonders of Britain, HB of Nennius.)
"no amount of ingenuity can make Badon, the most probably genuine of them all, anything but a battle against the Saxons or Jutes in southern England" (- Jackson.)
"All indicators, though they are few, suggest that Badon was fought against Saxons and the Saxons were in the extreme southern part of the island." (- Brynjulfson.)
Checklist of the identification details of Badon/Bath from the traditional source texts: - mount/hill/down Badon/Badeu/Bath name/meaning match (HB, DEB, HRB) - number/order 9th/12th of a set of 9/12 (HB, LF, O'Toole) - near Agned/Bregion/Ystawinguin (HB) - in a triad of hills (HB, O'Toole) - "penetrated to" (HB) - 1 or 2 battles/sieges fought there, defensive fortifications, strategic (HB, AC, DEB, HRB) - was a "most severe contest" (HB) - a "(great) victory" of the British (HB/LF) - 940/960/470 slain or great slaughter (HB, AC) - fought by Arthur/Britons/Welsh there then (HB, LF, HRB, AC) - fought against "Cerdic" &/or "Saxons" "from Germany", & "specifically Kentishmen" (HB, HRB, Collingwood, Jackson) - date 12 yrs, 22 yrs, 43 yrs before/after, section 50/56, 72 yrs, 128 yrs, 150 yrs, yr 222, ca 429 / 470 / 493 / 516 / before 542 / "in our times" / before Ida / 554 / 665 (EH, HB, AC, HRB, DEB, Hergest) - in "(the island of) Britain" (HB, HRB) - is "history" (HB, HRB, attested in number of sources) - written by Nennius who also wrote the Wonders (HB, Bambrough) - hot spring/fountain/lake there (Wonders)? - bath/baths (on hill) there (Wonders, Reno, HRB, Prophecy of Merlin)? - salt fountain(s) there (Wonders, Reno)? - in Hwicce (Wonders, HB, Reno)? - match with Guinnion of the HB (scholars comparing AC & HB) - connection with the Almighty &/or Lord/Jesus/Christ &/or Cross &/or Mary (HB, AC, HRB) - shield or shoulder/shoulders or ship Pry(d)wen (AC, HRB) - a Kaer and/or Urbem (HRB) - 1 or 3 days (HB, VR, AC) - Dubricius of Legionis there (HRB) - Ur(b)gennius/Urien(s) there (HRB)? - Excalibur/Caliburn(us) (HRB) - Cador there (HRB) - "ships" (HRB) - near "Thanet" (HRB) - maybe close to "Albania" & "AltClut" (HRB)? - near "Severn" sea / "Totness" (HRB)? - Solsbury name? - Lansdown name? - alternative name version Baddesdown/Bannesdown (EH, Camden, Wynn)? - also a river named Badon/Avon there (24 kings doc, CB)? - may match Halleluyah Victory 429 (Bede, wiki, us)? - Ambrosius there (DEB, EH)? - Osla & Iddawg there (Rhonabwy)? - near "Winchester" (Welsh, Tysilio) - connected with feasts (Taliesin)? - cavalry used in battle there (Modena)? - a plain there? - in the (Saxon) south or centre/mid or southwest (Jackson, Brynjulfson) - associated with a forest (Bradon forest memory namesake)? - a mount/hill/down which is "sizeable" and/or (not) highest (scholars' impression of sources)? - near a road, ford & flat island" (Rhonabwy)? - "never a coastal battle" / "not a port" (critics impression of sources)? - matches Mon(a) in Pa Gur (Bambrough)? (- Cerdic died there/then?)
We can fairly confidently say that there apparently may have been two or more battles of Badon. Badon in the DEB is a siege, while Badon in the AC is a battle. The AC has two battles of Badon (516 & 665). Great victory of Arthur on St David's day 540 and/or 640? Some scholars have pointed out that the descriptions of the battle of Badon in the AC and the battle of Guinnion in the HB are similar, while the descriptions of Badon of the AC and HB differ, and so Badon of the AC and/or some other sources could match either/both Guinnion of the HB and/or Badon of the HB). As people will see below, we have found evidences that Badon can match either/both Guinnion/Dover &/or Badon/Portchester. This is maybe also confirmed by a seeming connection of Badon with Eidyn the 6th battle in the Pa Gur (& in the Gododin), which matches Guinnion/Dover. The Modena Archivolt also seemingly depicts either/both the battle of Guinnion &/or the battle of Badon, and it seems to better match Dover/Guinnion (Badon 1) than Portchester/Badon (Badon 2). In addition, some conflicting Badon dates evidences might also confirm two different dates battles of Badons.
(Dover and Portchester also have similarities with each other, eg: North Downs & South Downs. Both have St Mary. Both exit/entry ports and/or crossing points in Arthurian (Hamo's port & Dover). Jutes were in both Hampshire/Wight & Kent/Thanet.)
Number/order match: 8+1 of the 9 HB battle sites match 8+1 of the 9+1 SS sites all in numbers all in order. Badon is 9th/last of 9 HB battle sites of Arthur. Adurni/Portchester or Clausentum/Bitterne is 9th/last of 9 ND SS forts. 9th battle site Badon/Mon is near 8th battle site Agned/Begion/Ystawinguin in the HB & PG, like the 9th SS fort Adurni/Portchester is near 8th SS fort Anderida/Pevensey in the SS.
Badon/Bath meaning match: The original and meaning of the name Badd/Badon/Badonis/Badonic/Badonicus / *Badonbyrig seems to be uncertain/unknown, though the main suggestions that we have seen include the following: baedd "(a) boar". baiddi/beado/beadu "battle, war". baeddu "to thump" Baduhenna "goddess(es)" Badda "Spanish queen"? [C]athubodva or Bodb? Boadicea/Boudicca/Buddugre "Victoria"? Baddanbyrig/Baddanburg/Badda "Badda('s fort)" baden/bath(s) "bath(s)" Badhun "a fenced enclosure". bodan "bottom". badd/bed/beddau "bed, grave(s)". bhag-ed- "mast-eater". bat/baton "stick/rod". Barton "of the Britons, of Britain" bald "hairless, exposed, shiny, white/pale". bard. Bleiddan Sant the celebrated Lupus? brad(den) "broad (valley)". Bran(oundum) "steep" or "personal name, name of a British god/deity/saint, raven/crow" (+ "hill/down/mountain"). Ben/Pen-dragon "(wonderful) head of the dragon" & "dux bellorum". -don "hill, down(s)" or "fort". -on "same ending in Celidon, Guinnion, Legion, Bregion, Badon, Avalon". Some of the above meanings can match with our either/both of our two Badon sites Dover/Guinnion and/or Portchester. There is a "Bath House Area" at Dubris/Dover in archaeological maps? Dover's exposed white chalk downs/cliffs nature fits "bald". Mynydd Eidyn of the Pa Gur matches Guinnion/Dover, and mynydd can mean "bald head" or "mount/hill". The "down(s)" meaning also fits Dover in the North Downs, and the "hill/mount" meaning can fit Dover with its (White) cliffs, (Devil's) drop / drop (Redoubt), (Edinburgh) hill, (W & E) heights and (North) downs. Bran's white tower "facing France" may have been at Dover (or else Pevensey) rather than "London", and the possible "steep" meaning suits the cliffs. Bhaged "mast-eater" could fit the fort port below the cliffs of Dover? Dumbarton in Scotland means "fort(ress) of the Britons/Britain" and this placename seemingly may be a later memory namesake of our original Guinnion/Eidyn/Dover battle site in the south-east. Guinnion and Eidyn were forts, and Dover was a most famous primary site of Albion and the ancient Britons. Compare the similar Dun Chailleann "fort of the Caledonii"& Mt Sidh Chailleann / Schiehallion "fairy hill of the Caledonians". Also compare De Britan(n(i(s))) at Richborough?
There are quite a few Badda('s) place names in Wessex (in which Hampshire containing Portchester also is). Badhun "fenced enclosure" could match Portchester fort's walls. Clausentum has been said to be from Clauimo/claudo "to enclose". Portchester in the extreme southern central part of mainland Britain could match the possible "bottom" meaning. The "bald", "down(s)" and "hill" meanings can also match Portchester (Adurni "port/fort of the height", Portsdown Hill, South Downs, Wight), though maybe not quite as well as they can fit Dover. Likewise with the "fort" meaning (Portchester fort), and the "mast-eater" meaning (Port-chester). There was a bath-house at Clausentum/Bitterne. ("Bath" is 6 miles from Bitton according to ....)
Badon/Bath name match in the site's history or in traditional sources: Both of our sites Dover/Guinnion and Portchester have good possible matches for the name Badon or Bath. - At Dover there is a place named Braddon or Bredenstone and it is described in pretty similar terms to Badon: "lost village of Braddon within Drop Redoubt on Dover Western Heights", "the ancient name of Braddon", "I would suspect that Bradden would more likely be on the highest point of the hill". Some critics claim that Badon can not match Braddon which is considered to be from Old English brade_denu "(dweller at the) broad valley", but the meaning of the name Badon is not certain/known among scholars. We can also show that versions of two names and other names are very closely similar: Badon/Baddon (Athurian) & Braddon (Dover). Badon (Arthurian) & Bardon Hill (Leicester tradition) & Braddon (Dover). Silve Bradon / Braden / Braydon Wood (near an orthodox "Badon" candidate at Swindon in Wiltshire) & Braddon (Dover, surrounded by Weald which is the silva Caledonia of Caesar's invasion and of the HB). Badon (HB) & Addaon (Rhonabwy/Hergest) & Adonwy and Bradwen (Y Gododdin) & Bradden/Braddon (Dover)? Adwen (children of Brychan) & Bradwen (Gododin) & Bradden (Dover)? Badon (Arthurian) & Ysbaddaden (C&O) & Bradden/Braddon (Dover)? Badon/Bath (HRB) & Baden "baths" (Germany) & Bradden/Braddon (Dover)? Badon/Bladud/Baldud (HRB) & Braddon (Dover)? Avalon/apple (Arthurian) & Abaddon/Apollyon (bible) & "Badon/Avon" (24 kings doc.) & Braddon (Dover)? Badon (Arthurian) & "Arthur of Bradley" (ballad) & Braddon/Bradden (Dover)? Badon (Arthurian) & Pendragon (Arthurian) & Braddon (Dover)? Badon & Badbury Rings (Vindogladia) & Bardon Mill (Vindolana) & Braddon (Dover)? Badon (Arthurian) & Badden (Ardrey's canidate) & Bradden/Braddon (Dover)? Bleiddan Sant the celebrated Lupus & Braddon/Bradden (Dover)? Badon (HB) & Branodunum (ND) & Braddon (Dover)? Artus de Bretannia (Modena) & Santa Maria de Bretona (Galicia) & St Mary of Castro and Braddon (Dover) & Mary of Guinnion/Badon (HB/AC)? - The alternative name(s) of Badon of Baddesdown or Bannesdown/Baanesdown or Lansdown match the North Downs where our Badon/Guinnion site is located. (There is also a village Snowdown not far from modern Dover. Also compare Wibbandune in the ASC which might match Badon and was somewhere between Portchester & Dover.) - Scholars say Badon of the AC matches Guinnion of the HB (which matches Dover). (Badon was a "siege" in Gildas & the HRB, and this may link with "fort(let)" Guinnion?) - "the Welsh in Tysilio place it [Badon] near Winchester..." In Arthurian tradition "Winchester" is Guintonhi or Guintguic/Guintruis and surely matches in name and nature castellum Guinnion & Dover castro. - Badon might match Badarn/Padarn of Vannes, and "Vannes" may match Guinnion/Dover. - Badon where Arthur wore a golden dragon helmet might be from Pendragon (Uther), which matches Gwen Pendragon (3 prisons) & Gwyndragon ("Hengist", Gododin), which is surely Guinnion/Dover. (Compare: "we may suppose Gwenabwy bore the Dragon for his arms". "... made a present of one of the 2 gold dragons to Winchester". Kent's symbol is a white horse, and the white horse is similar to a white dragon. Also maybe compare Pandrasus in the HRB?) - Also, the Boduni/Dobuni were at Canterbury in the time of the Claudius invasion. (- Badon candidate Badbury in Wiltshire is near Swindon which might be connected with Guinnion or Snowdon "snow hill" and Dover? Badon candidate Badbury Rings in Dorset is associated with toune, castelle, hilles, vindocladia & wimborne, wallop, dates 43 & 480-520 & 899, and road, which are all similar to Dover/Guinnion.) - Badon/Baanesdown could possibly have a link with Bran's White Tower/Hill "facing France" which may have been at Dover rather than "at London"? (The battle of Bran vs Math in 'Hanes Taliesin' might match the battle of Badon/Guinnion?) - The version "Bath-hill" could also match that there is a "bath area" in archaeological maps of Roman Dover. Dubricius of Legions was at Badon/Bath in the HRB, and his name is similar to Dubris/Dover, while the city of the legion was at the next SS battle-site Richborough/Rutupi not far away. "Thanet" is also mentioned in the HRB's Badon chapter.
Portchester is called portus Adurni in the ND of latish Roman times. Versions of the names Badon and Adurni are very similar: Badum / Bad(d)on/Faddon/Vad(d)on / Avon / Hadonis / Badoni(cu)s / Badonic(i); Adurni/Adur / Adiuni/Ardaoni / Ardaoneon/Ardaunium / ardu. Both names have a-d-o/u-r/n-i(-u) in common. Adwen the 14th of the 15 children of Brychan is also similar to both names. (The Welsh name (odor) nant y badd might possibly confirm a connection of the places Badon and Adurni, though it might show that the names are not related? Also maybe compare the name of the person Cador who was at Badon/Bath in the HRB?) In answer to the criticism "but where is the mount/hill (Badon)?" we note that the name Adurni is considered to mean "port/fort of the height", and the descriptions of "Portchester fort is below Portsdown Hill" and/or "Portsdown Hill is at the back of the fort". (This might possibly also be confirmed by the possibly analogous site of Portskewett whose name has been said to mean "the Port below the ridge", though the name is otherwise claimed to mean "from the Port in Gwent IsCoed - i.e. below the [Went]Wood" or "harbour (of the area) below the wood(s)" or "port of the elder wood"?) The alternative names for Badon of "Baddesdown" and/or "Bannesdown/Baanesdown" (or Bathampton Down), and "Lansdown" are also similar to the name Portsdown Hill (and Bedhampton). (There may also be a Bursledon Hill not far from Portchester?) Many have seemingly assumed that Badon is a highest mountain in Britain (eg the High Peak theory), but there is actually no definite reason for presuming this, and Badon "mount" or "hill" (in a triad of mountains/hills) can quite well fit the likes of Portsdown Hill (in the South Downs). Someoneelse on a forum has also pointed-out that they knew of cases of mons/monte/montis "mount(ain)" being used for not-sizeable/-substantial hills. It is also been said by some that it is not suitable to have a battle on top of a high mountain. Arddunion "fortress height" in the battles of Gwallawg in Taliesin matches Dover/Guinnion/Eidyn (Badon 1) in number/order, while its name is also similar to Ardaoneon "port/fort of the height" (Portchester / Badon 2). - Mount Badon might also/alternatively possibly be connected to Mantuantonis/Mutu-antonis in the Ravenna cosmography (# 69), which place is maybe roughly in the same area as Portchester? There is a river Antona at Winchester. Welsh sources mention a Nant Badon and/or river Badon/Avon. - Mount Badon might be connected with Pendragon, and both of them connected with Dragon's Hill near "Winchester" which some sources say was the site of Natanleod's battle near "Netley/Charford" ("in the New Forest area in Hampshire")? - There is also a Barton river in our site's area. - Some have linked Badon "ca 500" with B(i)eda and Port of the 501 entry in the ASC, and/or linked the 2nd battle of Badon 665 of the AC with Biedanheafod of the 675 entry in the ASC. Port has been linked with wih the Hampshire or Dorset or Devon area (Portsmouth/Portchester, Hamo's Port, Portland, Llongborth near "Devon"). - Some have wondered if the 1st battle of Badon was in the same place as the 2nd battle of Badon, and it has been suggested by some that the 2nd battle of Badon 665 of the AC may match Pontesbury 661 of the ASC because both are connected with first easter/baptism. (Compare the name Pontesbury with Jackson's *Badonbyrig?) Posentesbur(g)h/Poritesbury/Pontesbury/Posbury is possibly similar to Portsdown/Por(t)chester? (Portchester was made a burh in 904 / 10th century. Clausentum was a bur(g)h from 450 and/or is in the Burghal Hidage of ca 920.) The same 661 ASC entry mentions Wight and Ashdown. Cadwallon or Cadwaladr invaded Kent and Wight in 686 according to the ASC (in comparison with the HRB)? - There are quite a few Badda('s) place names &/or other Badon-like names in the Wessex or South-West area shires around Hampshire, eg: Brading in Wight, our Badon site Portchester in Hampshire, "Baddesley ... is also in Hampshire", Bindogladia / Badbury Rings in Dorset, Baldon between Towcester & Silchester, Badbury & Silve Bradon / Braydon Wood near Swindon in Wiltshire, Badbury Hill in Berkshire, Bath near Bristol. Badon could possibly also be analogously connected with Abbandune/Abingdon? Badbury in Northamptonshire might also have been analogously linked with our Badon in (South) Hampshire? Scholars like Jackson and Brynjulfson agree that Badon must be in the south(ern(most)) part of England/Britain because it was certainly a battle against Saxons. Our site's location synthesises with the usual old "west" theory, and the in/to the "south-west" of Brynjulfson matches our site being the south-westernmost of the 9 SS-HB battle-sites. The further opinions of it being in the "extreme southern part of the island" (Brynjulfson) and/or the "central south" or "south central" of England (Jackson) even well fits our site Portchester in the west-east centre of the southermost end of mainland Britain (though there are a number of possible meanings of south-central/central-south). - Badon might also have been connected (by Nennius) with Portchester in that after the 9th/last ND SS fort Adurni/Portchester comes 1st ND SS fort Branodunum/Brancaster, and/or before 1st ND/SS fort Branodunum/Bracaster comes 9th/last ND SS fort Adurni/Portchester, while the names Badon & Branodunum are intriguingly similar. - Brunandune/Brunanburh &/or Bdora/Bodra/Eden/Ituna near Solway might be analogous to our Badon(byrig) at Adurni/Portcheser near Solent? (Badon 940/960 of Nennius is possibly connected with Brunandune 937 of Ethelwerd? In the ASC there is a Baddanbyrig in 900. "Badon/Baumber" & "Brunanburh/Brumby" both in Lincolnshire are also similar.) - "the Welsh in Tysilio place it [Badon] near Winchester..." Our site is not that far from Winchester. - Caer Vyddaw "Chichester" is near Portchester. (V & w intechange, N & v somtimes interchange in British. Badon is also spelt Badum, & Badd.) - "Bath" the alternative version of Badon's name is maybe similar to Bitterne (said to be from byht+aren "house near a bend", or "butter", Clausentum) which replaced Adurni/Portchesrer as the area's SS fort in 4th century? The HRB mentions "Thanet" in its Badon chapter, which could be Thanet near Dover/Guinnion or Wight near Portchester/Badon. Little Salisbury at Bath might be analogous to our Badon not too far Salisbury?
- The king of the West Saxons or Wessex driven out of his kingdom as result of the battle of Woddesbeorg in 592 could perhaps match Badon & Portchester (or Dover)? (Badon is maybe similar to Woden?) - The battle of Wibbandune or "Wimbledon" in 568 might be connected with the battle of Guinnion/Dover/Badon or of Badon/Adurni/Portchester, and could have been anywhere between Wessex/Portchester and Kent/Dover. (Wibbandune in the ASC & Synod of Victory in the AC are almost same date.)
Mount/hill match (reiteration) : Mt Badon of the AC matches Guinnion of the HB which matches Dover of the ND. Mt Eidyn of the PG matches Guinnion of the HB which matches Dover of the ND. The mount/hill of Badon/Eidyn has matches at Dover of: Braddon on/at "the highest point of the hill", Edinburgh Hill, Western & Eastern Heights, Drop Redoubt, "hills to sw", North Downs, and the White Cliffs. The mount/hill of Badon has matches at Adurni/Portchester of: portus Adurni "port/fort of the height", Portsdown Hill, Butser Hill, Bursledon Hill, South Downs, Dragon's Hill? Badon is in a duad or triad of hills in the HB. The South Downs range from our 7th to 9th battle sites at Lemanus, Anderida, & Adurni. With the extra finding that the HB & PG both the ND SS sites, we find that the 2 sites Eidyn/Guinnion/Dover & Badon/Mon/Portchester are both associated with similar hills/mountains, and/or that the hills/mountains hills extend from Eidyn/Guinnion to Badon/Mon. This is the same situation in region of the 7th to 9th SS sites which match the same numbers HB & PG sites: The Downs run from Dover in the North Downs to Portchester in the South Downs. A critic once said that Gildas said the Britons retreated to the mountains, but it can been seen that these mountains could match the Downs between our Guinnion & Badon sites, or match the Cambrian mountains where the Britons/Welsh were later pushed to (from England).
River Badon/Avon match: This might just be from the later identification of Badon with Bath? There are the Salisbury Avon river, the Cam, river Antona/Trisanton, and river Barton, river Hamble, and spring at Havant all in our site's wider area. Clausentum/Bitterne is associated with a "fork of a river" there. Some think that Ceredicesford of the ASC was at Charford/Netley? (Bereford 752 might link with Bere by Portchester? Both Badon and Bereford are associated with a golden dragon standard.)
Solsbury name match? : The alternative Solsbury name of Badon/Bath could just be from the later identification with Bath. However, at our 2nd site there are possible matches of Salisbury/Sorbiodubum or Solent (Portchester area). "The original name of Bath was Aquae Sulis the British Goddess, whose influence extended over the greater parts of the S. W. of England, whose chief place was Sulisbury Hill near Bath & from whom Salisbury plains have probably derived its name." (Badon near Solent is analogous to Brunanburh near Solway?) Less likely matches at our other Badon 1 site Dover/Guinnion might include Colton? Sulis Minerva could match Mary of Guinnion & Dover?
Lansdown name match: Dover is nearby Langdon Bay. Dover is in sphere of London in some sources. Portchester is near Langstone?
Badon was near a ford edge & "flat island" (Rhonabwy) : Dover (Badon 1) is nnot far from Lomea "low(-lying) island" in Godwin Sands, and not far from Thanet. Rutupi/Richborough was on an island in Roman times. (Portchester/Badon is near Portsea island, Hayling island, and the isle of Wight.)
In "Hwicce": Some versions of the Wonders of Britain say about the 3rd & 4th wonders that the"hot lake (where the baths of Badon are)" is "in the country of Hwicce", and the Salt Fountain is in the same place (as the hot lake). However, the words in brackets mentioning the connection with Badon are generally considered to be a later addition/insertion or gloss. Though the words might nevertheless be true since the "baths of Badon" are also mentioned in other sources. If Badon was in Hwicce, then both our sites have possible matches for the place/people name Hwicce (which may mean "locker, chest, trunk"). Dover: Gwenwisa/Genuissa was thereabouts. Vortigern was consul of the Wisseans. (The "rocks of the Gewisseans"?) Octavius duke of the Wisseans was near the "shore near the city", not far from "Winchester", at Maisuriam, in "Albania", and at London in the HRB, which sites are all conected with the south-east? Portchester: The site is in the kingdom of Wessex of the West Saxons or Gewissae. Itchen river. Hamwic (Clausentum). Southwick. The "road to Wickham". Titchfield haven. Wight/Wiht is not far from our site. Portsdown is white. (Hwiterne of the "Southern Picts" might possibly link with Bitterne? Maybe compare Andrasta Iceni & Ancasta at Bitterne?)
"Not a port", "not near the sea? : Some critics have said the Badon was "never a coastal battle" and/or was "not a port". However there is not ay concrete proof of this in the earliest source texts. Moreover, the HRB's Badon chapter does mention the "Severn sea", "Thanet", and that Cador "made himself master of their ships, to hinder their getting on board". Badon is near a flat island in the Dream of Rhonabwy. Also possibly compare Bardsey island? Mona/"Anglesey" in the Pa Gur matches Badon/Adurni in the HB/ND. If the 2nd battle of Badon 665 (AC) is the same as the battle of Pontesburh 661 (ASC) then the latter also mentions Wight, and the name Pontesburh is similar to the name Portchester/Portsdown/Portsmouth. "488-547 only landings of Saxons on the coast". Traditional Arthurian sources imply Arthur had access to coastal/shore port sites, eg "Hamo's port", "Dover", "Rutupi", "ships", "ship Pry(d)wen", crossed to France/Gaul, "the Porter", and Arthur being said in some sources to have driven the enemies out of the island/land. In the Wonders of Britain the Hot Lake "where the baths of Badon" are in the same place as the Salt Fountain(s) which are "not near the sea", but the the part mentioning Badon is considered by scholars to be a later addition. Also, the 4th Wonder could be connected with the Salt Way which does extend to/from our Badon site Portchester/Southampton/Bitterne.
Hot lake and/or Bath/baths match:
The battle site of 'Badon/Badum' of the earliest sources (HB, HRB, DEB, AC) is alternatively called 'Bath' or "Solsbury" in some later sources (HRB, DEB translation). The latter name Solsbury is from the Aquae Sulis name of Bath. This might all just be from the later identification of Badon with Bath, or it might have some true historical reasons associated with it. The 3rd wonder of the Wonders of Britain is "the hot/fiery lake (where the baths of Badon are)" which is "surrounded by a wall, made of brick and stone". However the bracketed words regarding Badon are considered by scholars to a later addition that was not in the original text. However the HRB also mentions that "Badon’s baths would loose their hot water / shall grow cold", which might mean that Badon was really originally associated with a bath or baths? (Possibily also compare the "warm ointment" of Bladud/Baldud who founded 'Bath/Badon'?)
Our Badon site Portchester/Bitterne has a possible match for the hot lake as seen in this quote: "The centre of Southampton is located above a large hot water aquifier that can provide Geothermal power to some of the city’s buildings. … and is the only geothermal power station in the UK. … and hot water to a city centre district heating scheme…."
The bath(s) of Badon/Bath(hill) might match the "bath area" at Roman Dover/Dubris in archaeological maps? There was bath(-house) at Clausentum/Bitterne. (Not sure if the name Bitterne might also be connected with "bath house" or "baths"?) "Richard of Cirencester" or "Bertram" said "Bath" is 6 miles from Bitton, which could correspond with our Badon site Adurni/Portchester some miles from Clausentum/Bitterne? Bath is "below the Thames" in "Richard of Cirencester"/"Bertram", and is between Kent & Cornwall/Devon in his itinerary? (This might be potty, but Badon could be connected with 9th/last SS fort Adurni and with 1st SS fort Branodunum near the Wash, and the name "wash" could also be linked with "bath"?)
The hot lake (where the baths of Badon are) is "surrounded by a wall, made of brick and stone", which has been compared with the "cunning in rings, bound bravely the wallbase with iron" wonder mentioned in 'The Ruin'. There was a stone defensive wall (and round ballistaria towers) around Clausentum whose name may be from Clauimo/claudo "to enclose". Portchester was surrounded/encircled by a wall or "circuit walls" built of "coursed flint" or "flint with brick and stone" (plus semi-circular bastions).
Salt fountain(s) match: The 4th wonder of Britain is "the salt fountains" which are "in the same [place]" as the 3rd wonder "the hot lake (where the baths of Badon are)". Scholars consider the bit mentioning Badon to be a later addition, so it is possible that Badon is not linked with this wonder and/or with salt. However there are possible matches at one of our two Badon sites. The lower/second salt way runs from Salinae/Droitwich to the s.e. / Winchester / Hampshire coast / Clausentum / Portchester where our Badon 2 site is. There was/is a "Saltmarsh east of Southampton". Possibly the name Bitterne might be connected with bitter/salt, though it is said to be from byht+aren "house near a bend", or "butter"? We are not sure if the modern Salisbury's association with "food-processing" might be related to the "salt" and "salting foods" of the Wonder? Our Badon 1 site Dover/Guinnion is not far from Rutupi/Richborough whose name is considered by some to mean "red top" with reference to salt there.
Plain match? I think i remember some source saying that Badon was (connected with) a plain? It might perhaps be connected with the tradition that Arthur used cavalry at Badon? A possible match with one of our two Badon battle sites is the Salisbury Plain(s) not too far from our Badon site at Portchester or Bitterne?
Penetrated to match: "Arthur penetrated to Badon" may match Adurni/Portchester as the farthest (south-)western-most of the 9 SS-HB battlesites (which go from ne to se to sw). Compare this quote about Roman times: "he was sent to reduce the south west, penetrating through the modern counties of...." Perhaps also compare the "... as far as Ashdown" in the 661 ASC entry (which some have connected with the 2nd battle of Badon 665 AC entry).
Cross &/or Lord Jesus &/or Mary match: The battle of Badon in the 516 entry of the AC has been corresponded by scholars with the battle of Guinnion in the HB because the descriptions are quite similar. The AC entry mentions that Arthur carried the Cross of the Lord Jesus Christ on his shoulders at Badon, while the HB says Arthur bore the image (of the Cross of (the Lord Jesus) Christ and) of the virgin Mary on his shoulder(s) or shield at Guinnion.
Our Badon 1 site Dover/Guinnion has two churches of St Mary in Castro and St Mary .... Sources say St Mary in Castro may date to as early as ca 600 ad. Santa Maria de Bretona in Galicia also seems to have analogous similarities to Dover & Guinnion. The HB VR adds that Arthur's image of Mary was preserved in Vallis-doloris/Wedale in the province of Lo(n)donesia, which surely matches either St Mary's Reculver or St Mary's Dover which are in the sphere of London in some sources (compare that we have already shown that the region Linnuis seems to match the London-Colchester area). St Mary in Castro has a Celtic Cross on it's highest point. There are evidences that the "Lord Jesus Christ" of Arthurian might be connected with Julius Caesar who was near Dover/Deal/Richborough. In the 12 Kings & 33 Cities document which is closely similar to the HRB, the Guitolinus and Lord Jesus Christ and Cross and Gwenwisa and Julius Caesar of the ad 17 king's story can be connected with our Guinnion and Dover.
Our Badon 2 site Portchester also has a St Mary's parish church in it. Bitterne has St Marys (dating to at least 690-700)? There is a 'St Mary Bourne' near Calleva and/or Adurni? "Winchester, a lofty tower ... founded in honour of Mary" in 908 is also not far from our Badon 2 site, though Winchester/Guintonhi/Guitruis/Guintguic in Arthurian traditions is Guinnion (Dover), and the lofty tower may be an analogy or memory of the lighthouse and church at Dover (Guinnion). (There were temples of Jupiter, Juno, Minerva at Winchester. Jupiter could match "Jesus", and Juno &/or Minerva could match "Mary"?) Portchester fort/castle looks like a square divided by a Cross [+] in aerial photos? Chichester Cross is not far from Portchester. There is also a le Maison de la Seint Croys at Winchester, &/or a St Cross in the area (Boun)? Christchurch/Christ_Church is near Southampton/Portchester.
(Dover and Hamo's Ports were both ports of entry/departure in crossing the English Channel, which might also connect with Arthur's Cross?)
The shoulder(s) or shield (or ship) (Pry(d)wen) may match the cliffs or Downs and/or Weald. Compare the "White Shield" & "Green/Blue Shield" of the HRB and the 12 Kings document.
470/940/960 slain match: The HB says 940/960 were slain at Badon, while the HRB says 470 were slain at Badon (10 more than the number slain in the earlier Long Knives slaughter), and we note that 470 is half of 940. Some scholars have suggested that the 470 one may represent the date of Badon, and we found that the HB's 940/960 of Badon seems similar to the battle of Brunandune/Brunanburh in 937 in Ethelwerd (who wrote not so very long after Nennius).
Our Badon 2 site Adurni &/or Clausentum is not far from the Netley site associated with Natanleod who was slain with 5000 (500?) and whose name one source reckons comes from gwledig Naw Cant Lliwed "ruler of 900 (warrior) companies"? Though Natanleod and his 900/5000 might rather be connected with our city of the legion Richborough not far from our Guinnion & Badon 1 site Dover.
The alternative number of slain at Badon of 470 is 10 more than the 'long knives' massacre of British princes which was supposed to have happened at Stonehenge/Salisbury not far from our Badon 2 site (Clausentum &/or Adurni). Though this massacre might have happened nearby Richborough.
940/960/470 might be connected with the 'Numerus exploratum' at Adurni/Portchester (as in "numerous")? Perhaps compare that Collingwood reckoned the city of the Legion was at Portchester?
August Hunt connected the 960/940 with cohors/cohort. Badon 2 might match both the 9th/last SS fort Adurni and the 1st SS fort Branodunum, and there was a cohort at the latter site in the ND. Our Badon 2 site Portchester or Clausentum is not far from Vindocladia/Badbury Rings which is similar to Vindolanda/Bardon Mill of the North/Wall where there was a cohors.
"Chief giver of feasts" match: Badon is connected with the "chief giver of feasts" in Taliesin. This may match Dover better than Portchester. We may compare "Arthur drinking at Eidyn" in the Gododin, and we know Eidyn 1 & 2 of the Pa Gur respectively match Othona/Dubglas and Dover/Guinnion. One possible match is the "bacchic" Dover Painted House, though the date might not match. (I'll have to check as i am not sure, but i think there was also an ale-house or inn found in our city of the legion site Richborough not far from Dover/Guinnion?)
Date match: The date of Arthur('s battles) and of Guinnion or Badon is a subject for another different paper, and the only discussion of the date issue here is regarding whether our sites match the date. 128 yrs in Hergest might be linked with Hengist/Hengest? The Halleluyah Victory 429 was surely in the south-east, esp considering that Germanus is closely associated with St Alban who is connected with Dover/Albion & Guinnion. ASC said Anglia laid waste between Jutes/Kentishmen & Saxons might hint at battles between Arthurian Kentishmen & Saxons (though the ASC seems to say the conflict was in German/Danish areas not in Anglo-Saxon area)? The battle of Gwalop has an analogous link with Badbury Rings nearish to Portchester and might match Badon and/or Guinnion. "455-519 series of British-Saxon conflicts" & "466-73 Period of minimal Saxon activity" in the ASC is all in Kent & Sussex. Cayburn 488 is near Badon/Portchester &/or Agned/Bregion/Anderida/Pevensey &/or Guinnion/Dover. Ninnian's Hwiterne "white house" "long before" 560 seems to match Nennius' Guinnion and our St Martin-le-Grand at Dover. Arthur's battles between Octa & Ida in the HB is considered by some scholars like Collingwood & Jackson to imply Arthur was fighting "specifically Kentishmen". The Bretwaldas between Octa and Ida were in Sussex, Wessex, Kent, & East Anglia. All the action in the ASC before Ida is in Kent, Sussex & Wessex. "488-547 only landings of Saxons on the coast". Mercedesburnsted was in either Sussex or Kent or Essex. The gap between Bretwaldas 491-560 is between Sussex & Wessex sections. "Arthur" is said to have fought the (West) Saxons including Cerdic (HRB) whose dates are 495-534 in the ASC. Bieda/Porta 501 was somewhere between Portchester and Richborough. No gains gap 519-552 ASC is mainly in Wessex period. Wihtgarasburh was either at Dover/Guinnion or at Badon/Portchester/Wight. Calends of Martii 538 before calends of Julius 540 could possibly be matched with the great victory of Arthur 540 and with our Guinnion at Dover/Martin-le-Grand before Legionis (St Julius) at Richborough. The "great victory of Arthur over Saxons on St David's (birth)day 540/640" is the same day as the calends of March. Badon before Ida "547" rules out Northumbria. Beranbury 556 is not far from "Sarum" 552. Gildas' 43/44 yrs pretty surely matches the 44 yrs of Columba in the 560 entry of the ASC, and this likely matches our south-east thesis. Great battle Mon(a) 565 may match Mon(a) in the PaGur which matches Badon/Portchester (mons, Meon), or Mon 565 could match Agned/Anderida/Pevensey (mons, etc). Wibbandune 568 & synod of victory 569 was somewhere between Portchester/Badon & Wimbledon & Dover/Guinnion. Santa Maria de Bretona in Galicia was a Celtic bishopric from ca 569 and has analogous correspondences with St Mary in Castro at Dover which one source says may date to as early as ca 600 (at least). Gwendoleu/Arthuret/Merlin andd Caledonis 573 is surely connected with Guinnion/Dover/Martin le Grand and the Weald. Dyrham/Bath 577 might possibly be conected with Dover/Badon? West Saxon king driven from his kingdom at Woddesbeorg 592 was in or not far from Wessex. Cattraeth of the Gododin has good matches with our Dover/Guinnion/Eidyn/Badon battle site in Kent. Beandune 614 may be connected with Ethelbert of Kent. Pontesbury 661 which some match with Badon 665 could peraps match our Badon at Portchester? Cadwallon/Cadwaladr in Kent & Wight in 680s could match Badon at Portchester. Bitterne has St Marys dating to at least 690-700?
Saxons & Britons there then match(es) : Traditional Arthurian sources mention southern places such as "Winchester" and "Silchester" and "Hamo's Port" (Southampton). Arthur's battles were before/until Ida "547", which in the ASC matches the Kent, Sussex & Wessex sections.
"455-519 series of British-Saxon conflicts" ASC. "488-547 only landings of Saxons on the coast". Gap between Bretwaldas 491-560. "Saxons take 57 yrs to advance 25 miles" 495-552 (Evans). No-gains gap 519-552 ASC.
Others have also connected the Portchester/Southampton/Bitterne area with the 12 battles, though not the same battle site. Bullen put Glein at Portchester, and Dubglas at Southampton. Another person placed Bassas near here? Collingwood put the City of the Legion at Portchester, and Tribruit at Chichester, and Guinnion at Winchester. Malory placed Camelot at "Winchester" (and the 'Winchester Round Table' is found at the medieval/modern Winchester). "Some connect Camelot with Portchester"? Geoffrey of Monmouth's HRB mentions "Winchester" and "Silchester" and Hamo's Port (Southampton). "The Welsh in Tysilio placed Badon near Winchester". Some/one placed Badon itself by at Portchester. Kamlesh G placed Badon at Salisbury or at Badbury Rings not terribly far away in the same south central-western quarter. Brynjulfson also said evidence points to Badon being in "the extreme southern part of the island". Jackson said Badon is probably in southern England, and/or "somewhere in south central England", which is similar to our Badon in central southern England. "Gildas wrote at Portchester or Chichester" according to a couple of sources. Someone else has suggested that Camlann might be Cams near Portchester/Southampton. (I also once considered ... in the Channel islands as a candidate for Avalon.) Some place Llongborth near Portsmouth/Portland. ("Geraint from Devon"?)
Adurni/Portchester might possibly be mentioned under those names in Arthurian traditions as either: Badon; Hamo's Port; Llongborth; the Porter; Odor nant y Badd; Cador; "Gildas wrote at Portchester or Chichester"? Arddunion?
Dubris/Dover/Dour may be mentioned by that name in Arthurian as either: Dyfrig/Dubricius of Legions; Gwendoleu; Gwendolen; Dol(e); Dunbar; Doorn; Castle Dore; Deols? Doglas? Columba/Iona "dove"? "Dorchester"? "Dyrham"? Eldol? Eidol? montem dolorosum? Dolorus mountain? 'de ira' "from the wrath"?
List of the most of the main hitherto previous Badon location candidates: Badrig/Patrick / Dunum/Down (R. of C.) (Bambrough) Dun Baeddan (Ireland) Baodan/Baedan/Baetan/Baitan 581/623 (son/descendant of mac Erca) (Pestano) Bethan (Liethali/Gwydel) (HB) (Bambrough) Braddan (Isle of Man) Bardsey isle (Wales) (..., Bambrough) Arthur of Bardsey bishop of Bangor Wrekin / Salinae (Reno) Buxton / Arbor Low / High Peak (Derby) (Hunt, Reno?) Halleluyah Victory / Maes Garmon (Wiki, Bede, Bambrough) Cross Fell Brunandune/Brunanburh (Ethelwerd) (Bambrough) Vindolanda/Bardon Mill near Battle Hill, Pennines, Northumbria (Keegan, Bambrough) Bodotria/Bdora/Bodra/Eden/Ituna (Solway) (Damo B, Bambrough) Dumbarton / St Bathans / Bedesfeld (Damo B, Bambrough) Badden (between Dunardry & Dunadd, Argyll) (Ardrey) Badenoch Badandun Hill ("580") (Simon Stirling) Bradwen / Eidyn / Ottaduni (Gododin, Pagur, OEC) (Bambrough) Bowden Hill (Linlithgow/Lothian) Bebbanburh/Bamburgh/Bamborough 547 (ASC) (Bambrough) Baumber or Brumby (Lincoln) (...) Bed(ec)a/Baduca &/or Baducing (Lindsey &/or Essex king lists)? Bardon Hill / Breedon hill / Beacon hill (Leicester) (tradition, wiki) High Cross (Venonae, Leicestershire) The Wash (bath) Branodunum/Brancaster (ND) (Bambrough) Breydon Water (Great Yarmouth / Glein) (Bambrough) Boadicea "Victoria" (Bambrough) Bedcanford 571 (ASC) (Bambrough) Badby/Banbury (North Hampshire) Arbury (Charles P) Arthur of Bradley (ballad) (Bambrough) Sutton Hoo (Han / "M Walker"?) Wibbandune/"Wimbledon" 568 (ASC) (Bambrough) Braddon/Bredenstone (Dover/Guinnion) (Bambrough) Baithene (son of Aelle)? Battle of Cayburn 488 (local trdaition)? Beda/Bieda 501 (ASC) Cadwallon/Cadwaladr in Kent/Wight in 686 (ASC) (Bambrough) Mantuantonis (Bambrough) Adurni/Portchester / Bitterne (ND) (Bambrough) Pontesbury 661 (ASC & AC) (Hunt, Bambrough) near Winchester (Tysilio) Baddesley (Hants) (Baldulf march) Baldon between Towcester & Silchester Dragon's Hill / Whitehorse (Brewer's) (Bambrough) Abbandune/Abingdon/Vincent (ASC, Pa Halgan) (Bambrough) Beranbury 556 (ASC) (Bambrough) Woddesbeorg 591 (ASC) (Bambrough) Sor-bioduni/Salisbury / Stonehenge (Kamlesh G) Bindogladia / Badbury Rings (Wimborne, Dorset) (Kamlesh G, Hunt) somewhere in southern central England / extreme southern part of the island (Jackson, Bryjulfson) Little Bedwyn/Bewdin / Biedanheafod 675 (Gunther-Evans) Badbury/Barbury / Baydon / Braden/Bradon/Braydon (Liddington / Swindon / Faringdon, Marlborough) (Churchill, Gunther-Evans, Bambrough) Bodvoc/Boduni/Dobuni at Canterbury (Claudius Arch, OEC) (Bambrough) St Michael's Mt (analogous) (Bambrough) Bodmin? Bath / Avon / Bathampton / Bannesdown / Solsbury / Lansdown / Dyrham (ASC 577) (HRB, 24 kings & 33 cities doc, wiki, 12 Monasteries list, Camden? Wynn? Bede?) Bradanforda/Bradford 652 (Afene/Avon) (ASC) Badmin(g)ton (Bambrough) Bredon Hill (Hawkes) (Bambrough in Arthurnet) Bereford/Hereford 752 (Bambrough) Salinae/Droitwich (Worcester/Warwick) (Reno) Staffordshire Hoard (Han, Hassel) (Bambrough) Great victory of Arthur over Saxons on St David's day / Field of Leeks 540/640 (Bambrough) baths at Caerleon Mynydd Baedan (Wales) (wiki) Avalon (Bambrough) Badarn/Padarn (Brittany, Cornwall, Wales, HRB) (Bambrough) Badda "Spanish queen"? Baden "baths" (Germany, Room) (Coryate, Bambrough) Benedict 482/509 (ASC) (Bambrough) Hills of Adonis (Thubron) (Bambrough) Madon (Bible, Higham) (Bambrough) Abaddon and/or Armagedon (Bible) (Bambrough) Battle of Badr (Koran) (Bambrough) Babylon (Bible, Arthurian) (Bambrough).
Traditional source texts that mention Badon/Bath (under that name/nature) include: HB & Wonders, Irish HB, LF, HRB / 11 consuls / Prophecy of Merlin, EH, DEB, Hergest, AC 516 & 665, Camden, 24 kings & 33 cities document, Tysilio, Wynn, Leicester local tradition, Taliesin, Dream of Rhonabwy, William of Malmesbury, 'Y Gogynfeirdd' / 'In Praise of Owen Gwynedd' by Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr, a lost original Welsh poem? Richard of Cirencester?
Sources that mention Adurni/Portchester &/or Clausentum/Bitterne include: the ND.
Sources that mention Dubris/Dover include: the ND.
Badon & Adurni/Portchester possible matches in other lists/sources: Badon 9th/12th of 9/12 (HB, Irish HB, LF) Bladud/Baldud (HRB, 24 kings & 33 cities) Adurni 9th of 9 SS forts (ND) Adwen/Advent & Lanent/Lelant 14th & 15th of 15 children of Brychan Bathonia or Glastonia 2nd/11th or 1st/12th of 12 Monasteries Urbgen of Bath ... of 11 Consuls (HRB) Clust(veinyd)/Clust(veinad) last of 7 servants of the porter? Mon(a)/"Anglesey" 9th of 9, & the Porter (PG) The Mount &/or St Mary's # of ... islands (Scilly/Lyonesse)? great/last 3rd of 3 churches of Padarn (Vita Padarn) unnamed last/middle one of "3 several battles" (HRB) Constantius/Constantine the 9th of 9 emperors (HB)? Wibbandune or Woddesbeorg (ASC)? Mountain & 9 yrs or 11 hundred acres (Pillar of Eliseg)? Oledyfein or Eidyn (Taliesin)? Bishop Bedwin or Addaon fab Telessin (Rhonabwy/Hergest)? Bradwen and/or highland of Adowyn/Adoen / Adonwy / Adan (Cattraeth) (Gododdin)? Aedan or Elidyr or Dywanw last of 12 men of the north? Hot Lake & Salt Fountain 3-4th of 13 Wonders (HB) Ottaduni 17th of 17 tribes/provinces of Roman Britain (OEC)? "Gildas wrote at Portchester or Chichester"?
Badon/Guinnion & Dover possible matches in other lists/sources: Badon/Bath-hill # of 9/12 (AC, DEB, HRB) Braddon & St Martin le Grand (Dover) (ND) (Bambrough) Padarn of Vannes or Samson of Dol(e) or Gildas # of 7 saints of Brittany? Eidyn 6th of 9 (Pa Gur) middle/again's cross or last/great of 3 churches of Padarn kalends of May ... of 3 solemnities of Padarn? The Mount &/or St Mary's # of ... islands (Scilly/Lyonesse)? Derquentid or Sethirgabail or "Thanet"/unrecorded ... of 3/4 battles of Vortimer (HB, HRB)? Arddunion or Eidyn (Taliesin) Gwen Pendragon 2nd of 3 x 3 prisons Vortigern or Ambrosius or Uther or Arthur # of 11 (HRB) Mearcraedes-burna/burnsted or Wihtgarasburh or Wibbandune or Woddesbeorg (ASC)? Ysbaddaden (C&O) ? castle/tower (Modena Archivolt)? Bishop Bedwin or Addaon fab Telessin (Rhonabwy/Hergest)? Bradwen and/or highland of Adowyn/Adoen / Adonwy / Adan (Cattraeth) (Gododdin)? Boduni/Dobuni # of 11 kings (Claudius Arch)? Boduni/Dobuni or Ottaduni 10th or 17th of 17 tribes/provinces of Roman Britain (OEC)? Dumbarton/Dunbrettan "fort of the Britons/Britain" (Strathclyde, analogy) Bran vs Math (Hanes Taliesin)? Bagdemagus? Mt Damen (HRB)? Arthur's Seat (Edinburgh)? siege perilous? Saxon Rock? St Michael's Mount (Cornish)? Dunum/Down (St Patrick) (Richard of Cirencester). Isneldone/Snowdon "snow hill" (Beroul, etc) Silve Bradon / Braydon Wood near Swindon (Wiltshire, analogous) Dun Chailleann "fort of the Caledonii"& Mt Sidh Chailleann / Schiehallion "fairy hill of the Caledonians" (analogous). chastel Bedmound/boemound/bodmin