"Civitatem Legiomtm, tunc temporis desertam (which was at that time deserted), quae Saxonice Legeceaster dicitur . . . intrant." "Civitas quce Karlegion Britannice, et Legeceastre dicitur Saxonice." (- Florence of Worcester, 894 & 908.)
city Leogis / 'Kaerlion / Cair Lion' (- Henry of Huntingdon.)
("571 Lygeanburg/Liganburh" "584 Wigracester"? "606/607 Legercyestre" "894 gedydon on anre westre ceastre on Wirhealum seo is Legaceaster gehaten (arrived at a waste Chester in Wirral which is called Legaceaster)." "973 city of legions"? - ASC.)
'urbs legionum'/"Caerlleon on Usk" (- Liber Landavensis.)
"602 synod Urb(i)s Legion(is)/Legionum (genitive plural) / "Chester" 601/602", "613/614 battle Caer Legion / "Chester", Jago ap Beli" (- AC, B & C mss.)
"Caer lleon on dee 917 bc", "Caer lleon on usk 401 bc ... chief city of the isle of britain … priveleges & rank … principal Archbishop…. 2nd Rome ... its size…" "Caerleon on usk ad 516 ... loved & honoured Caerleon on the Usk more than any other place". (- 24 Kings & 33 Cities document.)
"Dicitur autem Kaerleun Legionum urbs; kaer enim Britannice urbs vel castrum dicitur" (- Gerald Cambrensis.)
(legionum civitas / ceastra - Will of M?)
"....There is, indeed, a Carlion and a Caerwent referred to in the Breton lai d'Ywenec, and the latter is said to be on the Doglas, and was the capital city of Avoez, lord of the surrounding country."
("The Caer" - Cadwallon Poem?)
"KA receiving tribute from the Irish at 'Cathair Ler-eon, now West Chester'". (- Popular tales of the highlands.)
"It is at Cardiff, therefore, on the one hand, and at Richborough on the other, that we must look for the history of Caerleon in the fourth century, and it is possibly in the amphitheatre which lies buried outside the walls of Richborough that the lost century of 'King Arthur's Round Table' may yet be found." (- Tessa Wheeler via Lydia Carr.)
From the source texts we glean this list of identification details of the city of the legion: - urbs legionis "city of the legion" name/meaning (HB, Irish HB, LF) (- only battle site with a Roman/Latin name (HB, Jackson, us)?) - number/order 6th/9th of 9/12 (HB) - near Bassas, Celidon, Guinnion, Tribruit (HB) - battle fought in/at there (HB) - British "victory" (HB) - Arthur/Britons there (HB, LF, HRB) - fought against Saxons & "specifically Kentishmen" (HB) - in (the island of) Britain (HB, HRB) - date before Ida (HB) - is "history" (HB, HRB) - written by Nennius who also wrote the Wonders (HB) - Arthur's capital (24 kings doc, HRB) - a river like usk there (HRB) - built by or associated with Beli/Eli/Heli (AC, HRB) - Julius & Aaron there (DEB, HRB) - consul Jugein/Vigenis (HRB)? - Dubricius of legions (HRB) - David (HRB) - Tremounus (HRB) - Minister/church(es) of Julius/Aaron (HRB, 12 Monasteries) - Guinevere's convent (HRB, Wiki) - capital/bishop of Kambria/Wales (HRB) - in "Glamorgan" (HRB) - near "Severn" (HRB) - synod/assembly (AC, HRB) - Round Table and/or amphitheatre there (24 kings doc) - built about same time as Jerusalem (24 kings doc) - called 2nd Rome (24 kings doc) - Merlin's town - near "Caerwent" (Ywenec) - was inaccessable at time of one of the sources writers (DEB) - near Snowdon one of 3 renowned cities (Beroul, etc) - associated with Augustine('s oak)? - associated with Garmon/Germanus? - associated with Paulinus (Breton) - Paerburge/Werburgh (Pa Halgan, Chester)? - bath(s) there (Caerleon, ...) - "just down the road from Bangor"? - analogous to city of lions/lyonesse at land's end (us)? - connections with Caerleon &/or Chester? - same as Camelot? - matches Dissethach of PG & Gwensteri of Gwallawg/Taliesin (us)?
There have been quite a lot of location candidates theories for the city of the legion, but there are only 4 major orthodox candidates (Chester, Caerleon, York, Carlisle). Of these only 3 are commonly favoured because they were supposedly the only 3 legionary bases in late Roman Britain, and only 2 of these are known the have been called by a city of the legion name (Chester & Caerleon), with quite a few scholars favouring Chester over Caerleon for being the city of the legion. Our own city of the legion candidate is Rutupiae/Richborough in Kent. Below we show how each of the identification details matches our site, while also showing that they don't as well match the 2 or 3 main orthodox candidates.
Number/order match: 9 of the 9 HB battle sites of Arthur match 8+1 of the 9+1 Saxon Shore sites of the ND all in numbers and order (going around the coast from ne to se to sw) except for a minor cross switch match of (the 3rd & 4th, and) the 5th & 6th sites. The cross switch match of 6th site city of the legion with 5th site Richborough is confirmed in other lists which also match the 9 HB/ND battle sites list in other sources:
The 'city of the legion' the 6th battle site of 9 (HB of Nennius). Richborough/Rutupiae the 5th site of 9 SS forts (ND). Dissethach the 5th battle site of 9 (PaGur). Gwensteri [6th/9th] battle of Gwallwag (Taliesin)? Jugein/Vigenis of Legecester 5th of 11 Consuls (HRB). Leominster 7th/6th of 12 (12 Monasteries list). Lynn Liuan 6th of 13 (Wonders). Eliffer/Peredur 5th of 12 (Hen Ogledd) [Also compare the 3 churches and 3 solemnities of Padarn?]
The minor cross-switch match can easily be seen to have likely explanation of that HB sites are in chronological order of Arthur's battles while the ND/SS sites are in geographical order. Arthur is not likely to have done all 9 sites all in order because the enemy would have known which site was next. Also the sites are not very far away from each other and the sites are spread around a circular coast not in a straight line, and there is not a great deal difference between whether one travels from Canterbury first to either Dover or to Richborough (and then to the other site).
None of the 2 or 3 or 4 main orthodox candidates were 6th or 9th in an historically attested set of 9 or 12 sites which all match in order, except for that York's association with Sextae could be similar to the "6th" battle site.
City of the legion is near to Bassas / Caledon / Guinnion / Tribruit in the HB etc. (Many Welsh sources have Legionis & Guinnion near each other). Richborough/Rutupi (Legionis) is near Dover/Dubris (Guinnion), and near Reculver (Bassas), and the Weald (Celidon), and not terribly far away via 2 connecting roads from Lemanis (Tribruit) in same Kent porvince. Rutupi is connected with Caledonian wood in Lucan.
Leominster - Glasgwin (12 Monasteries)? Lygeanburg/Liganburh - Egonesham/Ignesham (ASC/Ethelwerd) Urbslegionum/Caerlleon - Guentoniaurbs/Urbsguenti/Caerwent" (Llandaff) Carlion - Caerwent/Doglas (Ywenec) "Leo(n)degrance father - of Guinevere (post-Vulgate cycle)"? Lyon(s) - St Guinefort (Stephen de Bourbon) Carhaix/Leon - Vannes (Breton/Brittany) Legionis (Julius/Jago) - Guinnion/*Alborum (HB, LF) Sant-iago de Compostela? - Santa Maria de Bretona (Galician) Julius of Legions - Alban (DEB, EH, HRB) calends Julius 540 - calends Martii 538 (ASC/Ethelwerd) Legions - Dubricius (HRB) Rutupi (legion) - Dubris/Dover (Martin, Albion) (ND) Cuerlion - chastel de Snowdon ("snow hill") (Beroul) Locrinus/Sture - Albanact (HRB) Gwensteri key to Lloegyr - Arddunion "fortress height" (Taliesin) dwellings/fastness of Dissethach - Mt Eidyn (Pa Gur) "Verulamium" - "Eboracum" (R of C)? Legions - "York" (HRB)? Logres - Avalon? Melros - "Wedale" (HB VR)?
Richborough/Rutupi - Reculver/Regulbium (ND/SS) city of the legion - Bassas (HB) Ridoc - Boso (HRB)? Dissethach - Afarnach (PG) Julius - Aaron (DEB/HRB)? Logres - Avalon? Melros - "Wedale" (HB VR)?
The other 3 orthodox candidates are not so near their Bassas, Celidon, Guinnion, and Tribruit candidates (and certainly they do not each all match in numbered order in an attested set of 9 sites).
City of the legion is in a middle triad of 2/3 settlements (HB, O'Toole, Arthurian Infopedia). This well matches Kent.
The city of the legion is the site of the 9th of 12th battles in the HB. Julius Caesar's invasion was at the 9th hour and was somewhere near Deal/Walmer/Richborough/Ebbsfleet. (There are reasons for thinking that the cruciform platform at Richborough might be the cenotaph/grave of Labienus who died in Caesar's invasion.) A source says he was bruied at the "9th wave Peryddon", and Gawain/Gwalchmai was buried at Richborough/Rutupi or Dover in some sources.
Meaning "city of the legion" match: The name of the 6th battle site of Arthur's is Caerleon / Urbslegionis / Civitas Legionum / Legecester / [Liganburh?] / the City of (the) Legion(s). Caer means "fort, or loosely city"; Urbs/urbem means "city, or country/territory". Our site Rutupi/Richborough matches the meaning of this name.
Many sources have suggested that the city of the legion can only be either Caerleon or Chester or York because they were supposedly the only 3 legionary bases in Britain. However there were sometimes legions at a number of other places during the history of Roman Britain (see the list in the lists section appended to the end of this chapter). It is seen in the ND that there was a legion at the SS fort Rutupi, the legio 2 Augusta. Richborough is also considered to be the site where the legions of Claudius' invasion landed, though this is disputed and not necessarily totally certain. Evidence seems to suggest that Julius Caesar also landed there or nearabouts. "after the invasion of the Romans it lost its first name, and was called the City of Legions, from the Roman legions which used to take up their winter quarters in it" (HRB) A legion was at our site Richborough later than there was one at the other 3 legionary bases in late Roman Britain, and closer to the times of Arthur. Some arch-critics tried to counter-claim that Richborough was not the legio ii Augusta's "main base". However the ND has at Rutupi/Richborough "legio Augusta". Also the legion at Caerleon had shifted to Valentia and Rutupi and Cardiff. Arthurian sources also may imply that only a 1000 was at the city, and it might have been a different legion to the one there in Roman times.
Carlisle/Stanwix had a 1000 strong cavalry unit. "Carmarthen / (city of the) 1000(0) (soldiers)" Richborough/Rutupi "was indeed garrisoned by 1000 men of the 2nd legion"? Taliesin 1000 sons? "the II Augusta had reduced a lot [to 1/10]"? "Legio 2nd Britannica ... just 1,000 strong by then [ear 5th cent?]"?
Legions at Chester/Deva/Victrix 78-402: Chester & Caerleon 78. Eboracum/York, Virconium/Wroxeter, Deva/Chester, Isca/Caerleon 80. Legio Valeria Vict at Chester 88-250. Eboracum/York, Deva/Chester, Isca/Caerleon 180. legio 6 Victrix, one of the two legions recalled 402.
Legions at Caerleon/Isca: Second legion from Gloucester to Caerleon 74/75 ad (till c 255). Chester & Caerleon 78. Eboracum/York, Virconium/Wroxeter, Deva/Chester, Isca/Caerleon 80. Eboracum/York, Deva/Chester, Isca/Caerleon 180. legio Augusta garrison at/to Rutupi/Richborough (from Caerleon) 305. forces from Caerleon transferred to Cardiff by early 5th cent. (Constantine 3 withdraws remaining legion Legio Augusta to Gaul 407.)
Legions at York/Ebrauc: Legio 9 Hispania at York 71-121. Severus 2 legions, York. Eboracum/York, Virconium/Wroxeter, Deva/Chester, Isca/Caerleon 80. Eboracum/York, Deva/Chester, Isca/Caerleon 180. [Ebur 151-501 (AC)?]
Legions at Exeter: [siege Exeter c 630?] [Sentleger / St Ledger 635?] legionary fortress excavated at St Loyes, Exeter 2010.
Legions withdrawn before Augusta withdrawn: Maximus withdraws his legions from Britain 383. Gratian with 2 legions sent away, Romans granted 1 legion Stilicho removed legion/force 401.
Legions at/near Rutupi/Richborough: Caesar landed at/near Richborough. Richborough might have been landing place of legions of Claudius invasion. Rutupi built 277-285. Rutupiae (legio 2 Augusta) c 395-428 (ND). legio Augusta garrison at/to Rutupi/Richborough (from Caerleon) 305. Constantine 3 withdraws remaining legion Legio Augusta to Gaul 407. Count Theodosius was active in Saxon Shore [Logiore & soldiers of Coroctocus may have been there?] [Natanleod (NawCantLeod) 508?] (Redwald "conceded to him [Ethelbert] the military leadership of his people"?)
Legions in France/Gaul near Kent/England in/near Arthur's time: "a late relief force sent ca420 or so to help the Britons" Legio 2 Britannica from Gaul early 5th cent? Legio 2 Britannica just 1,000 strong by ear 5th cent. "British legion near Orleans 530"? "legion of Britons at Loire in 536"? St Pol Aurelian de Leon "the legionaries of Britannia Minor [Brittany]" (Roman Martyrology 2004).
Rutupi/Richborough was also called a "town" in Ptolemy, a "civitas" and an 'orbs' "city" in Orosius and Lucan, a "city" in Bede, a "cester" in Old English, a "borough" in English, a "port" and "haven" in the HRB, a "port" and a "primary station" and "metropolis" and "city" and "town" and "civitas/civitate" and "colony" in Richard of Cirencester, and a "civil(ian settlement) and commercial town" in modern history books. "Rutupiae was the major British port under the Romans and the starting point ... of Watling Street" (Wiki). It is said that "there is evidence of a large Roman population here [Richborough] in the early 5th century...." "The church was probably built at the end of the 4th century or at the beginning of the 5th century." (Wiki.) "The site was occupied by a Saxon religous settlement" (Wiki). Rutupi/Ricborough is one of the best preserved Roman sites in England (Hawkes said it is "one of the most interesting Roman sites in the whole country. The fort ... is remarkably complete"). In an aerial photograph it also looks like a "city" to me. The 2 or 3 middle battles sites of Arthur of the HB as all settlements also well matches Kent. (Also compare the "3 renowned cities".) Some critics have asserted that the ancients/medievals distinguished between forts and cities, but aside from our evidence above, perhaps also compare that "The Ravenna geographer (432, 7) calls all the forts of the Roman Wall civitates"?
Caerleon / urbs legionis / Civitas Legionum / legecester / city of the legion name match:
As we have shown above, Rutupi/Richborough was called an orbs "city" (and cester) and it had a legion there, which matches both the words of urbs legionis "city of the legion". However, archcritics have insisted that we have to also have to show that our site was called "city of the legion" and/or Urbslegionis and/or Caerleon in some reliable historical source. We can't yet necessarily show an indisputably "reliable" source that calls Richborough a/the city of the legion, but we can show that some sources seemingly do possibly imply or hint that such a name did refer to our site. - The legion at Richborough was "from Caerleon", which links the name of Caerleon with our site. - Caerleon in the west has some analogous similarities to Richborough in the east? The city of the legion being called "Caerleon(-on-Usk)" in the HRB maybe implies that the legion was the legio ii Augusta, which legion was at both Caerleon & Richborough? "Augustodunum" in the HRB may also match Richborough (legio Augusta). - Dubricius of Legions confirms city of the legion near Dubris/Dover (see Dubricius section below). - Urbe Legionis in 'HB' of "Nennius" we show pretty surely matches Richborough/Rutupi. - Leg(e)ceastre in the 'Pa Halgan' and/or 'Kentish Royal Legend' could match Richborough in Kent rather than "Chester" in the north-west? - The 'city of Lions/Lyonesse' "between Land's End in Cornwall and Scilly isles" in the far south-west is analogously similar to our 'city of the legion' candidate Richborough/Rutupi in the Wantsum-Stour area between Kent and Thanet in the far south-east. (Note there is no proof of any city of Lyonesse in the south-west.) - "Pol Aurelian founded monastery in an abandoned fort in city of St Pol de Leon", & "Pol Aurelian [de Leon] established monasteries in Finistere" seem very similar to our Urbs Legionis in the south-east extremity of Kent, analogous to the city of lions in the far south-west extremity of Cornwall. (Polis means "city" in Greek, like urbs is "city" in Latin. Aureli(an)us & Urbgen/Urien(s) is similar to Urbslegionis?) - Some versions of Watling Street have Richborough (our 'city of the legion' ste) and Chester (traditional/orthodox 'city of the legion' candidate) at either end, which links the two places/names. "West Chester" might imply another earlier East Chester? - Lygeanburg/Liganburh 571 in the ASC/Ethelwerd might be our 'city of the legion' and Richborough. The 571 sites were hitherto supposed to be in "Bedord/Buckinghamshire", but some doubt this. Three of the 571 sites names match 3 battle sites of Arthur of the HB (Bassas, Legions, Guinnion), and from this and from other ASC entries comparisons it seems possible that the 571 places may match our SS sites in Kent? The 3 sites of all 3 sources (ASC, HB, ND/SS) are all similarily close to each other. (Liganburh has been supposed to be "Lenbury" which is similar to Lenham on the river Len which flows into Medway not far from the source of the Stour which Richbrough is at the mouth of?) - Natanleod in the ASC may have been at our city of the legion Richborough rather than at Charford/Netley? - Kerediegean may match Caerlegion? Caractacus was in Richborough/Kent; Carausius was at Richborough; Cerdic was interpreter of Hengist. - St Leonard at Deal? - "Verulam/Uerolamiensem" or "St Alban's" mentioned in Arthurian sources might be Urbslegionis/Urbslegionum & Albion/Dover/Downs? (St Alban's was also called Watlingcester. Watlanting Street runs from Richborough or Dover in some sources. Caer Lleon and "Jerusalem" were built about the same time in the '24 kings & 33 cities' document. "Jerusalem" may match Uerolamiensem.) - The name 'urbe legionis' for the 6th battle site of Arthur is (all) Roman/Latin in difference to the names of the other 8 of the 9 battle sites. This supports that the site is in the more Roman & more urban south-east half of Britain. - The second name Caerleon is not in all versions of the HB and so it might only be a later addition or gloss. (Jackson's contention that the Latin name urbe Legionis would be from a British/Welsh name caer Legion may not necessarily be definitely true?)
- Caerleon is not a pre-Roman name, and the place was called Isca in Roman times, and the earliest it was called Caerleon seems to be ad 800? The HB doesn't say the city of the legion was "on Usk". "Caer Llion, the Roman Isca Silurum = HB Cair Legeion/Ligion/Legion on the Usk, and only becomes Lonin/Leonin/Leonan in the Irish versions, suggesting the current form of the name was not that used in the Dark Ages." Gildas clearly implies that Urbslegionis was inaccessable in his times, which rules out Caerleon, and also Chester which was "hardly inaccesable". It is said that there is no evidence for Julius & Aaron at Chester as a local tradition supposes. "How Deva came to be the name of Chester or the Castra Legionis (whence the Welsh Caer Lleon) is not clear". Chester was only called caer and chester but not urbs? The two 'Welsh Annals' synod of 'urbs legionum' 601/602 and battle of 'caer legion' 613/614 entries are clearly refering to different sites. (City of Legions / Caerleon & Legecester/Chester are also different places in the HRB?) The battle of the city of the legion might not be the same battle as the one of the AC (as some suggest) because they have different dates, different leaders, different outcomes. There is also no battle of "Chester" 613/614 in the chroncle of St Werburgh's. In the HB the 'urbs legionis' in the 12 battles section is also a different name to those in the 33 cities of Britain list (Cairlion/"Caerleon" & Cairligion/"Chester"). Both Caerleon and Chester had no Saxons in Arthur's times, and they are hardly very strategic sites for his battles. Arthur's battles were before/until Ida, which likely rules out York? York is not known to have been called city of the legion, and the the HRB has York and Legions as two different sites with different bishops. The Chester and York 'city of the legion' candidates of others had a different legion to the legio ii Augusta that is implied to have been the legion of the city of the legion by its being called "Caerleon (on Usk)" in the HRB etc. So if the city of the legion can't be any of the "only possible/known" 2 or 3 sites then it points to some other 3rd or 4th site.
Arthur's capital match:
The city of the legion was: "the metropolis .... great wealth" (HRB), "chief city of the isle of britain … priveleges & rank … principal Archbishop…. called a 2nd Rome... its size & strength" & Arthur "loved & honored Caerleon ... more than any other place" (24 kings & 33 cities document), "one of the most important cities in Britain"; "metropolitan see", "KA's capital", one of the "3 renowned cities" (Beroul/etc).
Rutupi/Richborough was: "their primary station ... became the metropolis.... ... this city was of such celebrity that.... was the station of the 2nd Augustan legion, under the count of the Saxon coast, a person of high distinction ... prima in Britannia insula civitas.... colonia" ("Richard of Cirencester"/"Bretram"), "fleet which commanded the North Sea", "the primary station of the Romans in Britainnia...", "Watling Street proceeded from Richborough", one of the best preserved Roman sites in Britain (Hawkes)
The city of the legion as "second Rome" might link with the Ruym name of Thanet?
The 2 or 3 orthodox candidates dont match this capital city detail as well.
Inaccessable match: "Gildas says that Christians are cut off from the martyr shrine of Julius and Aaron in the context of diuortium." "Gildas clearly states that this place [the city of the legion] is unacessable to British people." "Gildas clearly was stating that the holy shrines in the East were out of reach and in territory controlled by Saxons. Roger of Wendover, in his Flores Historiarum, tells us that the shrine or church at St Albans was destroyed by pagan Anglo-Saxon invaders." "Chester" is also called in some sources "Waste Chester" Gildas also says "neither to this day are our cities inhabited .. . forsaken & overthrown". This doesn't match Caerleon and it hardly matches Chester, but it well matches our site Richborough. This might also connect with the four Wonders of Britain which match our city of the legion Richborough are all omitted in the Irish HB? Compare also the city of lions/lyonesse.
Dubricius of Legions match: St "Dyfrig/Dubricius (bishop) of (the city of) legions" was at city of the legion in the HRB. Dyfrig & Kentigern are mentioned in the 612 entry immediately before 613 city of the legion entry in the AC. Our site Richborough has possible matches for Dubricius there. The name Dubricius/Dyfrig (or Tewdrig/Theodorick/Teudubric, or Ebur?) might be connected with either Mandubracius (Androgeus), or Dubris/Dour/Dover, or Durovernum (Canterbury), or Durobrivae (Rochester), or Lollius Urbicus? DuoRig Habren in the Wonders might also match Dubris/Dover? Dubricius was at Badon/Bath in the HRB, and this same chapter mentions ships and "Thanet". Dubricius at battle of Badon is similar to Germanus at Halleluyah victory, and the latter was surely in the south-east. Dubricius was "chief (arch)bishop of Britain" which corresponds with archbishop of Canterbury. Kentigern in the AC entry may recall Kent or Catigern/Kit's Coty? York can't be the 'city of the legion' because they had different bishops (Dubricius and Sanxo) in the HRB.
Chester by contrast has no known major connection with any Dubricius-like (person and) name. The only remote possibility could be Deverdoeu which was one of the names that Chester used to be known by prior to the 12th century. However, this is hardly a linguistically likely correspondence. Dubricius is supposed to have been in Wales, but the evidences seem to suggest that he was really in Kent and that he was only later supposed to have been in Wales.
Saints Julius & Aaron match: In the DEB & EH & Book of Llandaff & HRB the story is that Sts Julius/Gillian & Aaron of Legions/Carlisle, & St Alban of Verulam & St Ampibalus of Winchester/Verulam were martyred in the ampitheatre at the city of the legion in the persecution of Diocletian, and that their bodies were buried beneath the church (of St John?) which is next to or just outside of the amphitheatre. The date of Julius & Aaron is the 1st of July or the 20th/22nd of June.
There are traditions of Julius &/or Aaron at Caerleon and at Chester, however they can only have been at one not both. It is said that there is little or no evidence for Julius & Aaron at Chester. Caerleon and Chester are both also ruled-out by that "Gildas says that Christians are cut off from the martyr shrine of Julius and Aaron in the context of diuortium." "Gildas clearly states that this place [city of the legion] is unacessable to British people. If this was Chester it would hardly be unacessable." "Gildas clearly was stating that the holy shrines in the East were out of reach and in territory controlled by Saxons. Roger of Wendover, in his Flores Historiarum, tells us that the shrine or church at St Albans was destroyed by pagan Anglo-Saxon invaders." Furthermore, Gildas also says "neither to this day are our cities inhabited .. . forsaken & overthrown".
St Julius and the Julian Way likely connect back to Julius Caesar who landed at/near our city of the legion site Richborough. Also compare Julliberies grave which some have suggested to be the grave of Laberius who died in the invasion? July was the 5th month before January and February were added to the front, and Richborough is the 5th ND SS fort. The match with (Caius) Julius Caesar might be confirmed by that Gai Campi "field of Caius" may also match our site.
City of the legion & Jago/Iago in the AC. Atbert Judeu / Urbs Iudeu? Jugein/Vigenis of Legecester in the HRB. Julius Caesar landed at/near Dover/Deal/Richborough caer legion & Jago/Beli 613 (AC)? Santiago de Compostela (Galician)?
St Julius & Aaron date 1st July Calends of July 540 ASC Calends of July in 3 solemnities of Padarn
Calends of July in 3 solemnities of Padarn Campus Heli / metropolis of St Padarn (Sts Lives) Paerburge of the city of the legion
Calends Martii/March 538 ASC Great victory of Arthur on St David's day (1st March) 540/640.
St Aaron might be connected with either: Mark Antony in Caesar's invasion? Androgeus (Mandubracius) in Caesar's invasion? "Moses" in the ASCe 4.. entry which may match the Wantsum-Stour area. Avene (Cerdicsford 519) Aurelianus St Leonard of Deal? Afarnach's hall in the Pa Gur which matches Bassas & Reculver. Avalon which is in the North Sea in Irish according to Spanuth?
The amphitheatre and grave and church/churches in the Julius & Aaron traditions also have possible matches at our site.
Grave of Laberius at 9th hour at Richborough Julius & Aaron buried at city of the legion Vortimer's cenotaph at port where Saxons 1st landed Grave Gwalchmai 9th wave Peryddon (stanzas graves) Arthur died at city of lions/lyonesse?
Grave of Labienus the first Roman soldier to die in Caesar's invasion. Church of St Stephen (the first christian martyr) at Camelot. 1st British martyrs Julius & Aaron & Alban at Legionis.
The 'city of the legion' had a church (of St Aaron or Julius or John). The city of Lions/Lyonesse had "140 churches". Leominister of the 12 Monasteries list has a minster. Camelot had a church of St Stephen
the building on top of the large white cruciform platform at Richborough was "faced with Italian marbles"
"there is evidence of a large Roman population here [Richborough] in the early 5th century, some of them worshipping in the Early Christian church discovered in a corner of the fort." "The church was probably built at the end of the 4th century or at the beginning of the 5th century. It seems plausible that the church was built of wood." "The site was occupied by a Saxon religous settlement".
The earliest christians in Britain and martyrs of the Diocletian massacre were more likely in the south-east.
St Alban (283, 304, 429) and his scapula has matches with our sites area of either: La(m)bienus in Caesar's invasion, Clodius Albinus, Saxon Shore forts (c270/293) & Richborough (built 277-285, 305, c395) & ND (395/400s/420/420s/428) dates coincidence. Germanus associated with St Alban, Abbot Albinus/Alcuin at St Augustine's Canterbury, Guinnion/*Alborum and Arthur's shoulder, Dover/Albion/Downs (one source says that Albion is thought by some to come from St Alban/Albion).
St Alban's where Uther also died was also/alternatively called "Verulam" and "Waeclingcester". Watling Street ran from Dover or Richborough in some sources. "Verulam/Uerolamiensem" may be the Arthurian "Jerusalem" and might match Urbslegionis?
Amphibalus ("cloak"?) could be connected with either: The amphibian landing of Caesar's or Claudius' invasion? Androgeus/Mandubracius? Aheno... name of Nero? Amphitheatre at Richborough? The cloak of St Martin (& St Martin's at Canterbury & Dover) The tomb/grave/sepulchre of Ambrosius [which seems to have been in the area]?
"Winchester" is Guintonhi/Guintruis/Guintguic in Arthurian and is connected with Guinnion (Dover). Compare Wigracester the "white town" 583/584/586?
Tremounus/Trimontium match: The 'city of the legion' is connected with 'Tremounus of Legions' in the HRB. Adam Ardrey's the city of the legion candidate is Trimontium (or Melrose/Meilros) which was the capital of Scotland during the Roman occupation in the 1st & 2nd centuries. The 9 battle sites definitely match the 9 Saxon Shore forts and not sites in Scotland though, so the Scottish Trimontium can only be an analogous namesake. We have a possible match for Tremounus or Trimontium at our 'city of the legion' site Richborough/Rutupi of either: - Triputienses of German inscriptions refering to Rutupiae/Rhutupian/Rhutupine. - Trinovantum "London" &/or the Trinovantes not far from Richborough/Kent in Arthurian traditions. - Tremounus/Trimontium might mean "3 mountains" and be connected with either Cruc Mawr [the large cruciform platform at Richborough], or with the Circling Rock/Mountain which turns 3 times [something at either Richborough or Dover].
Melrose/Meilros and the court of Rhos of Maelgwn 547 of Arthurian raditions seems to match the Reculver &/or Rutupi/Richborough area since the name may mean mael "bald, (a) bare (hill)" or melot "yellow" + rhos/ros/ross "mountain, (a) promonitory, headland, (a) moor(land)" or "(a) wood".
The HB VR has Arthur's icon preserved in Stow/Wedale "6 miles west of Meilros" which is maybe analogous to Reculver a few miles nw of Richborough.
Round Table match: According to some early traditional sources the Round Table was at the city of the legion or "Caerleon". It is also said that it was given to Arthur by Leo(n)degrance. There is also a local tradition that the amphitheatre at the "city of the legion" candidate Caerleon was the Round Table, and in news a few years ago the amphitheatre at "city of the legion" candidate Chester was also said to be the Round Table. All this seems to match back to our city of the legion site Richborough/Rutupi which has an amphitheatre in farm fields nearby the fort which looks very flatly-circular in an aerial photo and is described as "visible as a hummock in the grass 5 minutes walks from the main site". We see agreement in Carr & Wheeler's quote "it is possibly in the amphitheatre which lies buried outside the walls of Richborough that the lost century of 'King Arthur's Round Table' may yet be found." The Round Table is variously said to have held either 12 or 24 or 150 people, and the 150 could match an amphitheatre? Richborough fort is said to have held about a 1000. The Round Table is variously either a stationary/moving table-like item, or a stationary round house of polished stones or "some kind of enclosure, which could be a palace but could also be something like a henge with a defined inside and outside space", or an amphitheatre, or a circle/meeting of (12) people, or a tournament event, or a moving court. So this "round table" might be either/both the legion and/or the amphitheatre that they meet and exercised in. Natanleod was slain with 5000 which is close to a legion of 6000, and his name has been said to mean Naw Cant Lliwed "ruler of 900 (warrior) companies", while cant also means "crooked, bent, bend".
The name Round Table might also/alternatively connect with the name of Rutupi meaning "red top", though the red refers to salt? (Rutupiae may mean either "red top" or "muddy waters/estuary" from rutu/rutila(e) "red, salt, rust, mud" + -piae or "top", or Rico/Ridoc/Richiden/Rhydycheu/Rhydygroes "ox ford" from ritus/rith/rhwd/rhyd "ford", or Ruithin/Ruym "river island, Thanet", or rhos/ros/ross "mountain, (a) promonitory, headland, (a) moor(land)" or "(a) wood"?)
Other sources locate the Round Table at "the castle of Snowdon" ("snow hill") or "the castle of Windsor" or "Winchester" (Guintonhi/Guintruis/Guintguic) which seem to match castelum Guinnion/Dover. (The "round house/temple of polished stones" or "some kind of enclosure, which could be a palace but could also be something like a henge with a defined inside and outside space" is similar to the lighthouse at Dover. Another candidate at Dover is "Harold's Earthwork".)
Camelot where some sources locate the RT might match either the city of the legion Richborough or castellum Guinnion/Dover.
Orthodox academic Arthurian critics dismiss the Round Table as an invention of Wace because it appears that it was first mentioned by Wace. However, they can not prove that Wace made it up, and we have found that the RT may possibly match some things in earlier sources.
Jerusalem match: Caer Lleon and "Jerusalem" were built about the same time (ref '24 kings & 33 cities') implying that either Caerlleon is "Jerusalem" or it was close to "Jerusalem". Jerusalem in Arthurian is either/both Verulam/Uerolamiensem and/or Cursalem of Kaicester (in the 11 Consuls list). Verulam is also called St Alban's and Watlingcester. Verulam might match Urbslegionis. St Alban('s) matches Guinnion/*Alborum & Dover/Albion. Watling Street ran from Dover or Richborough in some sources.
On a river like the Usk(e) match: The city of the legion is identified with Caerleon upon Usk in the HRB, or with Caerleon on the Dee in the 12 kings document. This might just be from later identifications, or it might mean that the city of the legion was on a river like the Usk or Dee. Richborough is on the (Wantsum-)Stour. Caerleon is on the Usk(e). Chester is on the Dee. York is on the Ure. Exeter is on the Exe. Gwensteri might be on a Steri river/stream (Taliesin)? Locrinus & Estrildis was on the Sture and/or "Severn" (HRB). Caerglan/Kaerglou/Caergloui/Gloiuda/Gloucester/Claudiicastrum on Severn (HB/HRB).
Not far from Isneldone/Snowdon match: Arthur's 6th battle site the 'city of the legion' is called Cair Lion in some sources. In an Arthurian source Cuerlion is not far from the castle of Isneldone/Snowdon or "Stirling". This can't be Caerleon on Usk in South Wales and Snowdon in North Wales or Stirling in Scotland as they are not all that close. However this can match our 9 battle sites in the Saxon Shore. The castle of Snowdon ("snow hill") matches castellum Guinnion ("white") and Dover/Albion (white cliffs, chalk Downs), and is not far from our 'city of the legion' at Richborough. (There is also a Snowdown village in modern Kent not far from Dover & Richborough.) "Snowdon West" of some Arthurian versions implies a Snowdon East? Some versions of Watling Street have Dover at one end, and Segontium near Snowdon at the other end. Snowdon is one of the "3 renowned cities" in one source which might match our sites Richborough ['city of the legion'], Dover [Guinnion] and Reculver [Bassas] (or else the Rutupiae, London and Daruernum/Canterbury of Ptolemy?)
Land's End match: Richborough was once on an island between Kent & Thanet in far the s.e. The 'city of Lions/Lyonesse' "between Land's End in Cornwall and Scilly isles" in the far s.w. Another 'city of the legion' candidate of someone else is Carhaix which is in Finistere/Penn-ar-Bed "Land's End". Pol Aurelian established monasteries in Finistere, he founded a monastery in an abandoned fort in city of St Pol de Leon. The other 3 main city of legion candidates dont match the land's end analogy as well.
Germanus, Augustine, Paulinus matches: The "city of the Legion" (602, AC) is connected with St Augustine synod at "Chester" and/or "Augustine's Ac/Oak on borders of the Wiccii & West Saxons" (603, Bede). Augustine is majorly associated with Kent (Ebbsfleet and Canterbury) and he is not likely to have been as far north and west as Chester, though Ethelbert did extend his sphere to Humber. (There might possibly also have been a conflation of the legio ii Augusta with Augustine?) Germanus' battle was supposedly at Maes Garmon near Mold near the traditional/orthodox 'city of the legion' candidate Chester. This may possibly mean that the 'city of the legion' is closely connected with Germanus? The Maes Garmon location is very dubious. Germanus was surely more likely in the south-east. It is interesting that Germanus has link with St Alban who we have shown matches Guinnion/*Alborum & Dover/Albion. The fields of Maes Garmon, Maisuriam, Maesbeli, Campus Heli, Campus Electi, Campus Lapidem all seem to be connected with the city of the legion & Richborough. St Pol/Paulinus Aurelianus/Uurmonocus de Leon in Breton tradition seems to be connected with the 'city of the legion', thus implying that Paulinus was at that city. Paulinus was in Northumbria but he was also in Kent. There is also the Pavloc in an inscription in the Sutton Hoo artefacts in Suffolk? "Pol Aurelian established monasteries in Finistere (land's end)." "Founded monastery in an abandoned fort in city of St Pol de Leon."
Saxons there then match: Arthur fought Saxons and as such he must have been near where Saxons where. Hardly any sources say he fought Angles except for a few late ones. The HB says Arthur's battles were before/until Ida, and this makes it unlikely that he was fighting Northumbrian Angles because Ida was among earliest north Angle invaders. The Saxons are stated in the HB text to have come from Germany and "every province", which suggests the south-east coast side of Britain/England. The threat was from the east and it is not strategic to have Arthur fighting in the west. The Saxons "were largely limited to the coast". Evans said "... from the year 488, when Hengist died, until 547, when Ida is reported to have founded the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria, a period of 60 years, the only entries concern alleged landings of Saxons on the south coast." The Saxons aren't supposed to have reached Chester until 584 or 607/613? Ethelfrith "led his army to" "Chester" (ASC). Old orthodox opinions were sometimes based on mis-interpretations of some Anglo-Saxon chronicle entries. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle said "... the remains of widespread woods, which were once part of that great forest which for so long held the Saxon invaders at bay--the impenetrable "weald," for 60 years the bulwark of Britain."
Arthur/Britons there then match: "Arthur's" battles were fought against the " Saxons" (HB, LF, HRB, Hawkes) and "specifically Kentishmen" (HB, Collingwood, Jackson), and at the estimated time of these battles (before Ida in the HB) the Anglo-Saxons were mainly only in the Saxon Shore and the South-East quarter/half of England/Britain bounded by a line drawn between the Wash and the Solent (Sayles, GYAM) or "between the Humber and Dorset/Devon". Arthur "came against the Saxons" (Liber Floridus). "Merlin hid golden throne of Britain in cliff nearby CribyDdysgl (Snowdon) when Saxons invaded" (Snowdon folklore). "Great victory of Arthur over the Saxons on St David's (birth)day 540 or 640". "2nd battle King Arthur smashes the Saxons at Clarence". "Arthur fought against the Saxons, there being no word of the Picts and Scots" (Evans). "Arthur ... wrought 12 notable battles against the Saxons and the Picts ..." (from The History of Gruffydd ap Cynan?) "No source before Geoff of Monmouth says that Arthur fought Scots &/or Picts". Evans said "... such exercises have lacked conviction if only because they so frequently locate them in areas where there were no Saxons to fight at the time, and, in some cases, not for long afterwards if at all. Yet the battles have been located in districts as far apart as the lowlands of Scotland and the south-west of England. There were certainly no Saxons in the latter region until long after this date.... .... ...although how Arthur could have fought Saxons in Perthshire and Wales, where no Saxons ever were, is beyond conjecture." "Arthur was fighting "Saxons" (as Nennius clearly shows, and specifically the Kentish men) and there were none near Chester or in the North in Arthur's time...." (ref Jackson, Loomis, Evans.) "Scotland is hardly, the place at this time for battles against the Teutonic invaders, nor is Chester." (Jackson.) Another researcher also suggested that Arthur may have functioned like Count of the Saxon Shore. There was a major gap or salient of Britons in the Colchester - London - St Alban's triangle area (refs Wheeler, Deniker, maps). That Arthur had access to coastal/shore port sites is implied by traditional sources mentionings of "Thanet", "ships", "flat island", "Dover", "Rutupi", "Hamo's Port", "ship Pry(d)wen", "the Porter", crossing to France, and his driving the enemies out of the island/land (eg "drove out the pagans" at Guinnion, 2nd battle of Clarence was a "great victory ... drives saxons out of England"). The Kentish have known historical ties with British/Welsh/Celtic. Kent and Canterbury are British/Welsh names. There are some evidences reasons for thinking that Arthur may be linked with Ethelbert of Kent. It is known in other cases in history where earlier waves became merged with natives. Vortigern is supposed to have married Hengist's daughter Rowena. Traditional Arthurian accounts also mention south-east places including France/Gaul, Winchelsea, Rutupi/Richborough, Dover, Canterbury, Kit's Coty, London, etc. The south-east also has some local traditional claims of places with Arthurian links such as Chislehurst and Appledore (though we are not sure whether these are only post-Galfridian). Richborough/Rutupi itself figures in Arthurian sources as the death/burial place of Gawain/Gwalchmai. There are some other names in Arthurian accounts that though they are not specifically implied to be our sites they do seem to possibly match our sites. Riculf/Raculf might be Reculver. Albani links with Dover and the Downs (Albion). Cadbury may link with Canterbury. Cadwallon/Cadwaladr possibly invaded Kent in 686 from a comparison of the HRB & ASC? There are remnant Arthurian traditions in all of Brittany, Cornwall, Wales, & the North, which points to a common origin in the Loegria/England region which they are all around. The Britons were not limited to Cornwall & Wales & the North until after the battles of "Dyrham" in 577 and "Chester" after 600. "Wurdesten speaks of the Britons leaving their ancestral land when the Saxons occupied it"? The shrine of Julius and Aaron at the city of the legion was supposed to be inaccessible at the time the source containing the story was written. "Chester would hardly have been inaccessible" at that time. Gildas also says "neither to this day are our cities inhabited ... forsaken & overthrown".
Evidence of a battle there in the site or sources match: The fort and possible traces of battle(s) in/on its walls etc? This site was occupied near Arthur's times. "The church was probably built at the end of the 4th century or at the beginning of the 5th century." It is said that "there is evidence of a large Roman population here [Richborough] in the early 5th century...." "The site was occupied by a Saxon religous settlement". The ASC saying Anglia was laid waste between the Saxons and the Jutes could hint at battles between Saxons and Kentish Britons (though the entry locates the conflict in the Germany/Denmark area). Arthur and the first half of his battles might be connected with Vortimer and his battles. Vortimer's battle Campus Lipidem is considered by some to match "Richborough". Collingwood said Nennius' words imply Arthur was fighting specifically Kentishmen. In the ASC the two entries of the calends of Martii 538 and calends of Julius 540 might match Guinnion/Dover (St Martin) and Richborough/Legionis (St Julius)? The HRB mentions "Thanet" in the battle of Bath chapter. Liganburh 571 may be a later Saxon re/taking of our 'city of the legion' site Richborough (we have already explained how Liganburh may match Richborough above). Collingwood said Nennius' words implied that Arthur was fighting Saxons & "specifically Kentishmen". The Saxon Shore is strategic for fighting Saxons "from Germany and every province". "Numerous Saxon cemetaries found at Sarre, Ash, Kingston"? "British strategy seems to have been to allow Saxon landings and to then contain them, there." "[those who control the SE have the main power/hold in Britain]"? St Martin's church, Canterbury? (Leon Mintz's paper suggested connection between war god Mars/Ares and Arthur/Merlin and Martin. Canterbury is at intersection of roads leading to 3/4/5 of our battle sites.) In Arthurian sources it is said that Gawain died in a battle at Rutupi (or Dover).
Professor Fields suggested that Arthur "led the armies of the British kings up and down the eastern coast fending off English settlers." (They may have meant the east coast further-up than us, but is similar to our battle sites from Yarmouth/Glein in the n.e. to Dover/Guinnion in the s.e.) Charles P suggests that "Arthur's war in England was fought in Kent and the East Midlands, perhaps as far north as Lincolnshire, but not in the West Country."
The earlier battle of the 'city of the legion' of Arthur of the HB may not be the same as the later battle of "Chester" as some assert, because they have different dates, different leaders, different enemies, different outcomes. The Chronicle of Werburgh also does not mention the battle.
A source says Caerleon/Gwent is an "indefensible plain".
Date match: We deal with the date of Arthur and his battles in a separate work. Here we are only concerned with a match of our site with the approximate date of his battle(s). Arthur seems to have been in the 400s and/or 500s (and/or 600s) ad. The HB says the 12 battles of Arthur were before/until Ida (ca 547). Our site was occupied near Arthur's times. "The church was probably built at the end of the 4th century or at the beginning of the 5th century." It is said that "there is evidence of a large Roman population here [Richborough] in the early 5th century...." "The site was occupied by a Saxon religous settlement". Arthur and the first half of his battles might be connected with Vortimer and his battles. Vortimer's battles were mostly in Kent. "488-547 only landings of Saxons on the coast". In the ASC the two entries of the calends of Martii 538 and calends of Julius 540 might match Guinnion/Dover (St Martin) and Richborough/Legionis (St Julius)?
Written by Nennius who also wrote the Wonders match: The author and date of the HB its the Wonders section is disputed. Its author is variously said to be either Gildas or Nennius or Mark the Anchorite. Orthodox sources claim that "Nennius" lived in the West or Wales, but i haven't seen any serious proof of this. In Asser's Life of Alfred it is mentioned that Nennius was traditionally reputed to have been at "Oxford", though the section is considered to be a later interpolation. In Arthurian/Welsh Boso of Ridoc/Rico/Richiden/Rhydycheu/"Oxford" seems to really be Reculver (Bassas "shallow") &/or Rutupi/Richborough by the Wantsum-Stour. Compare the Classical Bosphorus "ox ford". Ep(i)sford is apparently the same place. Collingwood said Nennius' words imply Arthur was fighting specifically Kentishmen. Some of the Wonders of Britain seem to pretty surely also match our site. Since "Nennius" wrote both the 12 battles and the Wonders it is surely supporting confirmation if the wonders match the same 9 sites that the battles do. A few of the best examples of Wonders matching this site include: Lynn Liuan seems to probably match the Ebbsfleet area. The 12 Monasteries list confirms that Lann Llieni is nearby "Leominster". There is also a Linn Liuan near Caerleon which also confirms the association. Cruc Mawr seems to match the "massive cruciform platform" quadrifons at Richborough. Limpets of Ceoil may be oysters at Richborough or Reculver? Is it "coincidence" or confirmation that the Wonders which we had found to seemingly certainly match Richborough/Rutupi happen to be the same 4 that are all omitted in the Irish version (nos 6, 11, 14, 22/29)? Much better detailed information is given in our Wonders paper/book. Nennius said he used alot of sources which are similar to the ND. The ND has date 395/400s/420/420s/428, and the ND was at Speyer until 15th C/1542/16th C/before 1672, so it is possible that Nennius could have seen/known it.
St Paerburge match:
St Paerburge/Werburgh of Legecester (PaHalgan, Chronicle of Werburgh) Town of Pedyr? metropolis of Padarn/Patern(us) (Vita Patern)? Perennis? Town of Peren? city of Paran? city of Paron? city of Pharaon? St Piran? pe*ron/perron stone? 9th wave Peryddon? shield/ship Pry(d)wen?
sources that mention the city of the legion include: HB, Irish HB, LF, HRB / 11 Consuls, 24 kings & 33 cities document; DEB; Rich of Cirencester; Ywenec; AC; Beroul; EH; Liber Landavensis; Pa Halgan; ASC; Popular tales of the Highlands; Henry of Huntingdon; Florence of Worcester; Gerald Cambrensis; Cadwallon Poem?
sources that mention Rutupi/Richborough include: Bede; HRB; Rich of Cirencester/Bertram, ND, Evans; Wiki; Hawkes; Ptolemy; Tessa Wheeler / Carr; Kent Arch Soc.
Caerleon on Usk refs: HRB; local tradition; wiki; 24 kings & 33 cities; Brewer's/Cooper.
Chester refs: Jackson; Peter Graham; Gunther-Evans; 2010 news; Chronicle of Werburgh; "AC"; "Bede"; RH; Wilmot-Buxton.
Carlisle refs: wiki.
York refs: Simon Keegan; HRB; Hunt; Drou; 24 kings & 33 cities; RH.
Rutupi/Richborough (legio Augusta) and/or Regulbium/Reculver might be mentioned in Arthurian sources under those names as: "2 streams Rheidiol and Paith" (Saints Lives)? Ulfin de Ricaradoch (HRB)? Rhydderch Hael of battle of Arthuret (Hen Ogledd)? Boso of Richiden/Ridoc/Rico (HRB)? 'Caer Bosso' "Bosso's city" / Rhydycheu / caer Vembyr? Rocabarraigh? Round Table; Gawain died/buried at Rutupi or Dover Vortimer's cenotaph at Richborough Richomarchus (HRB)? Richerius (HRB)? Ruteni (HRB)? Augusel (HRB)? kalends of August (HRB)? Augustodunum (HRB). Riculf/Raculf (HRB)? "A certain regulus" (Sts Lives)? Raglan (12 Monasteries list)?
The city of the legion Richborough/Rutupi under various names in different traditional sources: Locrin(us)/Logres (HRB)? Rutupi/Ricborough legio Augusta (ND) city of the legion (HB) city of lions/lyonesse Lollius Urbicus (Richard of Cirencester)? Urbgennius (HRB)? St Pol/Paulinus Aurelianus de Leon, or Padarn of Vannes (Breton)? Natanleod &/or Calends of Julius 540 (ASC) Leodegrance? Jugein of Legecester (11 consuls, HRB) Leg(e)ceastre (Pa Halgan)? Lygeanburg/Liganburh (ASC/Ethelwerd)? Leominster (12 Monasteries list); Lynn Liuan (Wonders)? Augustodunum (HRB) Kalends of July (3 solemnities of Padarn, Sts Lives)? "Trinovantum" (HRB)? sons of Eliffert / Arthuret (AC)? Andredescester 490 ASC? metropolis of Padarn (Vita Patern) Wigracester "white town" 584? Maisbeli Maisuriam? Cruc Mawr (Wonders)? Camelot? campo iuxta lapidem/lapis tituli/titulus super ripam Gallici maris Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Gwensteri (Taliesin) dwellings/fastness of Dissethach (Pa Gur) 3 renowned cities (...)? Again's cross, middle (Padarn)? "Melros" (HB VR)? Round Table (Wace)? RT as amphitheatre at Caerleon (local tradition, analogous) RT as amphitheatre at Chester (news a few yrs ago, analogous). Carausius 5th (HRB)? king Lucius (HRB)?
Matches between Dissethach of the Pa Gur and the 'city of the legion' of the HB and Richborough of the ND/SS. Dissethach 5th of 9, Richborough 5th of 9, 'city of the legion' 6th of 9. Dwellings (of Dissethach), city (of the legion), orbs/city (Richborough). Fastness (of Dissethach) matches Linn Liuan matches Ebbesfleet (Richborough). Dissethach & city of legion both battles of Arthur.
Matches between Gwensteri of Taliesin and the 'city of the legion' of the HB and Richborough of the ND/SS. Gwensteri # of # battles, Legionis 6th/9th of 9/12, Ricborough 5th of 9. Gwensteri key to Lloegyr, Richborough primary city of Britain, City of the legion . Gwensteri "white", Richborough white. Steri of Gwensteri, Stour of Richborough?. Loegyr (Gwensteri), (city of the) Legion, Legion/Lurcinum (Richborough).
capitals/hqs/metropolis: Camulodunum/Colchester; London; Eboracum/York; Durovernum/Canterbury; Caerleon/Legionis; Cirencester; St Andrews; Lincoln; Edinburgh; Dublin; Grannona; Portus Aepatiaci; Richborough.
capitals/courts/seats of Arthur: Caerleon/Legionis (HRB); Snowdon/Stirling (Beroul); Camelot (Malory); Carduel/Carlisle (romances, Malory); Eidyn; St David's (Triads); Celliwig (Triads); Pen Rhionydd (Triads); Cardigan (Troyes); Carhaix (Les premiers faits); Quimper (Lance romance); London (HRB, Malory); Arthur's Seat; "Bear's Fort"; Bear's Den; Arthurburg/Etterby; RT; metropolis of Padarn; Andredescester?
city of the legion candidates: Caerleon; Chester; York; Carlisle; Richborough (Evans, Tessa Wheeler via Lydia Carr, us); Portchester (Collingwood); Dumbarton/Alclud; Exeter (OEC); Natanleod; Leodegrance; Carhaix or Pol Aurelian de Leon (zoetropo); Caerlerion/Legecester/Leicester; Gadarenes; Liganburh 571; Lyonesse; Trimontium/Melros (Ardrey); "Verulam"; Urbgen; Lyon(s); Carlyon; legiolio/legiolium/legotium/castleford; leonaford; lost legion; paved way of the legion; Carmarthen 1000; "somewhere, maybe Caerlleon, not Eboracum"; "some other 3rd site"; Cerdic's leaga; Leominster/lannLlieni; undiscovered; Leo; St Leonard; Logiore; soldiers of Coroctocus; Lynn Liuan; metropolis of Padarn (calends July, me); Linligwan; calends of Julius 540 ASC; Carlisle/Stanwix had a 1000 strong cavalry unit (same strength as a late legion); Lexdon; "scattered talk of a legion in..."; Kerediegean.
RT ("rotates like the world", siege perilous, 150 knights) : city of the legion; Caerleon; Chester; Stirling; Richborough; Snowdon; Windsor; KA's RT henge; Stonehenge; Winchester RT; Round Temple at Silchester; "invented about 1155"; Camelot; circling rock/mountain; Atlantis Cross; world; zodiac; last supper; Wewelsberg; Paladins; "table round" in the 'Geste'; Business Round Table; 140 churches city of Lions/Lyonesse; "Carmarthen"?
Camelot (many towered, near Shallot & Camlan) : Tintagel; Winchester (Malory); Colchester; Cadbury or Chard (Leland, local tradition); Roxburgh (Moffat); Camlet/London; Camaret (Brittany); Campus Elleti; Compostela; "only a late invention"; Ogle castle; Camelford.
Fields/campi/maes: Maisuriam; Maisbeli; Maes Garmon; Campus Elleti (Bassalig); Campus Heli (metropolis of St Padarn); Gai Campi; Campus Lapideus / campo iuxta lapidem tituli; Field of Leeks; Maserfield.
Vales/valleys: Suesia; Avalon; Ajalon; Wedale; shadow of death; Brychan; Loire.
urbs: Rutupi; Legionis; Menapium; Danish/Rhine.
Bishops of Legionis: Tremounus, Dubricius, David, Cynoc.
Bishops of York: Ebur? Sanxo, Pyramis, Thadocius.
Archbishops/Bishops: London, Caerleon/Legionis, York, Canterbury, Rochester.