Guinnion the 8th battle but 5th battle site of Arthur matches Dubris/Dover the 6th SS fort of the ND. Here is what the HB tells us about the battle and site:
Octauum (fuit bellum) in castello/castellum/*dunon Guynon/*Alborum, in quo (bello) Arthur portauit imaginem sanct(a)e Mari(a)e (perpetuae uirginis) super humeros/*(i)scuid [or *(i)scuit] suos/sues et pagani uersi sunt in fugam (.) In illo/illa die (et) c(a)edes magna fuit super illos / de paganis per uirtutem Domini Nostri Iesu Christi et (per uirtutem) sanct(a)e (Mariae) Virginis genitricis eius.
in t-ochtmhadh cath im lesc Guinidoin; is and sin ro imarcor Artur delb Muire for a gualaind, & ro teilgistar na Pagáin.
The eighth ((battle) was) in/near/at (the) Castle/fort(let)/fortress (of) Guin(ni)on/Gurnion/Guindoin/*Alborum, (in) which/where (battle) Arthur carried/bore an/the image (of the cross of Christ, and) of the holy virgin / St Mary (, the eternal/perpetual/ever virgin) (, mother of God,) (up)on his shoulder(s) [or shield] (,) and the pagans/Saxons (were) turned/put in/to flight ./, In/on that day there was great slaughter of them/pagans / and pursued them the whole day with great slaughter (,) through the power of Our Lord Jesus Christ (,) and (through the power of) the holy Mary / St Mary his / his sainted (Virgin Mother). (For Arthur proceeded to "Jerusalem", and there made a cross to the size of the Saviour's cross, and there it was consecrated, and for three successive days he fasted, watched, and prayed, before the Lord's cross, that the Lord would give him the victory, by this sign, over the heathen; which also took place, and he took with him the image of St. Mary, the fragments of which are still preserved in great veneration at Wedale, in English Wodale, in Latin Vallis-doloris. Wodale is a village in the province of Lodonesia, but now of the jurisdiction of the bishop of St. Andrew's, of Scotland, six miles on the west of that heretofore noble and eminent monastery of Meil-ros [meaning "bare" + "headland/promontory/moor(land)" or "wood"].) (- HB, HB VR, LF.)
the eighth battle at Lesc Guinidon ; it was here Arthur carried the image of Mary on his shoulder, and drove out the Pagans ; (- Irish HB.)
Checklist of identification etails for Guinnion from the source texts: - Welsh/Latin name Guinnion/*Vindionon/*Alborum & meaning "white" (HB, Irish HB, LF, Jackson) - a castellum/fort(let) (HB, P Graham) - number/order 5th/8th of a set of 9/12 (HB) - Near Bassas or Celidon, and near city of the legion or Tribruit (HB). - Mary - Lord Jesus Christ - Cross - Arthur's shield/shoulder(s) (HB, AC) - battle there - British victory - a great slaughter - Arthur/Britons there then - fought against Saxons "from Germany", & specifically Kentishmen (HB) - date between Octa & Ida "547" (HB) - 1 day &/or 3 days (HB, VR) [AC] - in (the island of) Britain - is "history" (HB, HRB) - written by Nennius who also wrote the Wonders (HB) - near Melros & Wedale in Lodonesia (HB VR) - Jerusalem (HB VR)? - "drove out" the Saxons (Irish HB) - in Caledon Wood (Irish) - matches with Badon (scholars comparing AC & HB) - should be attested in other sources & by some other scholars - matches Eidyn in Pa Gur (Bambrough).
Number/order match: 9 of the 9 HB battle sites of Arthur match 8+1 of the 9+1 Saxon Shore sites of the ND all in numbers and order (going around the coast from ne to se to sw) except for a minor cross switch match of (the 3rd & 4th, and) the 5th & 6th sites. Guinnion the 5th of 9 battle sites of the HB matches Dubris/Dover the 6th (or 5th excluding the unmatched 1st site Branoduum) of 9 SS sites of the ND. The minor cross-switch match of 5th HB site 6th SS site is confirmed in other lists in other sources which also match the 9 HB/ND battle sites list:
Guinnion the 5th battle site of 9 (HB of Nennius). Dover the 6th site of 9 SS forts (ND). Eidyn the 5th battle site of 9 (PaGur). Arddunion # of # battles of Gwallwag (Taliesin) Cursalem of Kaicester 6th of 11 Consuls (HRB). Glasgwin 6th/7th of 12 (12 Monasteries list). DuoRig Habren 5th of 13 (Wonders)? Gwendoleu 6th of 12 (Hen Ogledd)? clydno Eidyn 5th of 13 treasures? Vortigern 6th of 11 (HRB)? Constantius 5th or Maximianus/Martin 6th of 9 emperors (HB) [Also compare the 3 churches and 3 solemnities of Padarn?]
The minor cross-switch match can easily be seen to have likely explanation of that HB sites are in chronological order of Arthur's battles while the ND/SS sites are in geographical order. Arthur is not likely to have done all 9 sites all in order because the enemy would have known which site was next. Also the sites are not very far away from each other and the sites are spread around a circular coast not in a straight line, and there is not a great deal difference between whether one travels from Canterbury first to either Dover or to Richborough (and then to the other site).
Our location theory is the only one to have a match with an attested set of 9 sites which all match in numbers in order. All other location theories only match with arbitrary/artifical sets of 9 unconnected sites.
Guinnion is near to Bassas / Caledon / Legionis / Tribruit in the HB etc. (Many Welsh sources have Guinnion & Legionis near each other. Alot of sources also have Guinnion/Dover associated with Celidon/Weald. "Irish records preserve the notion that the Battle of Guindoin was within the Caledonion Forest".) Dover/Dubris is near Richborough/Rutupi (Legionis), and the Weald (Celidon), and Lemanis (Tribruit), and not far from Reculver (Bassas) in the same Kent province.
Dover & the Weald Guinnion in Celidon wood in Irish. White town in the Green woodland 584? Hoary rock in the wood (Scilly/Lyonesse)? Lofty wood-clad rock dinas Emrys? vast insulated rock dinas Emris? White shield & Green shield (HRB)? Galafort & Celidoine. Celliwig & Celli? Arthuret & Caledon? Glasgwin & Colguan? Saxon rock & hunting grounds of Arestal? Alcluith ail "rock" + river Clyde or Caledon? "Stirling" & se nemus? Shoulder & Shield? St Mary on the Rock & Culdees? Dun Chailleann "fort of the Caledonii" Mt Sidh Chailleann / Schiehallion "fairy hill of the Caledonians" Badbury/Swindon & Silve Bradon / Braydon Wood Venta Silurium? Vindomi & Calleva/Silchester? St Michael's Mount "the grey/hoar rock in the woodland" ("enclosed in a thick wood").
(The Caledon wood battle site of Arthur matches the Weald which is the Caledonian wood of Caesar's invasion. Rutupi/Richborough was also thought to be a wood or in Caledonian wood in some Roman sources.)
Guinnion is in a middle triad of 2/3 settlements (HB, O'Toole, Arthurian Infopedia). This well matches Kent.
Guinnion name meaning match: The origin and meaning of the name (fort(let)/castellum/*dunon) Guinnion/*Vindionon/*Alborum is considered to be "white fort(let)", or *Vindiones/Veneti "(the) white(ned) people/ones" + -(i)um/(i)on/iog/guic "standard place name ending", from the root word vind-o "clear/white" &/or guin(n)/gwyn(n)/gwen/finn "white, fair, blond, bright, brilliant, pure, blessed(ness), holy, sacred". Some have alternatively related to name to venta "place, a plain". Guinnion has also been connected with a place-name root-word *vino-/bin "wine, vine", though Jackson said this is not feasible. (Guinnion is also maybe similar to the word sanguinem/sanguinis/consanguinitas?)
The "white" meaning well matches our site which is the most famous white site in Britain. At Dover are the famous white cliffs, and the white chalk North Downs, and it is not far from a 'Snowdown'. Dover's white cliffs are often said to be whence the Albion name of Britain. Furthermore we have these descriptions from Dover fort archaeology: "The south wall … built of … chalk blocks set in a hard white mortar…." & "… part of a chalk-built barrack block of the Classis Britannica Fort was found…." Confirmation of this match is also seen in that the "perpetual virgin" Mary of the HB may also well match Dover's whiteness. Also at Dover is the famous lighthouse which could also possibly match the "white/bright" meaning?
We can surely support this match by that the white Dover and/or Downs seem to be well-known in British/Welsh/Athurian traditions, eg Guinnion "white fort", Ty Gwyn "white house", Guinevere, Breguoin "(white) hills", Gwyn Dragon, Gwen Pendragon, Aeneas Yswwydwyn "White Shield", Essyllt Winwen; *Alborum, Albion, Albanact, Albani (HRB), St Alban('s); Snowdon/Isneldone "snow hill"; Hwiterne "white house", Wihtgarasburh, Wigracester the "white town, town of white stone", "white castle in the white town" (stories of the Grail); Columba ("dove") of Iona ("dove"); mynydd "bald head" Eidyn (PG).
Some critics subtly rejected the "white" meaning match with Dover because they assert that the name properly refers to *Vindiones "(the) white(ned) people/ones". This "white people" meaning is theory and might not necessarily be definitely right, though it has "expert" linguistic evidence, so it might be true, and so we will give some possible evidence for this also matching with our site. For the "white people" meaning matching our site the first point to note is that either the fort was named from the white people there who were white, or the people were named from the white fort and/or white geography of Dover/Downs.
Possible matches for a white people at our site include: - Dover is connected with the name Albion which is said to possibly be from the Celts or original "Ancient Britons" there then. One of the "Welsh" names for the whole island of Britain is Yr Ynys Wen "the white island", like Albion is also used for the whole island. Britain gets less sunlight than lands in more southern latitudes, and it was one covered by extensive forests including the remnant Weald. - The symbol of Hengist &/or the Jutes of Kent is a White Dragon or Horse. Hengist's ancestors include Wihtgils, Witta, & Wecta. Jutes belong to the Nordic race. (Possibly compare the above white Celts/Britons &/or white Jutes/Kentishmen with the later "not Angles but angels" of Gregory, and/or "white young men" of the Geste of Robin Hood, and/or "White Anglo-Saxon Protestant", and/or "pale face" Albert Pike?) - One of the suggested etymologies for the name of the Picts is a word meaning "white", or "painted". The St Martin's church of Hwiterne ("white house") of the "Southern Picts" of Ninnian of the 560/565 entry in the ASC seems to have some sort of link with St Martin le Grand of Dover, and with fort Guinnion of Nennius. Constan was murdered by a Pict in the HRB. - The continental Veneti tribe are said to have been in Britain in some sources like Richard of Cirencester / Bertram. These people were more likely in the south-east of Britain than further away from Gaul/France. - Wightwarians/Wihtgar/Wihtgarasburh of the ASC might be connected with Guinnion/Dover/Downs rather than the isle of Wight/Carisbrook? The name Wight may be from either "white" or vectis "lever" or gwaith "work, time, division", all of which fit Dover/Downs as well as the isle of Wight/Solent. Dorwitceastre (ASC)? - Although it is supposed to have a different etymology, possibly the name of Watling Street might be linked with "white people", since -ing means "sons"? (Possibly compare Watling and Wlencing?) Watling Street in some sources started from Dover or Richborough. St Alban's was called Watlingceaster. St Alban('s name) is surely more likely originally linked with Dover/Guinnion than with St Alban's. Germanus has a link with St Alban, and Germanus surely was more likely in the south-east. - Not sure if there is a possibility of a link of Dover with the Druids who are said to have had "white vestment" [or "shining white robes"] (and mistletoe "white glistening berry")? - The Wiccii/Wisseans/Gewissae seem to have been in the area. Guiderius & Gwenwisa/Genuissa daughter of Caesar/Claudius are connected with Guinnion and the Dover area? Octavius duke of the Wisseans was near the "shore near the city", not far from "Winchester", at Maisuriam, in "Albania", and at London in the HRB, which sites are all conected with the south-east? Vortigern was consul of the Wisseans. The "rocks of the Gewisseans"? - Maengwyngwn "stone of white dogs" links with the cynbyn "dog-heads" of mynydd Eidyn in the Pa Gur who correspond with the pagans/Saxons of Guinnion in the HB. Vindiones "white(ned) people/ones" is similar to the Venicones "dog-heads". - The name Guinnion might be related to that of the Cantii/Cantware of Kent/Canterbury? (See abit more on this in the name match section below.) - Or "white people" might be connected with Mary of Guinnion/Dover, and/or Guinevere, or Gwyn Dragon "Hengist", or Gwen Pendragon.
For the "blessed/holy/sacred" meaning, there are evidences that Dover was a holy site, eg: St Mary (of Guinnion and of Dover); The white tower of Bran (the blessed) was probably at Dover; There is a glass vessel at Dover which might be linked with the holy grail &/or with Mary/Guinevere/Igraine? The colour white is associated with purity. Dover is not far from Canterbury.
The "wine" meaning is rejected by Jackson, though there is a coincidental possible match with the "Bacchic" Dover Painted House at our site Dover. (Also compare the "drinking at Eidyn" in the Gododdin, and Badon "chief giver of feasts" in Taliesin?)
Guinnion name match: Although we have an excellent meaning match, arch-critics and sceptics also insist that we also have to show that Dover was called Guinnion in one or more reliable historical sources. We can't yet necessarily show that an indisputably fully "reliable" source calls Dover "Guinnion", but we can show that various traditions do seem to confirm that the places/names Guinnion and Dover were associated with each other.
Before discussing the primary name Guinnion, we note that the second alternative name *Alborum of Jackson "coincidentally" matches the name Albion which is associated our site Dover. The only main possible matches for Alborum in Britain are Albion (Dover), St Alban's (Verulam, Essex), Alba / Drum Alban / Albani(a)/Albany / Alpin(e) (Scotland). Dover/Albion is the best match. Drum Alban of Scotland is likely a later analogous namesake of the Downs and Albion of Kent. There was also the Abbot Albinus/Alcuin at St Augustine's in Canterbury.
1. Guindoin of Irish might possibly contain both names combined? 2. Guendoloena of the HRB, & Gwendoleu of the Men of the North, & Gwenddolau of the AC & 13 Treasures, & Gwenddoleu of the Triads possibly contains both names? 3. The place names Windover & Wendover might combine both names? 4. "to Doguuinus/Docguinnus he gave Llanddyfrwyr" in the Saints Lives might link both places/names? 5. "The earth shall swallow Guintonhi/Winchester" in the HRB might link with Guinnion and the cliffs/downs/heights of Dover. 6. "Lofty tower founded on honour of Mary in Winchester" 908 in Ethelwerd is possibly analogous to the lighthouse & church of Dover, and Mary of Guinnion. 7. Y-Bryn-gwyn / Gwyn-fryn the "White Hill/Tower" of Bran supposedly the "Tower of London" but "facing France" may match Dover and Guinnion. 8. Guiderius/Gwyryd and Lord Jesus Christ and Cross and Gwenwisa and Julius Caesar or Claudius of the ad 17 king's story in the HRB & the '24 kings & 33 cities' manuscript are surely linked with Guinnion and the Dover area. Caractacus who was in Kent has been thought to be either Guiderius or Arviragus. 9. Winlogee/Guinevere ("white + wave/phantom/soft") and the "tower/castle" in the Modena Archivolt surely matches castellum/fort Guinnion, while the tower/castle it looks like Dover lighthouse. 10. Caer Guidn and/or Vellan-druchar/Gwenver/Sennen at Land's End in Cornwall is analogous to our Dover/Guinnion? 11. To Wyn Stone and/or Ty Gwyn "white house" or "strand" [or Ty Goan "assault"?] might be linked with fortlet Guinnion, and Hwiterne "white house", and Dover? 12. The variant spelling for Guinnion of "Gurnion" resembles cair Guorthegern/Guorthegirn(aim) cr castle Guartherniaun/Gurthrenion/Guarenniaun/Gwarthennian "a calumny justly retorted" of Germanus & Vortigern & Vortimer, and the latter was in Kent. Germanus, who has a connection with St Alban and was surely in the south-east. 13. Euan/Eafe in the Kentish Royal Legend might possibly be connected with name Guinnon or Guinevere? 14. Gawaine died/buried/skull at Dover or Rutupi in some sources? (Though i know his name is supposed to have a different etymology.) 15. The vind-o root-word may be continental Celtic not British, which might also confirm Guinnion being nearer to the continent? 16. Centwine could link Guinnion & Kent? 17. Egonesham/Ignesham of the 571 ASC entry might match or else be analogous to Guinnion and Dover? 3 or more of the 5 sites of this ASC entry match names of Arthur's battle sites, and this and other reasons suggest that the sites might be in Kent rather than in "Bedford/Buckingham" as supposed. The 3 sites in each of the 3 sources (HB, ND/SS, ASC) are all similarily close to each other.
Wibbandune/"Wimbledon" in the ASC could match Badon &/or Guinnion and might be anywhere between Portchester & Dover.
Vindium/Vinnius in Cantabria in Spain in Florus is analogous to our Guinnion/Vindionon near Canterbury.
Cair Guintruis/Guin(n)tuic is next to Cair Merdin in HB. There is St Martin le Grand at Dover (Guinnion), St Martin at Canterbury, "St Martin at London" in HRB. (Merlin is associated with Quintin in French/France.) Cair Guent is near Londein in the HB's list of 33 cities? Kaer-guen/"Win-chester" is next to Canterbury in the HRB chapter on Hudibras?
Quintus Laberius/Labienus Durus &/or Quintus Atrius in Caesar's invasion 54 bc could link the places & names Guinnion/Guinnius/Guintruis/Guintguic/Venta (& Alban/Albion/Alborum) & Dour/Dubris/Dover? The word quintus/quintinus/quintin means "fifth", like Guinnion is 5th. "quintus "has no feminine equivalent" reminds us of Mary of Guinnion & Guinevere?
Quintanwic/Canterbury 840 in Ethelwerd. Compare Cantguic/Cantavic in Picardy/Armorica/Brittany, and Guintguic "Winchester". Cair Ceint is similar to Cair Guent or Caerwent? Kent is similiar to Gwent? Duro Averno or Durovernum Cantiacorum is possibly faintly like "Dunon Guinnion/Alborum"? There is also a Queningate at Canterbury.
There is a Connaught Park at Dover, and the name Connaught comes from Quinn/Cuinn/Conn "leader".
The word Candid(us) "white" is mentioned in a Roman inscription at Dubris/Dover (dedicated to Matres mother goddess, which recalls Mary of Guinnion)?
St Finnian/*Uinniau is connected by some with Ninian (compare Vivian), and the latter was at St Martin's, Hwiterne/Candidacasa "white house" which we showed may match St Martin le Grand at Dover.
Goodwin Sands? Although it is generally thought that this name "may/could" be from Earl Godwin (e), there might be a possibility that it has earlier origins? Maybe compare Guindoin/Guinnion or caer Guidn or Gwyddno or Docguinnus?
Other possibly similar names in the areas around Dover area: Goodnestone (Dover district). Woodnesborough/Wanesberge/*Waennesbeorg/wenn/waenn Eanswith (Folkstone) Eynsford (Lullingstone) (compare "Eynsham" 571 ASC) Wanstone Fth Bradden/Bredenstone at Dover (compare Bradwen in Y Gododdin) Winchelsea/Wlencing Wingham Winkland Oaks Wingleton Swingie; Swingate; Elvington/Elkington Gatic Kingsdown Cinque ports / the Great Pent. Queenborough Quantocks (compare St Gwinnodock?) Vagniacis (near Thanet/Richborough) Wibbandune/"Wimbledon" (ASC) Whitfield Whitsand Wissant(ais)/Witsant "white sand" (life of Vulganius) Tungrecani (dunon Guinnion? Compare Docguinnus?) Bononia/Boulogne/Gesoriacum (had a lighthouse like Dover did)?
Jackson opined that the name Guinnion can't match Vinovia/Binchester.
Castellum "fort" match: Our site also has a match for the 1st word castellum "fort". The word castellum is translated "fort" and/or it may mean "a castle of/or a fortified town"? Critics of our thesis have said that "castellum means more like fortlet and this can't match a big fort like Dover SS fort".
It is possibly disputable that it is "fortlet" not "fort" because (1) why do translations not say "fortlet" but instead misleadingly say "fort"? And (2) some matches for Guinnion/Dover in other sources are also said to be a "fort" or "castle", eg: Din Eidyn (PG) Dinas Emrys Dunbar "fort" (Boece) Dumbarton "fort(ress) of the Britons/Britain" Arddunion "fortress height" (Taliesin)? castle Dore "chastel de Snowdonie" / "castle of Stirling" (Beroul) "castle of Windsor"; castell Gwerthrynyawn; castle of Maria; the "Tower"/"Castle" in Modena Archivolt; Tintagel Castle; Castle of Morgane; Arthur's Castle; castell Cragwynion; White Castle near Abergavenny White Castle in the White Town of stories of the Grail; Grail castle; Castle Ewen; Castell y Morwynion Castle Towy? Cursalen of Kaicester Kaerguen/"Winchester" Caer Baris / "Dorchester" ("by the sea") "fort" Guinnion fortress Caer Wyddno? "fortress on a lofty Saxon Rock". Galafort (which matches both Guinnion & Dover) St Guinefort some say obsessio "siege" implies a fort (Badon of AC = Guinnion of HB)?
Possible buildings at our site that may match the castellum "fortlet" or "fort" include: St Martin le Grand church. St Mary in Castro church Drop Redoubt? The lighthouse or pharos (prominent in photos). The SS fort.
We have already noted how St Martin's at Hwiterne "white house" in the 560 entry of the ASC may match St Martin le Grand at Dover & Ty Gwyn (meaning "white house" & "white fort" Guinnion. The tower/castle in the Modena Archivolt looks somewhat like the lighthouse at Dover. Right beside the lighthouse is St Mary in Castro church with the word castro being similar to the castellum of Guinnion.
The Irish HB's lesc "fort" could connect with escus "shield"?
Cross &/or Lord Jesus &/or Mary match: The HB says that Arthur bore the image (of the Cross of (the Lord Jesus) Christ and) of the virgin Mary on his shoulder(s) or shield at Guinnion. This has also been corresponded by scholars with the the AC 516/518 entry which is somewhat similar in saying that Arthur carried the Cross of the Lord Jesus Christ on his shoulders at Badon.
Mary of Guinnion in the 12 battles of Arthur in the HB of Nennius might be connected with the Book of Hours of the Virgin associated with St Ninnian. Ninnian was at St Martin's, Hwiterne "white house" which may match with both Dover (white, St Martin le Grand) and Guinnion (white fort)?
Our Guinnion & Badon 1 site Dover has two churches of St Mary in Castro and St Mary the Virgin. Sources say St Mary in Castro may date to as early as ca 600 ad. We have also already mentioned how the "eternal/perpetual virgin" Mary can also match the whiteness of Dover. (Gwyn means both/either "white" &/or "holy".) There is a glass vessel at Dover which may possibly connect with the (Holy) Grail which in turn has traditionally been connected with Mary. Dover's name might link with Dwy "Goddess" which could link with Mary? Mary might possibly also link with Euan/Eafe of Kentish ('Pa Halgan')?
(We have found that in Arthurian traditions Dover/Guinnion/Snowdon seems to be significantly connected with a female who is variously either Mary, Guinevere, Yseut, Morgana, Gwenwisa, Igraine, Martia/Marsia, Gwendolen, Euan/Eafe, etc. For example Yseut of the "castle of Windsor" & Yseut of the "castle of Snowdon" may match Mary of castellum Guinnion, while "Snowdon" well matches Dover.)
Marsia/Martia & 'Caer Baris'/"Dorchester" "by the sea" in the 24 Kings & 33 Cities document matches Mary of castellum Guinnion and Dover. Martia could also match St Martin le Grand at Dover (compare Geminae Martiae at Colchester)? (Martin is also sometimes rendered Marinus.) The name Mary might also/alternatively be connected with Morwynion or Morfyn "sea hill", or Moridunon "sea fort", which both match Guinnion and Dover?
Santa Maria de Bretona in Galicia also seems to have analogous similarities to Dover (tower beside church at both sites look similar), & Guinnion (both St Mary), & Artus de Bretannia of the Modena Archivolt. S.M. de Bretona was a Celtic bishopric from ca 569, not long after our approximate date for battle of Guinnion/Badon, and close to the date of St Mary in Castro. 'St Mary on the Rock' of Fife is analogous to our Guinnion/Dover?
The HB VR adds that Arthur's image of Mary was preserved in Vallis-doloris/Wedale in the province of Lo(n)donesia, which surely matches either St Mary's Reculver or St Mary's Dover which are in the sphere of London in some sources (compare that we have already shown that the region Linnuis seems to match the London-Colchester area).
In Ethelwerd we find mentioned "Winchester, a lofty tower ... founded in honour of Mary" in 908. Winchester/Guintonhi/Guitruis/Guintguic in Arthurian traditions is Guinnion (Dover), and the lofty tower may be an analogy or memory of the lighthouse and church at Dover (Guinnion). (There were temples of Jupiter, Juno, Minerva at Winchester. Jupiter could match "Jesus", and Juno &/or Minerva could match "Mary"?)
St David was a descendant of Mary. David was at Ty Gwyn "white house" which may match Hwiterne "white house" which we showed may match Dover (both St Martin, both white) and Guinnion?
Mari Lwyd (St Mary) in Caerleon is similar to Hoodening in Kent. "Kentish men remember, Christ & St Mary" in 694 & "church of Saviour" 601-3 in the chronicles.
There are evidences that the "Lord Jesus Christ" of Arthurian might be connected with Julius Caesar or Claudius who were near Dover/Deal/Richborough. In the 12 Kings & 33 Cities document which is closely similar to the HRB, the Guiderius and Lord Jesus Christ and Cross and Gwenwisa and Julius Caesar of the ad 17 king's story can be connected with our Guinnion and Dover.
Christianity is perhaps more likely to have first have been in the south-east quarter of Roman & sub-Roman Britain. "there is evidence of a large Roman population here [Richborough] in the early 5th century, some of them worshipping in the Early Christian church discovered in a corner of the fort." "The church was probably built at the end of the 4th century or at the beginning of the 5th century. It seems plausible that the church was built of wood." "The site was occupied by a Saxon religous settlement". The British St Martin church in Canterbury dates to before and after the Jutes arrived. St Augustine was the earliest christiaity in Saxon times.
St Mary in Castro has a Celtic Cross on it's highest point. (Compare "druid circle & Xtian cross = Celtic cross"?) "Skeleton in a lead coffin of a Medieval nobleman [Arthur?] found in a ruined church [St Martin le Grand] near the [Dover] Painted House. The chalk block tomb contained largecrosses in red paint." Dover was a port of entry/departure in crossing the English Channel, which might also connect with Arthur's Cross?) HB battlesites 5 & 6 cross-switch matching with SS forts 6 & 5 could also match the cross?
The cross of fort Guinnon matches sign of the cross (on door) at Galafort, and Galafort also has matches with Dover.
Arthur's cross might also have been preserved along with his icon of Mary at "Wedale" in the HB VR, and it might be connected with the Reculver Cross which might match the Levitating Altar in the Wonders of Britain?
"relics from Dover in the same collection, including a superb circular brooch set with garnets and pearls in a cruciform design"? "The Latin cross occurs further on a jewelled brooch, replacing the T-shaped settings sometimes found in Kent ; but the cross may here be purely ornamental." (Some scholars/sources suggest Arthur wore a shoulder broach.)
The Modena Archivolt features in it a Galvariun and a shield which might match the Cross (of Calvary) and shield of Arthur. "Guinevere" and the "castle/tower" in the archivolt match castellum Guinnion, and the tower/castle looks similar to Dover lighthouse.
The humeros/(i)scuid "shoulder(s)" or (i)scuit shield (or ship) (named "Pry(d)wen") could maybe match the cliffs or Downs and/or the Weald of Kent. Compare the "White Shield" & "Green/Blue Shield" of the HRB and the 12 Kings document. Also compare (i)scuit "shield" with & ysgodion "shades, coverts". The plural shoulders might be like the W & E Heights at Dover, or the N & S Downs?
Iscuid or Iscuit is similar to Yseut of the "castle of Windsor" & Yseut of "chastel de Snowdon", both of which match castellum Guinnion and Dover. Humeros "shoulder(s)" may be similar to Guanhumara "Guinevere" which is maybe similar to "white shield"? We have already said how Guinevere and the castle/tower in the Modena Archivolt seemingly match Guinnion & Dover.
Caledonia & Britain (with or without Caledonia) are the shape of an elongated shoulder-blade or a shield or battle-axe in Roman sources (Livy, Fabius Rusticus, and Tacitus). It is said that the shape of Caledonia was extended to the whole of Britain. Kent is maybe a similar shape? There is evidence that the names 'Caledonia' & 'Britain' & 'Albion' are closely connected with Dover and the Downs &/or Weald in British traditions. The 4th battle site of Arthur 'Celidon wood' matches the Weald which is the silva Caledonia of Caesar's invasion. Dumbarton "fort(ress) of the Britons/Britain" connects with Dover and Guinnion. (Britain may also/alternatively have an anthropomorphic shape, with Kent/Downs in the head/shoulders area?)
"Ostorius Scapula, a man famous in war, who reduced the nearest part of Britain into a province"? "…a scapula (&/or thigh) believed to be a relic of St Alban…" was sent from European church to St Albans church in modern times. St Alban matches Dover/Albion.
Badon match: Some orthodox scholars compare the HB's battle of Guinnion with the AC's battle of Badon 516 because they have similar descriptions details of Arthur carrying the Cross &/or image of Mary on his shield/shoulder(s) for 1 or 3 days. Some also point out that there is a difference between the siege of Badon in the DEB and the battle of Badon in the AC, and that siege implies defensive fortifications. This implies that there may be 2 battles of Badon, with one matching Guinnion of the HB and one matching Badon of the HB. We found that our Guinnion site Dover does also have matches with Badon. According to locals we find at Dover a/the "lost village of Braddon within Drop Redoubt on Dover Western Heights", "the ancient name of Braddon", of which it has been said "I would suspect that Bradden would more likely be on the highest point of the hill". (The name Braddon/Bradden is said to be related to the name Bredenstone, and the name Drop Redoubt might be related to Devil's drop of Mortar, which are both names of the Dover lighthouse/pharos.) We can see that the name and description of Braddon is pretty similar to the name and nature of Mt Badon. (The "mount/hill" of Badon matches any/all of Dover's (White) cliffs, drop (Redoubt) , (W & E) heights, (Edinburgh) hill, and/or (North) Downs.) Badon is also/alternatively called Bath(-hill) and we find that there is a "bath area" in an archaeological map of Roman Dubris/Dover. "the Welsh in Tysilio place it [Badon] near Winchester in Hants." In Arthurian traditions "Winchester" is Guintonhi/Guintruis/Guitguic and matches Guinnion. "The earth shall swallow-up Guintonhi" in the Prophecy of Merlin also seems to relate to Dover (cliffs etc). Dover/Dubris (Guinnion) and Portchester/Adurni (Badon) are both similar in both being connected with Downs (North Downs & South Downs), both having white, both having ports of departure/arrival for channel crossings thereabouts (port Dubris/Dover & Hamo's port), both having St Mary, etc. Wibbandune/"Wimbledon" in the ASC could match Badon &/or Guinnion and might be anywhere between Portchester & Dover. See more extensive details in the Badon chapter.
Drove out Saxons match: The Irish HB says that Arthur "drove out" the Saxons at Guinnion, which is similar to "2nd battle King Arthur smashes the Saxons at Clarence" and "great victory drives the Saxons out of England", and to the HRB saying the Saxons fled to their ships at/after the battle of Badon/Bath. These words suggest that it is like saying he "drove them completely out of the island/land", and it suggests a coastal/shore site, and it may well best fit Dover as the first-entry &/or last-exit extremity of Britain, and the shortest distance crossing point between Britain & mainland Europe.
Wedale & Melros & Lodonesia match: The HB VR mentions in the additional note to the 8th battle of Guinnion that pieces of Arthur's [cross &/or] icon of Mary are preserved at Wedale a few miles from Melros in the province of Lodonesia. Since Arthur's battles were really in the South-East not the North, it means that either this "old tradition" is either really referring to our sites in the south-east, or the northern places are an analogous memory copy of the south-east sites, or else the tradition is just an ingenuine nonoriginal embellishment. We found that the account's places seemingly might match our sites.
The (cross &/or) image of Mary at Vallisdolloris/"Wedale" might be the vale of Avalon and may match either (the Reculver Cross and) St Mary's at Reculver (Bassas/Afarnach), or St Mary's at Dover (Guinnion).
Melros may mean and may match Rutupi/Richborough or Regulbium/Reculer.
Wedale as Reculver or Dover is not many miles from Melros as Richborough or Reculver.
Lodonesia "Lothian" may match (Lot of) Londonesia which matches London/Londres/Kaerlud and/or Lu(n)denbyrig (Othona/Dubglas). Sometime ago I saw somewhere a source that had Dover or other Kent site in the sphere of London.
Jerusalem match: The HB VR says in an additional note to the battle of Guinnion that Arthur went to Jerusalem before the battle. This may be another match with our battle site's area. "Arthur" may have gone to the actual Jerusalem in Israel/Palestine, or he may have gone to a "Jerusalem" in Britain. In the '24 kings & 33 cities' document it says Caer Lleon ("city of legion") & Jerusalem built at same time, which may mean either the city of the legion is "Jerusalem" or is near "Jerusalem". (India Vawr "Great India" in the same account might be Great Britain?) Perhaps compare Pope Sylvester who is associated with Gerusalemme and the Cross, and matches Constantine who was in Britain? (1st 40 popes match the Roman emperors list. Sylvester might also be connected with the Silva Caledonia?)
"Jerusalem" in Arthurian traditions may match Cursalem or Verulam/Uerolamiensem. Cursalem of Kaicester the 6th of 11 Consuls in the HRB may correspond with castellum Guinnion the 5th of 9 sites in the HB and Dover the 6th of 9 sites of the ND/SS. Kaicester might link with Caius Julius Caesar who was at/near Dover. Verulam/"St Alban's" may match either Urbslegionis (Richborough), or Albion/Dover & *Alborum/Guinnion. St Alban's was also called Watlingcester, and Watling Street ran from Dover or Richborough in some sources. Jerusalem is considered to be the site of Eden. Mt Eidyn of the Pa Gur matches Guinnion & Dover (where there is an Edinburgh Hill). Jerusalem as the site of the Cross/Crucifiction & Mt Calvary/Golgotha cold match either the Cross at Guinnion (Dover), or Cruc Mawr as the large cruciform platform at Richborough (city of the legion). Jeru-salem "city of peace". White = peace. Dover & Guinnion are both white; Richborough also has white.
Arthur/Britons there then match: Arthur is implied to have had access to coast/shore ports eg: Arvon's shore, "strand", Hamo's port, ship Pry(d)wen, "ships", "Thanet", "Totness", Lyonesse, "Severn", "mouth of river", "Dover", "Rutupi", "9th wave Perydon", crossed to France/Gaul, sailed to Avalon, Mon(a)/"Anglesey", drove enemy out of the island/land.
Date match: We leave the question of Arthur and his battle(s) to another paper, and in this one we only deal with the battle's date matching our site. "488-547 only landings of Saxons on the coast". The eclipse on (the 16th of Feb, the 14th day before) the kalends of Martii (the 1st of March) 538 and the eclipse of the kalends of Julius 540 in the ASC/Ethelwerd may match the battles of Guinnion/Dover (Martin) and Rutupi/Richborough/Legions (Julius)? Santa Maria de Bretona was a Celtic bishopric from ca 569, and its church and tower resemble Dover's, its St Maria matches Guinnion, and Maria de Bretona resembles Artus de Bretannia of the Modena Archivolt. Dover has "St Mary in Castro" church which source says may date as early as 600 ad. "late Saxon cemetary around St Mary de Castro"? The battle of Egonesham in 571 in ASC may be a later re/taking of Guinnion/Dover by Saxons (see details on why/how in the name match section).
Written by Nennius who also wrote the Wonders match: The authorship and/or date of the HB (in which the 12 battles of Arthur are) is uncertainly disputed. Proposed authors have included Gildas, Nennius, and/or Mark the Anchorite. Orthodox sources claim that "Nennius" lived in the West/Wales, but i haven't seen any serious proof of this. An alleged interpolation in Asser's life of Alfred mentioned that Nennius was reputed to have been at "Oxford". In Arthurian/Welsh traditions Boso of Ridoc/Rico/Richiden/"Oxford" might really be Reculver (Bassas "shallow") &/or Rutupi/Ricborough by the Wantsum-Stour (compare Epsford, and Bosphorus?). "Nennius" might possibly be connected with "Ninnian" of St Martins at 'Hwiterne' "white house" of the ASC 560 entry which might match our Dover (St Martin le Grand, white) and Guinnion ("white")? There may also be a connection between Ninnian (St Martin's, Hwiterne "white house") and Menevia (St David's) with both being analogous copies of the similar Dover/Guinnion? Collingwood said Nennius' words imply Arthur was fighting specifically Kentishmen. Since the HB features both the battle sites and the wonders of Britain in it it may not be surprising if the wonders might actually be the same sites, and if a 9 sites location thesis matches both the battle sites and the wonders then it is possible likely-confirmation. Usually only two of the wonders is said to be connected with Arthur (Cabal's cairn & Amr's tomb), however quite a few of the wonders are connected with Arthur in traditional sources including: Loch Lumonoy (HRB), Hot lake / baths of Badon, Fount guur helig (HRB), Linn Liuan (HRB), Amr's tomb, Cabal's cairn, Pictish palace (LF). We found that the Wonders do seem to match some/many of our battle sites including Dover/Guinnion. Possible matches of Wonders with Dover include DuoRig Habren? the Wind hole? Mauchline's quern? Brebic's stone (in a) cataract? Sealess shore? Nennius said he used alot of sources which are similar to the ND. The ND has a date of 395/400s/420/420s/428, and the ND was at Speyer until 15th C/1542/16th C/before 1672. So it is possible that Nennius could have seen/known it.
Dubris/Dover/Dour (from Dour "water", or possibly deur "brave") may be mentioned under that name in Arthurian traditional sorces as: Dol (Breton); Dolensim; Deols? "Dorchester"; Dubricus of Legions (Geoff of Mon, Welsh Annals); Dyfrig (children of Brychan lists); Llanddyfrwyr/Do(c)guinnus (Sts Lives); Dubricus of aber-Gavenny; Earl (of) Doorn; Dunbar; Eldol; Gwendolen; Gwendoleu; Windover; montem dolorosum? Dolorus mountain? 'de ira' "from the wrath"? Columba/Iona "dove"; Darent? Dyrham? Mandubracius/Androgeus? Dubnovellaunus? Cogidubnus 73? Togodumnus? Dolobellue/Dolobellus (HB)? Dolaucothi? Darian Las (24 kings & 33 cities)? Dorsum / DrumAlban? Vallis-doloris (HB VR)? Castle Dore; Dorwitceastre (ASC)? Elidure/Vigenius/Peredure? Quintus Laberius Durus? Vellan-druchar/Gwenver/Sennen; Druids? Tours?
List of hitherto Guinnion location candidates (or analogous namesakes) : Cerrig Gwynion (Carnarfonshire/Merionethshire); white town in green woodland 584 Winster (Derby / Westmorland/Cumbria); Gwendoleu/Carwinley/Arthuret Hwiterne "white house" Iona "dove" Gwensteri Vinovia/Binchester Vindomara/Ebchester (Mintz) Vindonium? Wedale Venonae Gariannonum St Alban's White Tower "in London" Gwenwisa Dover or Canterbury Winchelsea Windover Wight Winchester Vindocladia/Wimbourne (Badbury Rings) Swindon caer Guidn (land's end) Caerwent Caeau Gwynion (Denbighshire/Montgomeryshire/Glamorganshire); Gwynion (near Mallwyd, 1603); White Castle near Abergavenny; Gwarth Ennian Wissant(ais)/Witsant "white sand" (life of Vulganius) Bononia/Boulogne Gwenedeg/Vannes St Guinefort Vindium/Vinnius in Cantabria in Spain in Florus Gymis gard.
Source texts that mention Guinnion (under that name/nature) : HB, HB VR; Irish HB, LF, Irish; Jackson.
Sources that mention Dover/Dubris: ND; Wiki; Richard of Cirencester; Blyton.
Places at Dover or nearby or not far from it: Colton; Dour river; Edinburgh Hill; 2 St Marys (St Mary in Castro, St Mary the virgin); St Martin le Grand; 2 lighthouses; Braddon; Dover Painted House; 2 forts; port; bath area; Harold's Earthwork; Godwin Sands; Snowdown; North Downs; White Cliffs; Albion; W & E Heights; Drop Redoubt; Watling Street; Milites Tugrecani; Dover Straits; Julius Caesar; Langdon Bay; Lomea island; Connaught Park; St M....
Guinnion/Dover (and/or Downs) under various names in different lists/sources: Dunum/Down (St Patrick) (Richard of Cirencester). castle of Isneldone/Snowdon "snow hill" (Beroul, etc) St Alban('s) (DEB, HRB) Albanact (HRB) Dubris/Dover (ND) Dobar of Sigar (8 labours Turein) Caerwent/Doglas (Ywenec)? DuoRig Habren (Wonders)? Derquentid or Sethirgabail or "Thanet"/unrecorded ... of 3/4 battles of Vortimer (HB, HRB)? Do(c)guinnus/Llanddyfrwyr (Sts Lives) Gwendoleu/Carwinley/Arthuret Padarn of Vannes or Samson of Dol or Gildas (Breton) Guinnion/*Alborum (HB, LF) Guinefort Guinevere & castle/tower (Modena Archivolt)? Kaerguen/Guintonhi/Winchester (HRB) Guintruis/Guintguic/Winchester (HB, Wiki) Egonesham/Ignesham/Ensham (ASC 571)? Guentoniaurbs/Urbsguenti/Caerwent" (Llandaff) Glasgwin (12 Monasteries) Gwen Pendragon 2nd of 3 x 3 prisons Wenn/Wenna (15 children of Brychan) castle of Windsor the y-Bryn-gwyn / Gwyn-fryn "White Hill/Tower" "facing France" of Bran story Holy Grail? Galafort Gwrdnei cats eyes 5th of 7 (7 servants/men of the porter) Arddunion "fortress height" &/or Eidyn (Taliesin) Mt Eidyn (PG) clydno Eidyn 5th of 13 treasures, Eidyn or Cattraeth or Bradwen and/or highland of Adowyn/Adoen / Adonwy / Adan (Cattraeth) (Gododdin)? Bishop Bedwin or Addaon fab Telessin (Rhonabwy/Hergest)? Tintagel? Thancastre of Hengist in Linnuis (HRB)? Dun Chailleann "fort of the Caledonii"& Mt Sidh Chailleann / Schiehallion "fairy hill of the Caledonians" (analogous). Altclut/Dumbarton/Dunbrettan "fort of the Britons/Britain" (Strathclyde, analogy) Bran vs Math (Hanes Taliesin)? Bagdemagus? St Michael's Mount (Cornish)? Mt Damen (HRB)? Dobuni/Boduni (Claudius, OEC)? Mt Badon/Bath-hill (DEB, EH, AC, HRB) Camelot? Round Table (Beroul)? Siege Perilous? Arthur's Seat (Edinburgh)? Constantius # of 9 emperors (HB)? Great victory of Arthur on St David's Day? Clarence? Avalon? Santa Maria de Bretona (Galician) St Mary on the Rock (Fife, analogous) St Mary of Lanleff / castellum Audroeni / Guingampum? The Mount &/or St Mary's # of ... islands (Scilly/Lyonesse)? unnamed last/middle one of "3 several battles" (HRB) middle or last/great of 3 churches of Padarn (Vita Patern) calends of May of 3 solemnities of Padarn (Vita Patern)? Cursalem of Kaicster of 11 consuls (HRB) "Jerusalem" (24 kings & 33 cities document)? Wedale (HB VR)? Euan/Eafe (Pa Halgan)? Martin, Dover (Pa Halgan) St Martin's at Hwiterne "white house" (ASC 560)? Mearcraedes-burna/burnsted or Wihtgarasburh or calends Martii 538 or Wibbandune or Woddesbeorg (ASC/Ethelwerd)? Ysbaddaden (C&O)? Vortigern or Ambrosius or Uther or Arthur # of 11 (HRB) The fortress on a lofty "Saxon Rock" in the region Arestel nearby the narrows of Godalente (Vulgate cycle) hoary rock in the wood (Scilly/Lyonesse)? lofty wood-clad rock dinas Emrys? vast insulated rock dinas Emris? Silve Bradon / Braydon Wood near Swindon (Wiltshire, analogous) chastel Bedmound/boemound/bodmin "York" (HRB, RoC) Eochaid Buide/Find & Bran & Baithene Gwendraeth Vawr? Gwen Pendragon Gwyn Dragon "Hengist" (Gododin) Ty Gwyn Gawain died/buried/skull at Dover? castle of Maria Castle of Morgane castell Cragwynion White Castle in the White Town of stories of the Grail Castle Ewen; Castell y Morwynion Caer Baris / "Dorchester" ("by the sea") Tower of Hercules (Galicia); fortress Caer Wyddno? Vellan-druchar/Gwenver/Sennen Maengwyngwn "stone of white dogs"? Aeneas Yswwydwyn "White Shield" (HRB) Essyllt Winwen Celliwig?
Matches between Mt Eidyn of the PG and fort Guinnion of the HB & fort Dubris/Dover of the ND/SS: Eidyn 6th of 9, Guinnion 5th of 9, Dubris 6th of 9 (all 9 of each match). Eidyn a fort in the Gododin, Guinnion a fort. Eidyn has a mynydd "mount, bald head", Dover has cliffs & heights & downs. Eidyn's name, place name Edinburgh Hill at Dover. Eidyn a battle of Arthur, Guinnion a battle of Arthur. Eidyn against cynbyn "dog heads", Guinnion against Saxons/pagans. Eidyn 1 & 2 match Othona/Dubglas & Dover/Guinnion, Dubris/Dover & Othona are beside each other in the ND.