4. Celidon Wood (Kit's Coty & Coldrum & the Weald).
The 4th battle site of Arthur where he fought his 7th battle is Celidon which matches Kit's Coty & Coldrum and the Weald. Here is the description from the HB:
Septimum (fuit bellum) in silua Celidonis, (id est / quae bryttannicae Cat Coit/toit Celidon (nominatur)).
ocus in seachtmadh cath a Caill Caillidoin .i. cait Coit Cleiduman;
The 7th (battle (was)) in the forest/wood (of) Celidon/Calydon/Callidon, (that is (,) / which the Britons call Ca(i)t Coit [meaning "battle wood"] Celidon ./;) (- HB, Irish HB, LF.)
"Irish records preserve the notion that the Battle of Guindoin was within the Caledonion Forest".
"Henry of Huntingdon in his Historia Anglorum of 1133 says that the providence of God had masked the real locations of the 12 battles he incorrectly credits to Gildas."
Checklist of identification details for Celidon Wood from the source texts: - Sylva Celidon/Caledon name/meaning (HB) - Cat Coit Celidon/Caledon name/meaning (HB) - a forest/wood (HB) - number/order 4th/7th in a set of 9/12 (HB, LF, Irish HB) - near Linnuis/Dubglas & Bassas & Guinnion or Legionis (HB, PG, HRB, Guinnion in Celidon wood in Irish) - in a triad of settlements (HB, O'Toole)? - a battle fought there then (- a British victory) - Arthur/Britons/Welsh there - fought against Saxons "from Germany" (HB, LF, HRB) and "specifically Kentishmen" (HB, Collingwood, Jackson) - date during/after Hengist/Octa & before/until Ida "547" (HB) - "in (the island of) Britain" (HB, HRB) - is "history" (HB, HRB) - written by Nennius who also wrote the Wonders (HB, Bambrough) - real location masked (Henry of Huntingdon) - London left & Caledon right (HRB) - might be connected with Kaerluidcoit of HRB? - Saxons sailing away at the end of battle of Caledon (HRB) - near Arthuret (AC) - Merlin A/S/C/W there (AC) - Trystan & Iseult exile in this place - Culhwch son of Celyddon Wledig. - may match Goddeu (some scholars) - associated with Galafort - in the north-east (Brynjulfson)? - matches Celli of the Pa Gur (us)? - Ulysses erected an altar in Caledonia (Solinus).
Before we show the matches of our site with the details of Celidon we need to first give some evidences reasons why the main rival location candidate Caledonia is not likely to match Celidon of the HB etc. - The location and extent of the northern Caledonian forest is said to be uncertain. Plus they can not pinpoint a specific site for the battle. - "Nennius" said silva and/or coit not nemus or saltus? - "Nennius" spells it Celidon not Caledon? - They wrong in refusing to admit that the Caledonian wood of Caesar's invasion can not be further north and west than Wallingford/Thames or Devil's Dyke. - Their site is not in an attested set of 9/12 sites, and it has no number/order "4th/7th" of 9/12 match. - The orthodox Caledon site in Caledonia is not necessarily very near their "Linnuis" site in Lincoln? It also doesn't well match being on the right of London (HRB) facing west. - Geoffrey of Monmouth's version and/or our interpretation/understanding/view/decoding of it is agreed by some scholars to have been "for the purpose of narrative", "confused", and/or a "mistake". - Henry of Huntingdon said the real battle sites locations were masked, which doesn't really gel with Celidon wood being the known Caledonia (though they are not sure of the supposed actual site of the battle in the region). - Nennius was in the West/Wales not in the North according to orthodox opinions. - Celidon was near "Arthuret" and some scholars speculate/theorise that the battle of Celidon may have been "lifted" from the battle of Arthuret. Alhtough the northern traditional/orthodox location of Arthuret seems convicting we have found evidence that Arthuret was originally really connected with our sout-east battle sites (see further details later). - Arthur fought "Saxons" and "specifically Kentishmen", and his battles were before/until Ida who is among the earliest north Anglian invaders, which makes the far north and west and inland unlikely. The Saxons did not reach "Chester" in the early 600s, and the Britons were not limited to Cornwall & Wales & North until after Dyrham and "Chester". - Our own battle site(s) match(es) has equally or more quality and quantity matches evidences.
Number/order match: The HB lists 12 (4 x 3) battles of Arthur, but 4 of them were in the same place (numbers 2-5 at Dubglas) which makes 9 (3 x 3) battle sites. The ND lists 9 SS forts. Both the HB & ND/SS have 9 sites. "Only" 8 of the HB site match "only" 8 of the 9 ND/SS sites all in order going around the coast from Glein/Great Yarmouth to Badon/Portsmouth except for a minor cross-switch match of (the 3rd & 4th, and) the 5th & 6th sites. Only one ND SS site (the 1st Branodunum/Brancaster) has no match with an HB battle site. One HB site (Celidon) matches an inserted site between the 3rd & 4th ND SS sites. So all 9 (8+1) of the 9 HB sites match 9 (8+1) of the 10 (9+1) SS sites all in almost perfect order going around the coast, which can not be lightly dismissed as just "coincidence". Celidon the 4th battle site of the HB matches Kit's Coty/Weald the 3rd/4th site of the SS, and both match Celli the 3rd/4th battle site of 9 of the Pa Gur. The minor cross-switch match of the 3rd & 4th sites is explained by that the HB sites are in chronological order of the battles while the ND/SS is in geographical order of sites going around the coast, and the switch is confirmed in other sources lists which also match such as the Pa Gur.
Our location theory is the only one to have a match with an attested set of 9 sites with them all match in numbers in order. All other location theories only match with arbitrary/artifical sets of 9 unconnected sites with no numbers/order match(es).
Caledon/Celli is near Dubglas/Linnuis/Eidyn & Bassas/Afarnach & Guinnion/Eidyn & Legionis/Dissethach in the HB & PG. Thompson translation of the HB said "Celidon wood might be near Lincoln". The Liber Floridus omits the intervening 3rd battle site Bassas. Geoffrey of Monmouth's HRB said they came to Celidon just after "Lindisia/Lindocolinum" (Linnuis). "Irish records preserve the notion that the Battle of Guindoin was within the Caledonian Forest".
Our matching sites are near each other: Othona/Bradwell (Dubglas/Linnuis), Kit's Coty (Caledon), Reculver (Bassas), Richborough (Legionis), Dover (Guinnion). Some Roman sources thought that Rutupi/Richborough was a wood or was in the Caledonian wood. (Also note the wood(en) church at Richborough?)
The close association of Celidon/Weald and Guinnion/Dover is confirmed in quite a lot of Arthurian traditions: Dover/Colton & Weald Guinnion/Guindoin in Celidon wood (Irish). Gwenddolau son of Ceidio? Guinevere at Celliwig "forest grove"? Glasgwin & Colguan? Galafort & Celidoine. Hoary rock in the wood (Scilly/Lyonesse)? Vast/Lofty wood-clad/insulated rock dinas Emrys? 'Saxon Rock' & fine hunting grounds Arestal? Alcluith ail "rock" + Clyde/Caledon? white town/white stone in the green woodland 584? Gawain & 'Green Knight/Man'? Whiteshield & Greenshield? Shoulder(s) &/or shield? Celliwig & Celli? Arthuret or Glascow & Caledon? Gododdin/Godalente & Goddeu? "Stirling" & se nemus? St Mary on the Rock & Culdees? Dun Chailleann "fort of the Caledonii" Mt Sidh Chailleann / Schiehallion "fairy hill of the Caledonians" Badbury/Swindon & Silve Bradon / Braydon Wood Castle Collen Venta Silurium? Vindomi & Calleva/Silchester? St Michael's Mount "the grey/hoar rock in the woodland" ("enclosed in a thick wood").
The 9 (3 x 3) battle sites of the 12 (4 x 3) battles of Arthur are considered by some to be 3 triads of 3 rivers, 3 settlements and 3 hills. A source reckons "Cath = Caer" in some case? Our 3 middle battle sites are all in Kent which well matches the 3 settlements.
Meaning match The origin and meaning of the name Celidon/Caledon has variously been suggested to be from either: kal(ed)/caledo "hard" (as also suggested for Excalibur) *caletonus "great hardy one(s)" Caleb "dog"? celli "(... in the) wood(s), grove" bryn-celli-ddu Cil-y-coed "retreat of the wood" called "thistle stalks" cel(ydd) "(a woody) shelter, a sheltered place, a retreat, woody retreat" coledon "hasels" calyddon/calydon "coverts, thickets" (compare gwaret "shelter"?) chalcedony "white" Caldicot/Caldigecot "Cold Isle Cottage" coille dur "wooded river" callidus "clever, cunning, canny" calidum "hot, fiery" clydno eidyn/eden don "fortified site (in ...)" or "hill" qpedo "foot" -on "same ending as Guinnion, Legion, Bregion, Badon, Avalon".
The "hard" meaning could connect with the iron of the Weald of East Sussex.
One orthodox theoretical etymology is *caletonus "great hardy one(s)", combined with qpedo "foot" to give a meaning of "possessing hard feet, alluring to stand fastness or endurance". Some have suggested that the "hard" meaning might relate to "rocky land" (and the remnant northern Caledonian Forest is also said to be in steep rocky places). The proposed "stand fastness" and "rock(y)" meanings of Celidon could possibly connect with the Cliffs of Dover (fort Guinnion/Eidyn) and Downs of Kent, or with the Medway megaliths? Compare the "hoary rock in the wood", the "Saxon rock", Dun Chailleann "fort of the Caledonii".
The "wood/forest" meaning could match the Weald forest, and/or that there is "a small clump of trees" at Kit's Coty. Some say that the name Kit's Coty may be from keiton "forest", and/or that the coty of Kit's Coty may mean "wood". Chatham's name is also said to be from coit "wood".
The "battle" might match either: There was a battle at Chatham. Catigern's battle was supposedly fought near Kit's Coty. Some say the Kit's of Kit's Coty may mean "battle". The battle of "Aylesbury" 571 might link with Aylesford or Sylva Eeaglis (the Weald)? At Burham "a cemetery was found with six skeletons all of whom showed injuries caused by weapons. Three had single long sword cuts to the left side of the skull. The other three had multiple injuries - one had been hit three times on the left side of the skull, another had been hit in the spine by a projectile, either an arrow or a javelin, which probably disabled him and a single sword cut to the head." The name of Harroway?
The "coverts/thickets/retreat" meaning is disputed by Jackson and others, though they could be wrong. We find the meaning confirmed by "the woods of Britain", "the forests and marshes of the Caledonians", and "the thick woods" in the HRB and other sources. Brutus "Green Shield" might match the Weald (like "White Shield" may match the Downs or Cliffs). There might be a connection with St Celidonius who was "blind"? (Perhaps also compare that the name of the Scots might be linked with ysgodion "shades, coverts", and/or connected with the (i)scuit "shield" or (i)scuid "shoulder(s)" of Guinnion?) This coverts/retreat origin may be linked with the ASC saying "Then fled the Britons to the fastnesses of the woods" in Caesar's invasion, and "477 ... some in flight they drove into the wood that is called Andred'sley". Some sources say the Weald was like a refuge for Britons and/or (South) Saxons and outlaws. (Eg "... the remains of widespread woods, which were once part of that great forest which for so long held the Saxon invaders at bay--the impenetrable 'weald', for 60 years the bulwark of Britain." - Sir AC Doyle.) Though on the other hand "the Welsh fled like fire" and "fled to London" might imply that the Caledonian woods were not coverts/retreats?
The "fortified site" meaning could match with that the 3 middle battle sites of Arthur are considered to be a triad of settlements, and we found that they match sites in Kent (Celidon/Weald, Guinnion/Dover, Legionis/Richborough). Burham's name might contain the word burh/burg? (Caer Andred was also in the Weald.)
The "wooded river" meaning could match the Medway. (Also/alternatively it might be possible that the "thistle stalks" meaning could link with the stakes/pikes that the Britons used to fend off Caesar's forces?)
The clydno eidyn/eden meaning could be connected with Eden in the Medway area, or Edinburgh Hill at Dover (matching Eidyn of the Pa Gur). (Other scholars thought Eidyn was the same site as Agned, and we found Agned to match Anderida/Pevensey.)
The name and date of Caledon in Britain is also similar to those of Chalcedon/Calcedonensis in Bithynia 451/454/538 in the ASC, and it is interesting coincidence that white chalcedony could match white Dover and the Downs (Guinnion & "Snowdon").
The -on ending might be connected with Albion?
The don "hill" meaning could match the Downs?
Silva Caledon &/or Cat Coit Celidon name match: - The primary name Silva Caledon for Arthur's battle site in the HB matches the 'sylvas Caledonias' or 'Caledonia Sylva' "Caledonian forest/wood" of Caesar's invasion in Florus etc. Caesar did not go further north and west than Wallingford or the Thames or Devil's Dyke at the furtherest. (Though "Richard of Cirencester" thought the one of Caesar was in Leicestershire, but he otherwise also confirms that the Weald was called "Caledonian".) The ASC saying "Then fled the Britons to the fastnesses of the woods" confirms a south-east location. Furthermore, it is maybe possible that the name Caledon/Celidon might even have a connection back to Cassivellaun(us)/Cadwallo(n) (who fought with Caesar), and Chalons/Catalaunian/Catalaunum/Catu-vellaunian, and the Cassii, and/or his capital Camulodunum? "This association with a Silva (literally the flora) reinforces the idea that Caledonia was a forest or forested area named after the Caledonii, or that the people were named after the woods in which they dwelt." We also find the first word silva is found again in the later names for the Weald of Anderida Silva / Sylva Anderida, and Sylva Eegalis. The name Caledon might also/alternatively be connected with Claudius (compare Claudian), and/or with Carausius who was in Kent? (Claudius is 4th in the HRB. Caledon might match Carrado in the Modena Archivolt?)
It is known that the Romans didn't reach Caledonia in Scotland until the time of Agricola. Pliny said that about 30 yrs of the Roman invasion the Roman's knowledge of Britain didn't extend beyond the Caledonian forest, though it is uncertain & disuptable where this forest was. "The exact location of what the Romans called Caledonia in the early stages of Britannia is uncertain...." "... the name was also used by the Romans, prior to their conquest of the southern and central parts of the island, to refer to the whole island of Great Britain."
- Several Roman sources including Claudian and Martial seem to use "Caledonian (bears)" for the Britons/British (and/or the British forests) generally, and/or for (all) Britain/Britannia. (See the quotes at the end of the chapter.) Perhaps compare the Culdees, though their name is uncertainly supposed to mean "companions/people/servants/worshipers of god"? (The date of the Culdees in sources ranges from "pre-christian" / "earliest priests of God" / "pre-Columban" / "6th cent ad" to "8th cent"/"795-874"/"9th cent" to "12th cent".) The Roman kings and the Britons and/or kings of Alba are also called Silvan in the HB & HRB. ("Brutus son of Sylvius", "of the race of Silvanus"; "he was called Silvius [Posthumus] because he was born in a wood". "Silvius Alba"? "Brutus Green-shield"?) Possibly compare the Druids "oaks"? It should also be noted that the extensive various forests of England were once more connected with each other than they have been since later medieval times, and the Weald was likely connected with other forests in the West and the North.
- Caledonia & Britain (with or without Caledonia) are the shape of an elongated shoulder-blade or a oblong/triangular shield or battle-axe or wedge in Roman sources (Livy, Fabius Rusticus, and Tacitus). Some say that "The triangular shape, however, seems to belong to England alone." Others say that the shape of Caledonia was extended to the whole of Britain. Kent is maybe a similar shape? There is evidence that the names 'Caledonia' & 'Britain' & 'Albion' are closely connected with Dover and the Downs &/or Weald in British traditions. "Ptolemy's expression is obscure; but he was evidently led to this supposition by the notion that Caledonia or Scotland trended to the east, as appears from his latitudes and longitudes. This form, therefore, he not unaptly compares to the inverted Z." Kent is also an eastern extension. The "promontory of Caledonia" or "Caledonian promontory" and "Extremitas Caledoniae" could imply either/both the northern promontory/etxremity of "Caledonia" &/or the south-eastern promontory/extremity of Kent (the "most distinguished" of the "3 principal promontories of Britain")? (Britain had "(vast) many promontories" including "the bold promontories at its further extremity".)
- Lucan seems to use 'Caledonian' in close connection with Rutupi/Richborough and/or the Southern Britons. "Rutupi was thought to be a wood". (The rutila(e) "red" Caledonians of Tacitus might be related to Rutupi "red top" of Lucan?)
- For the second name 'Cat Coit Celidon' this is only given in an extra last few words in some versions and it might only be a scribal gloss and not be original. Cat Coit Caledon means "battle of wood of Caledon", and the first two words seem to be the same as Cad Goddeu "battle/army of trees" and they match our site Kit's Coty whose name is said to be from "The Kit element has been interpreted as Categern or Battle and Coty as Wood, Coits or Stones and Small Cottage" according to Evans and/or Pastscape, and/or from keiton "(tomb in the) forest" according to another source. Chatham's etymology is also connected with coit "wood/forest", and the Weald is called 'Coid Andred' in some sources. Not far from Kit's Coty is Coldrum which may match the 3rd word of Cat Coit Caledon. (Compare Caledon/Cleiduman with Culdees, and Culdremne 561?) Kit's Coty House and Coldrum are linked with each other by a continuous line of stones according to local tradition, and by Pilgrim's Way. Some say Cad Goddeu is connected with Tacitus and the Roman invasion. [My old notes are abit uncertain on this but there may also be a Caldicot/Caldigecot "Cold Isle Cottage" or Cil-y-coed "retreat of the wood" not too far away (in Kent), and/or a Calehiu? There is also a Colton at Dover.]
- Calleva/Silchester whose name is said to be from celli "wood", and/or Clarendon might preserve the Caledon name of the Weald? The Weald was thought to have once extended from Kent through Sussex to Hampshire (as also do the Downs).
- The HRB has Caledon on the right and the walls of London on the left. Thompson's translation of the HB says "Celidon wood might be near Lincoln [Linnuis]", and the HRB said they came to Celidon just after "Lindisia/Lindocolinum [Linnuis]". Dubglas/Linnuis was at Othona/Bradwell/Maldon in Essex not far from our Caledon/Weald site in Kent. "Irish records preserve the notion that the Battle of Guindoin was within the Caledonian Forest". Guinnion/Guindoin was at Dover/Dubris in the area of our Caledonian Weald.
- The battle of Caledon might be connected with "the Welsh fled like fire" in the ASC, which event was in Kent. (Compare the battle of trees/Goddeu?) Cerdicesleaga 527 (ASC) might be connected with Celidon/Caledon wood/forest? (Compare the earlier similar name Andredesleag? Carrado in the Modena Archivolt?)
- The Weald was one of the "most famous" and largest forests of England/Britain, which is similar to the "famous Coed Celyddon" of traditional Welsh/British/Arthurian sources, and to the northern "Caledonian forest" area described as "covered by extensive forest".
Penhuelgoit/Pensavelcoit/Selwood/Silvamagna/Coitmawr "great wood" in the south-west might also be connected with our Caledonia Weald in the south-east which extended as far as Hampshire? (Pensavelcoit resebles Pevensey in the Weald.) Hoodening is similarily found in Padstow (Petroc's, Cornwall), & in Kent, & in Cheshire.
- The words Caledon and Wylt may be connected with each other in Kyledyr Wyllt (Culhwch & Olwen), or 'Kynedyr Wyllt'? (Kentigern may link with Kent &/or Categirn / Kit's Coty. Kentigern and Dubricius are linked together in the Welsh Annals entry immediately before the city of the legion entry.) Merlin's three names of 'Merlin Silvestris' & 'Merlinus Caledonensis/Celidonius' & 'Merlin Wylt' may confirm the association of the names Silva Caledonia & Weald. (Although linguists seem to imply that Wylt and Weald are not related, we think/feel that the evidence favours our theory. Adrian Room said Weald could be related to "wild".) The Brunanburh poem maybe uses the word "weald" for the northern Caledonian forest, which may confirm that the southern Weald was called Caledonian? (The battle of Brunanburh/Othlyn seems to have probably been somewhere between Stanwix/Carlisle and Tarn Wadling?)
- Solinus says Ulysses erected an altar in Caledonia. Could this be one of the Medway megaliths? His Wonder(s) recalls "Nennius'" Wonders which match our s.e. battle sites.
- The name of the Arthurian and/or Northern '(ford of) (caer) Al(t)-Clut' means ail "(a) rock", or "a height/cliff", or "white", or "a house site", + "river Clyde", or "Caledon", and the HRB says it was towards "Albani", all of which really connects back to our original Guinnion and Dover & Albion & the Downs in the South-East. Altclut's alternative name of 'Dumbarton (rock)' means "fortress of the Britons / Britain", which also points back to Guinnion/Dover/Albion. Compare Dunkeld or Dun Chailleann "fort of the Caledonii". The mountain Sidh Chailleann / Schiehallion "fairy hill of the Caledonians" is also an analogous reflecion of Dover (compare Snowdon/Isneldone "snow hill"). (Drum Alban &/or the Grampians in Caledonia/Scotland are also reminiscent of the Downs in Kent.)
- Galedin = "Belgae" who were mainly in south-east. (Silva Gadelica?) And/or the Celtae who were in Gaul/France & south-east Britain? Tacitus said Caledonians may have had German origins, which could point to the south-east?
Wood/forest match: The 7th battle of Celidon of Arthur was in a wood/forest/grove (silva/coit/celli). We have identified the 4th battle site Celidon as matching Kit's Coty & Coldrum & the Weald. The Weald was the Caledonian wood of Caesar's invasion, and in later times it was one of the few important and large forests of early Britain/England, and was called Anderida silva or coid Andred (same word as in the HB). Some sources say that the name of Kit's Coty may be from keiton "forest" and/or that coty may mean "wood". There is "a small clump of trees" at Kit's Coty.
Near London match:
Geoffrey of Monmouth's HRB says Celidon on right and London on left. This doesn't really match a Caledon in the north on the right and London in the south on the left when facing west.
Our Celidon battle site is in the Weald. London is on the left and the Weald on the right when facing east. Ancient Semites and medieval Judeo-Christian Europeans had east as front. Linguists say that the Indo-European word north is related to nertrak "left". Welsh has chwith/left/north, sinistralis/aquilonaris/north, and "deheu/right/south", dextralis/meridionalis. "Picts seized left side of Britain". "Cunedda came from left-hand part (Manau Gododdin)". "Ida seized left side of Britain ie Humbrian sea". "Octa came from the sinistral part of the island ["Lincoln" or "Firth of Forth"] to Kent"? "the country of the Saxons who live on the right hand which is called Sussex"? "all the countries on the right hand side of Britain belonged to Alfred".
Arthuret match: Merlin fled into Caledon wood after the battle of Arthuret, which means Caledon is near to Arthuret. Arthuret is usually supposed to be in the North near Carlisle and Glascow. However our own studies have found that the real original Arthuret was one of our battle sites in the south-east, while the northern one is a later analogous memory namesake copy. Arthuret is associated with Carwhinley and Gwendoleu and the sons of Eliffert and Merlin and Caledon wood, and Arthuret's name might be similar to Arthur or Ethelbert or Eliffert. Our candidates for Arthuret are: - Andredesleaga/Andredesweald which is our Celidon battle site. - Arthgal of Salibsury of the 11 Consuls who may match Bassas of the HB and Reculver of the ND/SS. - Arthur of Guinnion (Dover) &/or Arddunion of Gwallawg/Taliesin (same site). Gwendoleu and/or Carwhinley surely matches Guinnion/Dover. Merlin/Myrddin is connected with St Martin at Dover. Guinnion is in Caledon Wood in Irish, and Dover is in the Weald which is the Caledonian wood of Caesar's invasion. Arthuret the middle battle in the Triads may match Guinnion the middle battle site in the HB. Dun Ardry resembles din Eidyn and fort Guinnion. - Andredescester which might be Arthur's city of the legion at Richborough or Dover rather than being Anderida. The sons of Eliffert may match the legion of the city, especially since the city was founded by Beli/Heli/Eli. - Arderit/Ribroit/Tribruit which matches Lemanis. - Anderida/Pevensey which is our Agned/Bregion battle site. The origin/meaning of Arthuret is considered to be arf "arm/weapon" + terydd "ardent/fierce/flaming/blazing/swift/noble" or ard-righ "high king". Anderida has a number of linguistic origin/meaning theories including an-dar-udu "oak wood", or aened-mere "duck-mere", or ynn+deri+dan "great fords", or "the place at the river mouth", or "name of a goddess". - Adurni (Portchester, our Badon site)?
Godeu match: Some scholars think that the battle of Caledon wood may be connected with the "battle of trees" 'Cad Goddeu' or 'Cad Achren' of the Triads. This is only scholars theory and it may be right or wrong. It could be right and confirm our Celidon site in the Weald:
Some connect Goddeu with Tacitus and the Roman invasion (ref 'Celestial Elf').
The alternative name of Cad Goddeu of 'Cad Achren' might connect with Ercyng/Archenfield and Amr's tomb in the Wonders of Britain. Amr's tomb may match "Countless Stones" in the Medway megaliths. "(St) Dubricius was the 6th century evangelist of Ergyng." Dubricius is connected with Dover/Dubris. Aylesford in our sites area is also maybe similar to Achren &/or Archenfield?
Galafort match: A 'Celidoine' is associated with Galafort in an Arthurian source ('Romances' or 'Vulgate Lancelot' or 'History of the Grail'?) Galafort's details match both fort Guinnion & Dover. Matches between Galafort & Guinnion include: both Arthurian; both forts & similar to St Guinefort; both associated with Celdion wood; both connected with the Cross.
Yseut is connected with the "castle of Snowdon" & the "castle of Windsor". The castle of Snowdon ("snow hill") seems to match both 'castellum Guinnion' ("white") and Dover (white, Downs).
Tristan was born at or came from the 'city of Lions/Lyonesse' which analogously matches our 'city of the legion' at Richborough/Rutupis. Tristan may possibly also be connected with Mynydd y Tristydd / Castell y Morwynion (Morfyn "sea hill" or Moridunon "sea fort") which may match castellum Guinnion and Dover. Castle Dore might also connect with castellum Guinnion and Dover/Dour?
Evidence of a battle fought there then match:
Strategic evidence: The Saxon Shore is strategic. Arthur fought Saxons "from Germany". "[those who control the SE have the main power/hold in Britain.]" There is a British track and a Roman road running through the Weald. Canterbury is at the intersection of roads roads linking 3/4/5 of our battle sites including our Caledon one. Other strategical historical battles fought near here. Some sources say the Weald was a refuge for Britons and South Saxons and outlaws.
Strategic and/or historcial/archaeological: "British strategy seems to have been to allow Saxon landings and to then contain them there."
Historical records and/or traditions evidence: Battle at Medway/Caththam was fought there. "Aylesford" 455 (ASC)? 'Andredes leaga' 477? "488-547 only landings of Saxons on the coast" (ASC/Evans). Vortimer's battle where Catigern died was supposed to have been fought there. The Kit element of Kit's Coty has been interpreted by some scholars as Categern or cat "battle", and/or keiton "(tomb in the) forest". Arthur is supposed to have fought "specifically Kentishmen" in the HB. The 9 battle sites of the HB definitely match the 9 Saxon Shore sites (in names/meanings, natures/geographies/details and numbers/order). The battle of Caledon is thought to maybe match Cad Goddeu which some connect with Tacitus and the Roman invasion. Aegelesburg/Eglesburh/"Aylesbury" 571 might be connected with Aylesford or Eccles? (The Weald was also called Sylva Eegalis.) The Harroway track runs through the Weald near our site, and its name could relate to war/battle/host/army? [I have to check these from confused notes: Cobham battle street in area? Todtentuna "slain" in area?]
Traditional or archaeological: I'm not sure if the name of "Countless Stones" could connect with the battle's slain, and/or if some of the Medway megaliths might be grave stones? (There is a 'Coffin Stone' in the area too. Also compare keiton "(tomb in the) forest"?) "it is a tradition of the peasantry that a continuous line of stones ran from Coldrum direct to the well-known monument called Kit's Cotty House". ("The possibility of the Pilgrims' Way having been a still earlier thoroughfare is suggested, rather than indicated, perhaps by the manner in which it links together the two most important Stone Age monuments of Kent, namely Kits Coty House and Coldrum.") [I have to check this from confused notes: Adscombe in the area?]
Archaeological evidence: The whole area is heavily damaged from ploughing and "all have been damaged by farming", so actual traces might not be able to be found now. Wikipedia says this about Burham not far from Kit's Coty, but it doesn't give an ascribed date or dating evidence for the find so i don't know whether it may or may not connect: "a cemetery was found with six skeletons all of whom showed injuries caused by weapons. Three had single long sword cuts to the left side of the skull. The other three had multiple injuries - one had been hit three times on the left side of the skull, another had been hit in the spine by a projectile, either an arrow or a javelin, which probably disabled him and a single sword cut to the head." [I have to check these from confused notes: a "sack full of human bones" found at a site in the area? Bucket burials in the area?]
Other scholars opinions: Charles P suggested that "Arthur's war in England was fought in Kent and the East Midlands, perhaps as far north as Lincolnshire, but not in the West Country." Prof Fields said Arthur's battles were "up and down the East coast" (though he may have meant further north than our South-East section?)
Date match: We leave the question of the date of Arthur and/or his battle(s) to other papers. In this present paper we only deal with the date matching our site.
Arthur's maximum dates range is between 180 (Arthurian infopedia, Malcor) to 350/383 (Morris) to 421 (CMSM) to 450/454 (Malory) to 650 (Wace, Morris) to 700 (infopedia, Llongborth). Arthur comes after the Romans left Britain, and his battles seem to have been in the 400s and/or 500s (and/or 600s) ad. In the HB the 12 battles is placed before or after St Patrick whose dates range is 405, 428, 429/430, 438, 457. Arthur is supposed to have fought the "Saxons" and "specifically Kentishmen", and the HRB mentions Cerdic & "Colgrin" (& Baldulph). The battles in the HB are considered to be between Hengist or Octa and Ida "547". Celidon comes before Badon which has traditional dates of either 429 (EH), 470 (HRB), 493/494 ("Gildas/Bede"), 516/518 (AC), before Ida "547" (HB), 554 (Hergest), or 665 (AC). Badon was not more than 44 or 150 years after the Saxon invasion. Gildas who mentions Badon has a maximum dates range of 421 - 512 - 565 - 572. Bede (who mentions Badon) jumps from 447/456 (to 565) to 596. The 43 yrs of Gildas seem to atch the 44 yrs of Columba in the 560 entry of the ASC. The 12 battles of Arthur are in section 50 or 56 of the HB of Nennius, which might possibly connect with 514 as the 56th or 66th year in Ethelwerd, or with the ASC 560 entry? Arthur also has a connection with St David whose dates range is 458/540 - 601/640. Celidon/Godeu comes before Arthuret 573 (AC), and before Camlan of 537/539 (AC) or 542 (HRB).
The three main sources that may match the 12 battles or 9 battle sites of Arthur in the HB are the 9 ND/SS forts, Vortimer's 4 battles, and/or the ASC battles. In the last two of these we have these possible matches for the battle of Caledon: Chalcedon 439/449/451/454, "Aylesford" 455 (Horsa slain)*, Darent, "Crayford/London" 457, Epsford, "fled like fire" 473, Andredesleaga 477*, "488-547 only landings of Saxons on the coast", Gap between the 1st & 2nd Bretwaldas (Aelle of Sussex & Ceawlin of Wessex) c 491 - c 560, "Netley/Charford" 508 (ley can mean wood), "who broke the dynasty of Kentish kings ... of which we hear no more after 512", no gains gap 519-552, Cerdicesleaga 527*, Calcedonensis 538? "Aylesbury/Ensham" 571, Arthuret/Caledon 573, Fethanleage 584, Silvia 606, "Elmet" 590/616/619/633, Chalcedon 630, "Penselwood" 658, Ashdown 661. All of these are in the South & East quarter of England except for 5 between 571 & 658. Some of the 5 exceptions are also disputable as to their real locations as opposed the their supposed ones.
Written by Nennius match: What other evidences are there that Nennius knew sites in the south-east other than the strong match of the 9 battle sites?
The authorship and date of the HB is uncertain/disputed. Among the proposed authors are Gildas, Nennius, and/or Mark the Anchorite.
Orthodox sources claim that "Nennius" lived in the West/Wales, but i haven't seen any serious proof of this. An alleged interpolation in Asser mentions that Gildas and Nennius were reputed to have been at "Oxford". In Arthurian/Welsh traditions the real original Boso of Ridoc/Rico/Richiden/Rhydycheu/"Oxford" might really be Reculver [Bassas "shallow"] or Rutupiae by the Wantsum-Stour (compare Epsford, and Bosphorus "ox ford").
Collingwood said Nennius' words imply Arthur was fighting specifically Kentishmen.
Since the HB contains both Arthur's battle sites and the Wonders of Britain it would not be surprising if the Wonders might have matched the same sites (on purpose as a clue), and if the Wonders do match the same sites then surely it is supporting confirmation. We found that the wonders do match a number of our 9 sites. The Wonders which might match the area of our Celidon site Kit's Coty & Coldrum include Amr's tomb, Cabal's cairn, Swelling ford. Pilgrim's Way might possibly be connected with Nennius visiting the Wonders sites? See our separate Wonders paper and tables for more details. Some critics claim that the Wonders section is a later addition, but various evidences we have seen suggest they are connected with the battle sites.
Nennius said he used alot of sources which are similar to the ND. The ND has a date of 395/400s/420/420s/428, and the ND was at Speyer until 15th C/1542/16th C/before 1672. So it is possible that Nennius could have seen/known it.
Source texts that mention Celidon under that name: HB, Irish HB, LF, HRB, Irish records, Florus, Tacitus, Lucan, Martial, Pliny, Thompson, Jackson.
Weald refs: Collingwood; Richard of Cirencester; Brunanburh poem.
Kit's Coty refs: Wiki.
List of hitherto Caledon location candidates &/or analogous namesakes: Caldicot Weald in Brunanburh's area Arthuret & Caledonian wood Caledonia (Scotland) (Hubner, Skene? Lot?) Dun Chailleann "fort of the Caledonii" Mt Sidh Chailleann / Schiehallion "fairy hill of the Caledonians" Altclut/Clyde Culdees (us) Cat (Pictland) (Domhnall) East Mains of Dunnichen/Dun-chailden/Dunkeld (Bullen)* Caddon (on Tweed) Kelder Forest, Northumbria (Keegan) Calder Leeds/Loidis/Cilidin/Thames-Scotland (Anscombe) "north of Dubglas" near Lincoln (Thompson, HRB) Co(r)itani North-east (Bryjulfson) Midlands (HRB) prehistoric/ancient forest at Branodunum/Brancaster Colchester caledo inscription (us) "Welsh fled like fire"? Rutupi was thought to be a wood &/or in Caledonian wood Silva Caledonia of Caesar's invasion (Florus) (us) Kit's Coty & Coldrum, Aylesford or Rochester or Canerbury (Kent) (us) Catigern? Colton (Dover)? Coid Andred / Anderida silva / Andredes leaga / Sylva Eegalis / (Andredes) Weald (Collingwood, us) Stane Street (Collingwood) Cerdicesleaga (us) Calleva/Silchester Silve Bradon / Braydon Wood (us) Caer Celemion Cheltenham (Cotswolds/Cutha's/Cuda's wood) (Hunt) Cedweli &/or Silures (South Wales)? Clacaenog / Corwen / Cerrigydrudion (Denbigh, N Wales) Galedin "Belgae"? St Celidonius (us) Pope Silvester (us) Calydonian boar hunt (Classical Greek) (us). Council of Chalcedon/Calcedonensis in Bithynia 451/454/538 (ASC) (us) Chaldea/Chaldees.
Celidon/Weald under various names in different sources &/or analogous memory namesakes/copies: Cad Goddeu/Achren "battle of trees" (Triads) Kit's Coty & Coldrum & Weald 'Silva Celidonis' / 'Cat Coit Celidon' 4th of 9 (HB) "Caledon right, London left" (HRB) Silva Caledonia of Caesar's invasion (Florus, Tacitus, Lucan, Martial, Pliny) Dun Chailleann "fort of the Caledonii" Mt Sidh Chailleann / Schiehallion "fairy hill of the Caledonians" Guinnion in Celidon wood (in Irish) Arthuret & Caledon (AC) Galafort & Celidoine. 'Merlin Wylt' / 'Merlin Caledonensis' / 'Merlin Silvestris' Castell Collen (Welsh) Alcluith/Clyde/Caledon (HRB)? Cadwallon? Culdremne 561? Culdees (Fife/Iceland)? 'Coed Celyddon' (Tristan & Iseut) Celyddon Wledig (Culhwch & Olwen) Kyledyr Gwyllt/Wyllt (Culhwch & Olwen) Celli/Cuelli (PG) Guinevere at Celliwig "forest grove" (KA's lost court, "Cornwall", Triads) Bryn-celli-dhu (Anglesey)? Colguan 5th/8th (12 Monasteries list)? Silve Bradon / Braydon Wood (Wilts) se nemus (Stirling) St Michael's Mt "the grey/hoar rock in the woodland" "enclosed in a thick wood" (Cornish) Lofty wood-clad rock dinas Emrys? Hoary rock in the wood (Scilly/Lyonesse)? (White town in the) Green woodland Fethanleag 583/4/6. Wood Beit & Mabon of Gwallawg's battles (Taliesin) Mabon 5th or Cleder/Clether 11th of 15 children of Brychan? "Lailoken/Merlin was meet by Kentigern/Mungo near a wood". Green shield (HRB)? Green Man/Knight? Arthur's Shield (HB/AC)? The Weald of Kent/Sussex Plessis Wood? hunting grounds of Arestal Aylesbury 571 (ASC)? Anaraut of Salisbury of 11 Consuls (HRB)? Cabal's cairn &/or Amr's tomb (Wonders)? Kamber or Corineus (HRB)? Corentin/Cornouailles or Gildas (Breton)? Darent or Epsford/Catigern of Vortimer (HB/HRB)? Carausius 4th of 9 Emperors (HB)? Carrado (Modena Archivolt)? Carados or Cradelment of 11 kings at Bedegraine? Cynfelyn/Cynwyd/ClydnoEidyn 3rd (Hen Ogledd)? * Cloten/Cludno earl/king of Cornwall?
Places in or near or not far from the area of our battle site: Aylesford; Blue Bell Hill; Kit's Coty; Coldrum; Yalding; Beult; Eden; Twyford; Rochester; Medway; Dartford; Crayford; Le Black / Kent Water; Canterbury; Pilgrim's Way; Len; Chatham.
Following is a list of pre-Nennius mentions of "Caledonia(n)", at least one or more of which surely prove that the Caledon/Celidon of Caesar and Arthur/Nennius does/can match the Weald and doesn't/can't match the North, and/or disproves others claims that Caledonian matches the North and can't/doesn't match the Weald.
Florus/Forus: "adducing Florus, who also speaks of the Caledonian woods in Kent". "the sal-tus Caledonius / sylva Caledonia of (Caesar in) Florus". "Florus tells us, that Cæsar pursued the Britains as far as the Caledonian Forests…." Florus, B. iii. ch. 10, where, speaking of Cæsar, he says, "Caledonias sequutus in sylvas." "Here upon Lucius Florus writeth that Caesar followed the Britans unto the Caledonian woods", = "eosdem rursus Britannos, Caledonias sequutus in silvas" / "eosdem rursus Britannos sequtus in Caledonias/Calidonias Sylvas" "[referring to the eastern extremity of the Caledonian wood]" (- Lucius Florus, epit rer Rom, B iii ch/cap 10/xi.) "the (Sylva Caledonia, called by Lucius Florus) Saltus Caledonius"?
Pliny: "Pliny, when he writes that the Romans had penetrated no farther into this country in his time". "The name comes to us from Pliny the Elder who tells us that 30 years after the Roman invasion of Britain their knowledge of it did not extend beyond the neighbourhood of ‘silva Caledonia’. He gives no information about where ‘silva Caledonia’ was...." [Though the article reckons/claims/supposes/asserts "... the known extent of the Roman occupation suggest that it was north of the Clyde and west of the Tay."] “triginta prope jam annis notitiam ejus Romanis armis non ultra vicinitatem silva(e) Caledonia(e) propagantibus.” (- Plin. elder l.c / Plin elder N.H. 4/iv. c 16 / 30.)
Lucan: "calls the Southern Britanni Caledonii" : "Aut vaga cum Thetys, Rutupinaque littora fervent, unde/unda/uuda/undo./unde Caledoniis/Caledonios fallet/fallit turbata Britannos [referring to the eastern extremity of the Caledonian wood]" (- Lucan lib vi/6 line 68.) "says that others thought Rutupiae to be a wood (Ut alii, silva)", "for which no reason is apparent unless it be a misplaced note on Caledonios in line 68" (- Commenta Lucani, p. 193, ed. Usener.) / / "Rutupinaque littora ... ] Rutubi portus dicitur civitas Bri-tanniae qua excipit ex Gallia ad se vel Hispaniis navigantes. ut alii, silva." (- Comment. 6,67.) [& "melaeagra Calidon(i)a" (- Lucan (B.vi. v.366))?] ["Caledon cum E alio sub coelo est: vnde Caledonios Britannos legas" (- Lucani l. 6.)?] "Unde Caledoniis fallit turbata Britannos".
Claudian: "in 400, the poet Claudian talked of Britain (in female personification) being: “... clothed in the skin of some Caledonian beast, her cheeks tattooed, and an azure cloak, rivalling the swell of Ocean, sweeping to her feet ...”." (- Claudian ‘De Consulatu Stilichonis’ (On the Consulship of Stilicho) Book II/2.) [http://www.dot-domesday.me.uk/picts.htm ?] "Claudian alludes to British bears." ~ ~ "inde Caledonio velata Britannia monstro." "With Caledonian monsters cover’d o’er Great Britain next appears" (- Claudian, xx, 247.)
The inscription of Colchester: 'caledo' "hard"?
Panegyrici Latini: "in a panegyric delivered in 297, appears the earliest extant mention of the Picts (Picti). The anonymous author makes a poetic reference to Julius Caesar having had a relatively easy task invading Britain, since his opponents were: “... primitive and used only to foes as yet half-naked, like the Picts and the Irish [Hiberni] ...” (- Anon ‘Panegyrici Latini’: ‘VIII. Panegyric on Constantius Caesar’ Chapter 11)", (http://www.dot-domesday.me.uk/picts.htm .) ["pretends the woods of Britain have no savage beasts" (- panegyric to Constantine)?] [“... the forests and marshes of the Caledonians [Caledones] and other Picts ...” (- ‘Panegyrici Latini’ ‘VI. Panegyric on Constantine’ Chapter 7)?] Though another source claims that Eumenius' 'Panegyrici Latini Vetares', VI (VII) vii 2 [/ 7.8?] was about Constantius Chlorus invasion of north 305. Though it says "the sources are vague over their claims of penetration into the far north".
Martial: "Harting (1880) and others quote the comment of Martial that Caledonian bears [another name for British with the Romans] were fought in the Coliseum in Rome" (- Penny Cyclopaedia, or Bassantin/Bloemaart.) "Nuda Caledonio sic pectora præbuit urso." "His naked breast to Caledonian bears/[British bears?]/Ursi Caledonii He thus expos’d." (- Martial, Lib de Spectac Epigr vii/7.) "Picti Britanni" / "Quincte, Caledonios(,) (Ovidi(,) visure) Britannos" (- Martial Ep lib x 44; Ep xliv.) "Barbara de Pictis veni bascauda Britannis ; Sed me jam mavult dicere Roma suam.' (- Martial Ep lib xiv; Ep xcix Bascauda.)
Ptolemy: "Ptolemy's account also referred to the 'Caledonia Silva' / 'silva caledonia'" (- Ptol. l.c.?) ["Ptolemy's Britain resembling an inverted Z which supposition he may have been lead to by the notion that Caledonia trended to the east"?] ["a tribe of Caledones/Caledonii are named by the geographer Ptolemy as living within boundaries which are now unascertainable" (- Ptolemy (Tetrabiblos 2.3))?] ["Oceanus Deucaledonius [sw Scotland]" (- Ptolemy (2.3))?] "Claudius Ptolemy described the Caledonians of the Du-Caledon sea as stretching from Lake Lomond to the Firth of Moray". "Ptolemy mentions 14 tribes of Caledonians".
Tacitus: "Tacitus does not expressly call the people Caledonii.... ... nor does he himself mention Caledonii". “Rutila(e) Caledoniarn habitantium comae, magni artus Germanicam originem adseverant.” (- Tacitus (Agricola ch xi/11) / [ c 7 40?].) [= "The Caledonians of the north" (- mr Pinkerton.)] "The Caledonia, too, of Tacitus is more or less generic, at least the Horesti seem to have been considered to be a people of Caledonia". "according to Tacitus, it bears that figure [oblong shield/battle-axe] on the side of Caledonia" ~ "forman totious Britannie Livius veterum, Fabius Rusticus recentium eloquentissimi autores oblongae scutulae vel bipenni adsimulavere. Et est ea facies citra Caledoniam" (- Tacitus, Agricola sec x/10.) Caesar "occupied the coast, as Tacitus observes".
Iulius Solinus Polyhistor: Apparently says Ulysses erected an altar in 'Calidonia'/"Scotland". "Caledonicus angulus", & “in quo recessu Ulyxem Caledoniae/Calidonia appulsum manifestat ara Graecis litteris scripta votum” (- Solinus Polyh. (c/100, ch 22).) "the promontory of Caledonia" (- Solinus)?
Sidonius: "Victricia Caesar Signa Caledonios transvexit adusque Britannos." (- Sidonius, Paneg. Car. vii. diet.)?
Post-Nennius second-hand mentionings of Celidon/Caledon, alot of which support our case:
Geoff of Monmouth ('HRB'): Geoffrey of Monmouth's HRB says Celidon on right and London on left. Geoffrey of Monmouth said they came to Celidon just after "Lindisia/Lindocolinum". "Geoff ... has a 4th ‘nemus Caledon,’ in the s-w of Scotland, or Strathclyde.”
"Richard of Cirencester"/:Bertram": “Coitani … which, like all the woods of Britain, was called Caledonia.” &, “the vast forest called by some the Anderidan and by others the Caledonian” (- "Richard of Cirencester"/"Bertram" 54.) "Although all the parts of Britain lying beyond the Isthmus may be termed Caledonia...." "barbarous Britons." "the thick woods". "These people being subdued by the proprætor Ostorius, and impatiently bearing the Roman yoke, joined the Cantæ, as tradition relates, and, crossing the sea, here fixed their residence." ("R. of C." 54.)
"The Caledonians of the north" (- mr Pinkerton.)
“He has another ‘Calidonia Sylva’ alias ‘Anterida’ (now Andredeswald,) in Kent …. Geoff of Monmouth, likewise, has a 4th ‘nemus Caledon,’ in the s-w of Scotland, or Strathclyde.” (- 'Annals of the Calendonians, Picts and Scots' by Joseph Ritson (& Jose Frank).)
“The author here mentions the Caledonian wood or forest, which represents a common appellative amongst the Britons for a wood…. Mr. Camden, indeed, places the Sal-tus Caledonius of Florus in Scotland (3), but it was more probably either the wood Anderida, which was called also Caledonia…. Pliny, when he writes that the Romans had penetrated no farther into this country in his time (2). … Now Julius [Caesar] never proceeded far into Britain…. … Caledonia was a common name amongst the Britons for a wood, we find … another in the country of the Cantii and Regni, otherwise called Anderida…. … the word grew so common among the Roman authors … that they made use of it to express all Britain, and all the forests of Britain (6).” (- Samuel Pegge ‘An essay on the coins of Cunobelin’.)
“…the Britanni of South Britain were also occasionally ‘called Caledonii and Picti; and that there was a Sylva Caledonia in the vicinity of the Thames.” [goes on to give evidence quotes from Martial, Florus, Lucan.] (- James Paterson, 'Origin of the Scots and the Scottish Language'?)
Mr/John Whittaker ('The genuine history of the Britons asserted'): “Mr. Whittaker, adducing Florus, who also speaks of the Caledonian woods in Kent, Sussex….”
“… cad coed Celyddon, the battle of the wood of Forests. Celyddon is a general name for any tract of woodlands so exten-sive as to furnish shelter and baffle pur-suers, of which the ancient orthography was expressed in Latin, Caledonia or Calidonia. …. This bat-tle may have been fought in any celyd-don or vast forests; in the sylva Caledonia of Caesar in Florus ; in Caledonia north of Clyde ; or where the fortress of Pen-savle-coed was built.” [- "the Irish version of the Historia Britonum of Nennius" by James H Todd (& Hon Algernon Herbert)?]
"In ancient times the word Caledonia, seems to have been the appellation of the forests in Britain." &, "ref to the eastern extremity of the Caledonian Wood" [- Todd or Gunn?]
“celyddon seems to have been used of British forests generally” (- Collingwood?)
"Collingwood asserted that "Celidon" was a generic term applied to forests in Britain." (- Brynjulfson.)