All Empires Magazine - April 2007

Copyright by JP Vieira /

The Year of Four Emperors

The “year of four emperors”, in omnibus, is the events from 68 to December 69. Between these two dates four emperors took the throne; three fell to a bloody death. The first was Sulpicius Galba. Declared emperor by the senate in June of 68, he lasted until January 15, 6 9 when he was then assassinated by Otho. Between Galba and Otho, the commander of the Rhine legions , Aulus Vitellius, was declared emperor by his troops. Following a military defeat at Bedriacum, Otho committed suicide and the senate declared Vitellius emperor. In the east, the commander of the Jewish war, Flavius Vespasianus, encouraged by Mucianus, governor of Syria, placed his own bid for the throne. This culminated in a second battle at Bedriacum, which ended in favor of the Flavians, followed by the “battle for Rome”; Vitellius’ execution; and the proclamation of Vespasian as Emperor on December 21, 69. (Theodore Felix)

Oral Dissemination and the Spread of Reformation Ideas

In sixteenth century Germany at a time when literacy levels were low and educational resources infrequent or unavailable, the majority of the German population would have relied heavily on another set of fundamental human skills, talking and listening. (Act of Oblivion)

Science & Technology

The earliest sign of higher civilization in China was its Bronze Age, which began around 2100-2000 BCE when the smelting mixture of copper and tin in fiery kilns, once used exclusively for firing clay pottery in the Neolithic period, became a widespread practice throughout the ancient settlements of the Yellow River region of north-central China. (Preobrazhenskoe)


Why study the Pre-Contact Americas?

The Americas were one of the most isolated continents with respect to Eurasia. Only Australia could compare in isolation. In addition, that is precisely what makes it such an interesting place to study. First, let us stop a little bit in the issue of Americas’ isolation, because it is very difficult to convince people exposed continuously to pseudo-scientific literature that the Americas were isolated. (Penguin)


Chief Tecumseh of the Shawnee tribe had, since the 1780s, tried to form an inter-tribal alliance to fight the Americans. His brother, Tenskwatawa, appeared as a prophet, saying that the Master of Life wanted the Indians to join forces against the American suppressors. (Hope)

The Siege of Tenochtitlan

Possibly no other conquest has been so amazing as Hernan Cortes’s. That one thousand three hundred men, no matter how well armed, could topple an empire with a population reaching into the millions, seems as amazing today as it was for the men who lived concurrently with the events. How did Cortes do it? (Timotheus)

The Battle of Kulikovo

During the 14th century, the power of Muscowy grew, while the Golden Horde became weaker and weaker. On the second half of the 14th century, there were round 25 different khans,of whom a large number was killed by his competitors. (Rider)

The Battle of Trebia

With the outbreak of war in 218 BC, feelings between Rome and Carthage were an indication of the severe distrust and hostility between the two Mediterranean powers. On the footsteps of the frozen Alps, two forces would clash in an almighty battle, after which Hannibal would enforce his presence in , mercilessly and ruthlessly. (Knights)



A Scottish Loss at Stirling Bridge: A Historical Counterfactual

The date was September 11, 1297. On this date, two armies fought against each other outside of the Scottish town of Stirling. One was an English army led by the Earl of Surrey and Hugh de Cressingham, while the other was a Scottish army led by Andrew de Moray-an experienced Scottish knight-and William Wallace, a rebel with some tactical experience. The Scots would in the end have a great victory. (Emperor Barbarossa)

The Mongol Invasion of Europe

In general, Europeans have had a fairly good record in wars, nearly always winning out over Asia, Africa, and America with only a few exceptions. There was the great Hannibal, and the Moslems in Spain. There were the Persians who fought the Greeks, and the grandchildren in the United States who defied England and got away with it. But only once in the whole history of this continent has there been danger of the complete extinction of Western Civilization as we know it. (Timotheus)

Historical Fiction: Imperium

Being new in the realm of ancient Roman politics could be tough, and rising to the top, regardless of opposition from the leading statesmen of the time, was even tougher. However, Marcus Tullius Cicero, a humble Novus Homo (or ‘new man’) out of Arpinum, managed to do all of this and more, and it's all detailed here in Robert Harris’ latest novel, Imperium. (Kilroy)

Film Review: 300

The movie 300, released in early March, is perhaps the most extreme movie based on history ever made. 300 takes place during the Persian Wars in Greece and covers two battles, the Battle of Thermopylae, and the Battle of Plataea. Though the movie has many notorious inaccuracies, it still is correct in its results of the movie’s two battles.
(Emperor Barbarossa)


Game Review: Stronghold

The game Stronghold has been around us for many years and it has not lost it’s attractivity for some people. Produced by FireFly Studios and released in 2001, this is still a nice game for everyone. The game represents a medieval England or something like medieval England. We haven’t got a fixed timeframe and only by the map do we know that the land we conquer is England. (Rider)

Literary Review: The Virgin Queen - Elizabeth I, Genius of the Golden Age

A genius, a beauty, a leader, and a manipulator, Elizabeth I has fascinated and enthralled her public for centuries” aptly describes the Queen and her relationship with those that came after her. This book reads somewhat like a novel rather than a non fiction history book, drawing the reader into the life story of it’s subject. (Dawn)

The Principality of Galicia-Volhonia (or Volhynia)

The Old Russian state included the south-western lands by the tenth century. These lands were wanted for their riches; the fields were fertile and the crops were heavenly. There were large flocks of animals and the rivers were full of fish. (Rider)

Game Review: Stronghold Crusader

Stronghold Crusader is a sequel to the game Stronghold which was set in medieval England or a place that resembled it. In Crusader, all the major players have gone to join the Crusade against the Infidels on the Holy Land. The game still focuses on combat and economy alike so not much else than the setting has changed. (Rider)

Kennedy Assassination Solved

I did it confesses Khalid Sheikh Mohammed

In a shock a special hearing El Quaida mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed confessed to the assassination of JFK. CIA supremo Porter Goss reportedly said “finally we’ve solved that for once and for all, now there‘s no need to publish the file”. At the same time Khalid Sheikh Mohammed also confessed to other major crimes that have baffled US investigators for years including , the Iraq insurgency, the murder of the Black Dahlia, all the Ted Bundy killings, Hurricane Katrina and the US budget deficit. Sources close to US security services suggest this may just be the tip of the iceberg, and news from Washington hints that we can soon expect a whole new perspective on the Abraham Lincoln assassination.

Cuba to Invade US

Cuban leader Fidel Castro announced in a speech earlier this week, Cuba would invade the United States if Democrat Barack Obama is elected President. He pointed out 'Obama' is just one letter away from 'Osama' which is "close enough." Also he added he would not tolerate a neighbour in the hands of a "left wing terrorist loving non-white regime”

Astonishment as Hollywood Comic book movie is: Historically Inaccurate

International controversy has broken out over US box office topping movie 300. Senior officials in the Iranian government have suggested it is less than accurate in the portrayal of Persians in the movie. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad commented earlier this week “We’re absolutely gobsmacked a Hollywood movie could be historically inaccurate.”

Iranian Cultural Adviser to the government Javad Shamaqdari further explained “as we know Hollywood movies are usually so accurate historically, we base all Iranian school textbooks on them. This is why is why it came as such a shock that 300 was so inaccurate. Despite the months of advertising, we never saw this coming“

The Iranian president added in a later statement “He hopes future American historical movies will be more historically accurate, just like Iranian ones”

John Adams (1735-1826)

Never trouble trouble till trouble troubles you. I must study politics and war that my sons may have liberty to study mathematics and philosophy. My sons ought to study mathematics and philosophy, geography, natural history, naval architecture, navigation, commerce and agriculture in order to give their children a right to study painting, poetry, music, architecture, statuary, tapestry, and porcelain.

Historical Photo of the Month
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Royal Naval College Greenwich (1696 Christopher Wren) Home of the Royal Navy for 300 years
Photographed by Paul

This Month's Pic Quiz
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Historic Website of the Month - lascaux

AE Magazine, April Edition

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Contributing Writers: Theodore Felix


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