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Siberian Israel !!!

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  Quote erkut Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Siberian Israel !!!
    Posted: 14-Oct-2006 at 03:26
In 1934 the Soviet Government established the Jewish Autonomous Region, popularly known as Birobidzhan, in a sparsely populated area some five thousand miles east of Moscow. Designated as the national homeland of Soviet Jewry, Birobidzhan was part of the Kremlin's effort to create an alternative to Palestine.


How did the Jewish Autonomous Region appear ?

Establishment of the Jewish Autonomous Region was necessity for more than two millions of the Jews, living in the Soviet Union. They were considered by tsarism to be foreigners, limited in choice of domicile, possibility of housing accommodation possession. They could farm and be occupied by limited kinds of activity only. They continued to remain one of the most suffering people of the country with low living standard, limited possibilities for realization of intellectual and creative potential.

In 1921 the Committee on land settlement of the working Jews (KOMZET), which was headed by P.G.Smidovich, was headed. It searched for places for compact moving of the Jews, adaptation of the Jewish population to agricultural labor.

The first attempts of KOMZET to create in 1924-26 Jewish settlements in the Crimea, in the Ukraine, Stavropol Territory, near Smolensk and Pskov didn't meet with success because of lack of free grounds in these regions and necessity of transfer of concrete owners' lands to Jewish settlers. The southern region of Priamurye, called then Birsko-Bidzhanskiy region, after an investigation by the expedition led by B.L.Bruk, the professor, under a management of V.R.Viliams in 1927, was recognized as a territory, favorable for compact moving of the working Jews.

History of the JAR establishment, as the first and only state territorial unit of the Jews not only in the USSR, but also in the world (Israel was established on a solution of UNO in 1948), begins from the fact that the Presidium of the General Executive Committee of the USSR passed the decree "On the attaching for KOMZET of free grounds near the Amur River in the Far East for settlement of the working Jews" on March 28, 1928. The decree meant that there was "a possibility of establishment of a Jewish administrative territorial unit on the territory of the called region".

In May, 1928 on Tikhonkaya station, where the Birobidzhan emigrant point was, the first group of settlers from cities and villages of the Ukraine and Byelorussia, central regions of Russia arrived. Simultaneously the state sent machines and necessary means there.

Jewish settlements were created in small villages. They connected the Trans-Siberian railway with the Amur River valley. The epicenter of the Jewish resettlement was Tikhonkaya station (later Birobidzhan city).

Large collective farms and communities were created in Birofeld, Amurzet, Valdgame, Danilovka and other villages. For the Russian Jews it was especially important that this ground was in Russia, in their Motherland, in the custom surroundings. It is necessary to mark, that perspective of revival of a Jewish state, even as an autonomy, found the response abroad - first of all among the American Diaspora. The IKOR organization became its empowered person and rendered free material help to settlers.

The fact of revival of a sovereign Jewish territory, though far away from the actual ancestral Motherland and as an autonomy, actuated afflux of immigrants abroad. They sincerely believed that the Soviet Union was a democratic people's state. With such ideas almost 700 people from Argentina, Lithuania, France, Latvia, Germany, Belgium, the USA, Poland and even from Palestine arrived there.

The majority of settlers was not familiar with agriculture. Russian population rendered them all possible support. Many villages and collective farms sent instructors, who trained settlers to agricultural labour. In total since 1928 up to 1933 22,3 thousand persons arrived in the territory of today's region.

On August 20, 1930 the General Executive Committee of RSFSR accepted the decree "On formation of the Birobidzhan national region in the structure of the Far Eastern Territory". The State Planning Committee considered the Birobidzhan national region as a separate economic unit. In 1932 the first scheduled figures of the region development were considered and authorized.

Taking into account fast economic development of the Birobidzhan national region, the Presidium of the General Executive Committee accepted the decree on its transformation in the Jewish Autonomous Region in structure of the Russian Federation. It happened on May 7, 1934. In 1938 with formation of the Khabarovsk Territory the Jewish Autonomous Region (JAR) was included in its structure.

On December 18, 1934 in Birobidzhan the 1st regional congress of Soviets was held. It finished registration of the new national region as a Soviet state unit, ratified the plan of economic and cultural development and elected the authorities. The first chairman of the JAR Regional Executive Committee was I.I.Liberberg.

Large significance for growth of economy and culture of the region had the decrees of Council of People's Commissars from October 1, 1934 "On measures on economic and cultural development of the Jewish Autonomous Region" and the Presidium of the General Executive committee from August 29, 1936 "On the Soviet, economic and cultural development of the JAR". They became the action program of all working people. Next years the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Soviet Government considered problems on the rendering of assistance to the JAR, in particular the sending of specialists. A lot of party and economic workers, qualified experts were directed under permit of the Central Committee and Far Eastern Territory Party Committee. Along with the Jews people of other nationalities moved to the region. The population of the region was multinational and in 1939 it made already 108,9 thousand people.

Economy of the region, its agricultural and industrial production developed by fast rates. In 1936 the first building of the Birobidzhan sewing factory was set in operation. On January 1, 1938 the carts construction plant (now "Dalselmash" plant) began to work. The factory of metalware in Birobidzhan city, the Londoko limestone plant began to produce, the mining and processing of Birakan marble was organized. The special attention was given to development of transport, construction of automobile and railroads, bridges. The city of Obluchye became the centre of the first branch of the Far Eastern railway. A large railway junction, power station, brick factory, some small-sized auxiliary enterprises were constructed here. In 1937 a large railway station and depot were constructed in Bira settlement. Large settlements of Volochayevka and Smidovich grew fast, the old Nikolayevka settlement was updated also. For period from 1928 up to 1937 on a place of Tikhonkaya, a small railway station, where there was no electricity, no industrial enterprises, only one elementary school, the city of Birobidzhan was erected. It became the administrative, economic and cultural centre of the Jewish Autonomous Region.

Multinational culture and art had broad development in the JAR. Several regional newspapers, Forpost, a literary, art and political magazine, were issued. The magazine published works of the largest Soviet Jewish writers and poets. The Jewish theatre was developed in Birobidzhan city.

All successes in development of economy and culture of the region are achievements of its first builders, those people, who gave a part of soul and heart to this land.

Since the first days of the Great Patriotic War the economy of the region started to produce goods for front. The carts construction plant produced tyres, grenades, auto trailers and special carts; automobile repair shops produced ammunition, the furniture factory - ski, sanitarian property, and the sewing factory - parachutes, packs etc. Enterprises of the region sent 1500 coaches of ammunition, 500 thousand packages of military uniform, 38 coaches of sanitarian property, plenty of foodstuff and gifts for soldiers. More than 12 thousand of region inhabitants were drafted, 7 thousand of them died or were missing, and more than 7 thousand were awarded with orders and medals of the USSR for courage and heroism. 14 persons became Heroes of the Soviet Union, and four persons became holders of a soldier's award of Glory. More than 7 thousand inhabitants of the region were awarded with a medal "For heroic labour during the Great Patriotic War".

First three post-war years, when the country was destroyed by the war, and the new great advance of production was carried out due to the forced commercial production in the East, were years of the best prosperity of local Jewish culture and industrial formation of the society. Another stream of Jews - immigrants flooded the region. The Birobidzhan shoe factory, the confectionery and walk-mill factories were set in operation, the Teploozyorsk cement plant and the Khingan tin industrial complex began to produce, acting enterprises extended productive capacities. In streets of Birobidzhan city, many villages and settlements Yiddish sounded as often, as Russian.

The 60-80s are characterized by stable rise of economy. New industrial enterprises were created, old ones were reconstructed. New kinds of production, such as self-propelled rice, grain and fodder harvesting combines on caterpillar tracks, power transformers and complex transformer stations, various engineering production, furniture, hosiery were mastered, volumes of production enlarged, range of overcoats, footwear, jersey, production of food and meat and milk enterprises were extended.

Special attention was given to development of agriculture. Conducted reclamation work allowed to run new agricultural lands, to create new state farms, and other agricultural enterprises. To the end of the 80s sown areas made 140 thousand hectares, livestock of cattle in public sector was more than 70 thousand heads.

The region began to play a noticeable role in satisfaction of needs of the country and the Far East in a number of raw products (tin, brucite, lime, timber), items of light industry, agricultural machines, power transformers, products of agriculture.

As it was already marked, the Jewish Autonomous Region was the constituent of the Khabarovsk Territory (according to the last Constitution of the RSFSR autonomous regions entered into the structure of territories) for many years.

In December 1990 the Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR proposed an amendment to the text of the Constitution of the RSFSR, on which the administrative division of the Russian Federation was changed. It was proclaimed, that henceforth autonomous regions were included directly into the structure of the Federation.

For the sake of justice it is necessary to tell, that a part of radical deputies of the regional Council in spring of 1991 persistently offered to proclaim the Jewish Autonomous Republic, but this offer did not come true. At the same time the amendment to the Constitution was taken into account. On October 29, 1991 the regional Council of People's Deputies accepts the Declaration on state-legal status of the JAR. The same year the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR resolved to divide the Jewish Autonomous Region and the Khabarovsk Territory. The Jewish Autonomous Region became an independent subject of the Russian Federation.

On March 31, 1992 the Federal agreement for separation of management and authorities between federal public authorities and government bodies of the Jewish Autonomous Region was signed.

Real independence of the autonomy caused necessity of prompt solution of many problems, creation of regional and federal bodies of executive authority. It required a lot of efforts from Governor Nikolay Volkov, appointed on December 19, 1991, and his nearest colleagues. In short time it was necessary to establish relations with the federal centre, and to teach heads of districts, directors of enterprises and companies to do the same.

State Symbols

     

Coat of arms of the JAR

The coat of arms of the Jewish Autonomous Region is a heraldic French shield, which color is Russian aquamarine (dark green). The proportion of width to height is 8:9. The upper and lower parts of the shield are marked with narrow horizontal stripes white-blue-white. All colours are equal in width and are 1/50 of the height of the shield. The blue stripes symbolize the Bira and Bidzhan Rivers. The center of the shield is emblazoned with a gold Ussurian tiger with black stripes in its natural coloring. The figure of the tiger is turned to the right toward a viewer that symbolizes an unusual history and original way of the Regions development.


     

Flag of the JAR

The flag of the Jewish Autonomous Region is a white rectangular panel. On the horizontal axis is located a color strip symbolizing a rainbow. The strip consists of seven narrow horizontal strips (red, orange, yellow, green, sky blue, blue and violet). Each width is equal to 1/40 the width of the flag. The strips are divided by narrow white horizontal strips, the width of each is equal to 1/120 the width of the flag. The proportion of width of the flag to its length is 2:3





Edited by erkut - 14-Oct-2006 at 03:39
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flyingzone View Drop Down
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  Quote flyingzone Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Oct-2006 at 10:11
Your post is interesting. But you have to state the source. Otherwise it will be removed.
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  Quote erkut Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Oct-2006 at 14:55
http://eao.ru/eng/  ok. sorry :)
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  Quote Jonon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Oct-2006 at 15:34

How many jews live in that area now?

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  Quote Jonon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Oct-2006 at 15:38
Originally posted by flyingzone

Your post is interesting. But you have to state the source. Otherwise it will be removed.
 
Are you threatining the post opener? Source can be anything, no journalist or investigative researcher reveal sources. Even US government don't do that...
 
Mr Flyingzone, don't you think  you are abusing your power?
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  Quote malizai_ Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Oct-2006 at 16:30
Wacko
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  Quote flyingzone Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Oct-2006 at 16:30

Please refer to AE Code of Conduct for rules on posting. I did not invent the Code. Please do not abuse the term "abuse of power".

If even the person in question does not have any problem with this request, what IS your problem, Jonon?
 
BTW, forumers, if you have problems with a moderator's decision, you should either PM that person or to the administrator.


Edited by flyingzone - 14-Oct-2006 at 16:35
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  Quote Seko Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Oct-2006 at 17:45
flyingzone is 100% correct in upholoding the codes.

If anyone has any questions please refer to the AE Codes of Conduct:

11. Plagiarism, the posting of texts found elsewhere without naming either author or source.
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  Quote erkut Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Oct-2006 at 05:16

Population (2002) : 190,915.

Ethnic groups: As per the 2002 census, ethnic Russians at 171,697 (89.9%) constitute by far the largest group of the population, followed by the Ukrainians at 8,483 (4.4%), the Jews at 2,327 (1.22%), the Tatars at 1,196 (0.63%), the Belarusians at 1,182 (0.62%) and so on. All in all, residents identify themselves as belonging to 95 different ethnic groups.

It has an area of 36,000 km (about the size of Belgium)It is actually a larger area than the modern State of Israel.
[from wikipedia]Wink
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  Quote galvatron Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Oct-2006 at 21:40
I see the jewish autonomous region was oncei nhabitat to the tungus people such as manchu ,evenki ,oroqen  ,xibo among other .
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