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Bilingual nations in Europe

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Majkes View Drop Down
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  Quote Majkes Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: Bilingual nations in Europe
    Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 03:23
Which nations were speaking in 2 languages in Europe?
 
In Poland Latin and Polish were two official languages. Lithuanians were speking in Rus language, Polish and Latin. Lithuanian language was used by lower classes of society. What other such nations do You know?
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  Quote rider Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 03:46
Rus language
 
Never heard of such a language... and why would Lithuanians be speaking in Russian, shouldn't they be speaking in their Baltic language?
 
I could say that for a 94%, the United Kingdom of Sweden and Norway spoke in two languages: Norwegian and Swedish.
 
Also, I believe that the Empire of Charles V had more than three or so langauages.
 
 
*Note: I am using the present and future tenses here, speaking of the past. Do not be confused.
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  Quote Majkes Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 04:26

Lithuanians were speaking in starocerkiewny ( I don't know how it is English ). It was language in which Western Rus was speaking. Lithuanian was mainly used by lower classes. On Lithuanian court before Union with Poland this starocerkiewny language was officially used. They adopted it from conquered Rus duchies. Lithuanians were very tollerant for conquered people. Rus duchies were cullturaly higher than Lithuanians. I'm also not sure if it was really written Lithuanian in the period.

Do You think that Swedish were speaking Norwegian? I'm not so sure about it. Maybe they understood each other cause languages are similar.

But I wanted to ask about countries in which there wer other foreign language than their own as official. In Poland whole gentry spoke in Latin. It was necessary language. Latin was official language in Poland before Polish and later on both languages were used at the same level.

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  Quote gcle2003 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 05:06
Luxembourgers speak Ltzebuergesch as their 'mother's knee' family, and it is now one of the country's three official languages. It was only made one a few years ago (ten?); until then the country's official languages were French and German, both of which were and are compulsorily learnt from primary school on.
 
Adoption of their local language as official has been part of a surprising growth in Luxembourgish nationalism in the last 25 years.
 
Belgium has three official languages, French, Flemish, and German, but they are the majority languages in three different areas.
 
Ltzebuergesch is still spoken in the Belgian province of Luxembourg, as it still is in those parts of Germany and France that historically were part of Luxembourg, but it isn't official anywhere else.
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  Quote Cryptic Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 09:11
Spain has several languages and distict dialets
 
Castillian, or "Spanish"
Basque   Pre Indo European language
Catatlan  Spanish / French based sperate language
Galician Distinct Dialect or possible seperate language of Galicia region
 
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  Quote xi_tujue Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 09:44
Originally posted by gcle2003

Luxembourgers speak Ltzebuergesch as their 'mother's knee' family, and it is now one of the country's three official languages. It was only made one a few years ago (ten?); until then the country's official languages were French and German, both of which were and are compulsorily learnt from primary school on.
 
Adoption of their local language as official has been part of a surprising growth in Luxembourgish nationalism in the last 25 years.
 
Belgium has three official languages, French, Flemish, and German, but they are the majority languages in three different areas.
 
Ltzebuergesch is still spoken in the Belgian province of Luxembourg, as it still is in those parts of Germany and France that historically were part of Luxembourg, but it isn't official anywhere else.
 
accualy its dutch flemish is a dialect in belgium like you have the dialects in both dutch and belgian
Brabants(south holland)
Oost)vlaams(east flanders)
Antwerps(east flanders)
Limburg(dutch & belgian) there the same and you have
Noord-hollands dialect(region of amstedam)
Zuid-hollands dialect(region of rotterdam)
zeews dialect( soth west netherland) and my favourite
Fries(north holland I seriously doubt that this dialect is of the dutch language it sounds more danish)
 
well have a good oneBig smile


Edited by xi_tujue - 13-Aug-2006 at 09:47
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  Quote Aelfgifu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 10:08
Fries(north holland I seriously doubt that this dialect is of the dutch language it sounds more danish)
Actually, Frisian is an officially recognised language in the Netherlands, the only one next to Dutch. Nethersaxon and Limburghs are recognised as seperate languages, but not as official ones outside of their regions. All the others you mentioned are dialects.
Frisian is the language closest connected to Old-English. Old-English, Dutch and Frisian are all part of the Saxon branch of the West-Germanic languages, and these are most closely connected to Niederdeutsch. Danish is part of the Nord-Germanic languages, which split off earlier, but there are regions along the north-sea coast in Denmark where people speak a dialect very close to Frisian.
 
But as for the question: I do not think there is any country in Europe where there are not two or more languages spoken...

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  Quote flyingzone Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 12:17
Aelfgifu is absolutely right. As I have already stated many times here before, bilingualism/multilingualism is the norm rather than the exception all over the world. We have the impression that it's rare just because it's an "Anglo-American" norm, but even that is changing in certain parts of the United States as there are more and more Americans bilingual in English and Spanish.
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  Quote Anton Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 13:18
Originally posted by Majkes

Lithuanians were speaking in starocerkiewny ( I don't know how it is English ). It was language in which Western Rus was speaking. Lithuanian was mainly used by lower classes. On Lithuanian court before Union with Poland this starocerkiewny language was officially used. They adopted it from conquered Rus duchies. Lithuanians were very tollerant for conquered people. Rus duchies were cullturaly higher than Lithuanians. I'm also not sure if it was really written Lithuanian in the period.

In Russia it is called "Cerkovnoslavyansky" (Church Slavonic) and was always spoken in only in churches. Its origin is still a question but most likely it was a sort of mix of sothern slav languages used by St.st. Cyril and Methodius for translation of church texts. And don't forget also that all East European contries spoke Russian since they studied it in school during those times Smile
 
Do You think that Swedish were speaking Norwegian? I'm not so sure about it. Maybe they understood each other cause languages are similar.
 
They are so close so there is no need to study them. As far as I know they are much more close to each other than slavonic language.
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  Quote Majkes Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 14:31
Well, this subject was suppose to be about Early Modern period. If we talk about present there are many nations that have official languages but it was diffrent in the past. What were the reasons that some countries had few languages and this not other would be interesting. For Lithuanians e.g. it was lack of written form and lack of many words which would describe reality. Also that conquered people were more civilized than their conquerors and Lithuanians didn't take offence from that but accepted it.
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  Quote Jorsalfar Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 14:38
Sami is an official language in Sweden,Norway and Finland.
 
Switzerland has four official languages.


Edited by Jorsalfar - 13-Aug-2006 at 14:39
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  Quote gcle2003 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 15:25
 
Originally posted by xi_tujue

Originally posted by gcle2003

 
Belgium has three official languages, French, Flemish, and German, but they are the majority languages in three different areas.
 
 
accualy its dutch flemish is a dialect in belgium like you have the dialects in both dutch and belgian
 
 
I thought I was being tactful in case there were any Flemings listening Smile
 
I know the Dutch call it Dutch.
 
Incidentally it shouldn't be forgotten that the United Kingdom certainly recognises Welsh as an official language, and I think Gaelic (though I'm not sure about that).


Edited by gcle2003 - 13-Aug-2006 at 15:25
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  Quote xi_tujue Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 15:26
Originally posted by Jorsalfar

Sami is an official language in Sweden,Norway and Finland.
 
Switzerland has four official languages.
 
yeah french german italian and an old roman sort of language right, what is it called again and how manny speakers?
I rather be a nomadic barbarian than a sedentary savage
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  Quote rider Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Aug-2006 at 17:37
The fourth language is something called like Romanian or Retoromanian whatever that meant. The speaking percentege is below 4% if I remember correctly.
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  Quote Peter III Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Aug-2006 at 00:04
I always thought that most nations spoke two languages, one among the aristocracy and monarchy, and one among the lower and more common classes.
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  Quote rider Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Aug-2006 at 02:49
This is true, but was the language that the nobility spoke a national language or just a fashion?
 
 
In that manner however, in Estonia they spoke Russian, German, Swedish, Polish and Estonian.
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  Quote John Lenon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Aug-2006 at 10:24
Originally posted by Peter III

I always thought that most nations spoke two languages, one among the aristocracy and monarchy, and one among the lower and more common classes.
 
Agree with Peter  III. Good examples are:
1. Baltic states: Latvia - nobles were germans - of course they speak German, common class used their own language - latvian.
2. Norway: Nobles (Dutch, after them Swedish) - one language, common people - their own language. I think because of this today thera are 2 official Norwagian laguages.
3. Some time later in Russia (18-19 century) nobles spoke ... French Clap It was good manner to speak French and most of Russian aristocracy knew this language better then Russian LOL
 
 
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  Quote Cent Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Aug-2006 at 10:47
Finland. I think they have Finnish and Swedish.
They don't speak enough about the Kurds, because we have never taken hostages, never hijacked a plane. But I am proud of this.
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  Quote rider Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Aug-2006 at 12:47
Originally posted by John Lenon

2. Norway: Nobles (Dutch,
 
I am scared LOL....terriblyConfused .... Dutch in NorwayClap
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  Quote John Lenon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14-Aug-2006 at 13:01
I want to say Danes (Denmark) Tongue
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