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    Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:42
Most of these writers died violently either during the Russian Civil War or, more commonly, in Joseph Stalin's purges of the 1930s. As a result, Uzbekistan's intellectual and cultural life suffered trauma for decades to come. Only since independence have its finest modern authors regained posthumous recognition.

During the second half of the 20th century there was a great increase in the number of writers but not in the quality of the writing. Until the 1980s most Soviet Uzbek authors produced tendentious novels, plays, and verse in line with official Communist Party themes. Among the older generation of contemporary authors is Asqad Mukhtar (b. 1921), whose Socialist Realist novel Ap singillr (Sisters; original and translation published during the 1950s), has been translated into English and other languages. Mukhtar, along with others of his generation, effectively encouraged the creative efforts of younger Uzbek poets and authors, a group far less burdened than their elders by the sloganeering characteristic of Soviet Socialist Realism.Among these newer voices, Razzaq Abdurashid, Abduqahhar Ibrahim, Jamal Kamal, and Erkin Wahid, all born in the 1930s, and Rauf Parfi, Halima Khudayberdiy, Muhammad Ali, Sharaf Bashbek, Mamadali Mahmud, all born in the 1940s or later, stand out. Several of these new writers have contributed striking dramas and comedies to the theatre of Uzbekistan. Privately organized drama and theatre were very active in Samarkand, Margilan, Tashkent, and other cities before 1917. In the difficult economic situation of the 1990s, however, the loss of government subsidies led to a drastic decline in theatrical activity, and the cinema and television have further emptied the seats in legitimate theatres
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:43
Musical tradition throughout southern Central Asia provides a distinctive classical form of composition in the great cycles of maqoms handed down from master performers to apprentices. Television and radio as well as concert halls offer maqom cycles in live performances.

Uzbekistan's cultural heritage includes magnificent monuments in the national architectural tradition: the mausoleum of the Sāmānid ruler Ismāʿīl I (9th and 10th centuries) in Bukhara, the great mosques and mausoleums of Samarkand, constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries, and many other fine tombs, mosques, palaces, and madrasahs. An interesting recent development is the reclamation, renovation, and reconsecration of many smaller old mosques, some very elegant though badly damaged; these had been relegated by communist authorities to serve asgarages, storehouses, shops, slaughterhouses, or museums. Muslim rebuilders now accurately reconstruct these damaged buildings as part of a comprehensive drive to re-create the Islāmic life suppressed by the communists between 1920 and 1990.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:45
History

Humans lived in what is now Uzbekistan as early as the Paleolithic Period, some 55,000 to 70,000 years ago. The great states of Bactria, Khwārezm, and Sogdiana emerged during the 1st millennium BC in the fertile region around the Amu Darya, which served as a centre of trade and cultural exchange on the Silk Road between East and West.

After the 8th-century introduction of Islām into Central Asia, several streams of population flowed into the territory now forming the land of Uzbekistan. Some migrations contributed to the demographic diversity that characterizes Uzbekistan. Before the lasting conquest by the Russians in the late 19th century, however, military invaders generally soon withdrew from the area. Arabs after AD 711, Mongols under Genghis Khan from the 13th century, Dzungars in the 15th17th centuries, and Persians in the 18th century exerted less impact upon the makeup of the population than upon the social and political systems, because they left behind relatively small, assimilable numbers of their people.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:45
The early Uzbeks

One great incoming human wave that did substantially change the demography of the region brought the ethnonym Uzbek to the heart of that territory. These Turkic-Mongol tribes came from northwestern Siberia, where they probably adopted the name Uzbek from the admired Muslim ruler of the Golden Horde, z Beg (Uzbek) Khan (reigned 131241). A descendant of Genghis Khan, Abūʾl-Khayr Khan, rose to the khanship of the Uzbek confederation in Siberia in 1428 at the age of 17. During his 40-year reign Abūl-Khayr intervened either against or in support of several Central Asian Timurid princes and led the Uzbek tribes southeastward to the north bank of the Syr Darya. However, a number of Uzbek tribes, adopting the name Kazak, broke away and fled east in the mid-1450s; their departure weakened the Uzbeks. Abūl-Khayr continued to lead the main Uzbek body until 1468, when hewas killed as the Uzbek confederation was shattered in combat with invading Dzungars.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:46
During the reign of the greatest Shaybanid ruler, ʿAbd Allah Khan II (reigned 155798), Shaybanid rule was expanded in Balkh, Samarkand, Tashkent, and Fergana. Uzbek hegemony extended eastward as far as Badakhstān and East Turkistan and westward to Khorāsān and Khwārezm.

The Shaybanids' successor, the Ashtarkhanid (Janid) dynasty, ruled Transoxania after 1599. From the elevated political and cultural accomplishments of the Shaybanids, the level and extent of Uzbek influence slid into decline under Ashtarkhanid rule, reaching a low point by themid-1700s. The severe jolt that Iran's Afsharid ruler, Nādir Shāh, administered in his quick defeatof Bukhara and Khiva in 1740 decapitated the Ashtarkhanid dynasty, which was finally extinguished in 1785. By then, power in southern Central Asia had already shifted to three energetic tribal formations: the khanates of Bukhara (which included the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand), Khiva (northwest of Bukhara on the Amu Darya), and Kokand (centred in the Fergana Valley in the east).

In Bukhara, which became the dominant Central Asian power, Manghit tribal chieftains during the late 18th century energized the khanate and revived its fortunes under the leadership of Emir Maʿsum (also known as Shah Murad; reigned 17851800), a remarkable dervish emir who forwent wealth, comfort, and pomp. In the khanate of Khiva, the Qonghirat tribe succeeded the Ashtarkhanid dynasty and prevailed until 1920, leaving Khiva a museum capital of architectural, cultural, and literary monuments. The Uzbek Ming tribe, imperial in ambition, founded a new dynasty in Kokand about 1710 as the Ashtarkhanids faltered. Known for the elegant civilization at their courts, the rulers Umar Khan (reigned 180922) and Muhammad ʿAli Khan (also known as Madali Khan; reigned 182242), gave the Uzbek Ming dynasty and the Kokand khanate a reputation for high culture that joined with an expansionist foreign policy. At its height the khanate dominated many nearby Kazak and Kyrgyz tribes and resisted Russian aggression. Subsequent rulers in the dynasty, however, failed to sustain either the cultural or the political standards of their predecessors
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:47
Russian and Soviet rule

The geographic isolation of Central Asia slowed the southward advance of Russian forces, but Bukhara was invaded in 1868 and Khiva in 1873; both khanates became Russian protectorates. An uprising in Kokand was crushed in 1875 and the khanate formally annexed the following year, completing the Russian conquest of Uzbek territory; the region became part of the Russian province of Turkistan.

Subdued by czarist Russian weaponry and colonial administrators, Central Asians at the turn of the 20th century diverged along two cultural and social orientations. The old intelligentsia and clergy of Bukhara and Khiva generally persisted on their antiquated course, resisting the modernization of educational, religious, economic, and governmental institutions. Simultaneously, a small but vigorous expression of dissent emerged in the form of an active reform movement. Reformers were centred in Samarkand but were also present in Bukhara, Tashkent, and Fergana. Jadids, as the reformers called themselves, were inspired and assisted by Crimean Tatar reformers such as Ismail Bey Gaspirali. (See BTW: Activities of the Jadid reformers .) The Jadids enjoyed sporadic protection by czarist governors in Turkistan, and they were able to prepare numbers of young urban intellectuals for moderate change in their society and culture. Modernization also came to Turkistan with the advent of the telegraph, telephone, and press; railroads reached Samarkand and Tashkent by 1905.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:47
The Russian Revolution of 1917 brought instability and conflict to Turkistan. Muslims convoked a National Congress in Kokand and established an autonomous government under Mustafa Chokayev, which was liquidated in February 1918 by Red Army forces sent from Tashkent. This action provoked a prolonged resistance movement known as the Basmachi (Qorbashi) Revolt. Slavic and European troops and colonists controlling Tashkent successfully moved to depose the emir of Bukhara and the khan of Khiva in 1920. New leaders initially came from the ranks of the Jadids, but, by the end of 1921, communist-dominated politicians held power in both old capitals.

In 192425, politicians directed by the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) redrew the Central Asian map according to a monoethnic principle for each major entity and its people. Karakalpakstan and Uzbekistan arose overnight as ethnically designated territories within theUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), which had been established in December 1922. The authorities soon granted Uzbekistan the formal status of constituent republic of the U.S.S.R. Karakalpakstan was transferred to the Uzbek S.S.R. in 1936, though it retained autonomous status. Uzbeks remained a minority in the capital city of Tashkent and were underrepresented in the Soviet bureaucracy and administration. Uzbeks quickly learned that real political authority was held by the Communist Party of Uzbekistan (CPUz), the republic's branch of the central Communist Party. The core membership of the CPUz, and for decades its majority, consisted of Slavs and others from outside Central Asia, who made all important local decisions except those reserved to the Soviet centre.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:48
The trauma introduced in Uzbekistan by the communist political purges of the 1930s exacted heavy casualties, especially among Uzbekistan's relatively small class of intelligentsia and leaders. World War II brought further emphatic cultural changes as the Soviet authorities movedthousands of Russian, Polish, and Jewish managers, intellectuals, and cultural figures to the towns and villages of Uzbekistan. The death of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in 1953 helped free Uzbek institutions from some of the negative pressures of his era. In 195455 Tashkent was again opened to noncommunist visitors from the West after decades of isolation, and Uzbekistan slowly regained direct contact with the outside world. Uzbeks rose to high levels in Soviet politics; Nuritdin A. Muhitdinov, Sharaf R. Rashidov, and Yadgar S. Nasriddinova made Uzbeks visible in the U.S.S.R., serving actively in Soviet diplomacy and foreign affairs.

Despite the easing of some controls on press and assembly initiated during the 1980s by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, the communist leadership of Uzbekistan continued its firm control over the republic. In August 1991, CPUz chiefs led by Islam Karimov supported the Russian coup attempt against Gorbachev; after the coup failed, Uzbekistan moved quickly to declare independence from the U.S.S.R. The communiststhe only experienced politicians in the republicretained mastery over the new country, and Karimov easily won the 1991 presidential election.

Like much of Central Asia, Uzbekistan persistently ignored democracy in its practical politics if not in its statements of principle. Opposition parties were prohibited from participating in the 1991 and 1994 elections, and democratic activists were kidnapped or attacked. The government's human rights record drew international criticism.

In the early years of independence, Uzbekistan adopted symbols of sovereignty such as a new constitution, currency, national anthem, and flag. However, Russia, China, and other states strongly influenced the economic and political affairs of the new republic. Meanwhile, the degree of diversity in Uzbekistan's population diminished, as many people, including Jews, Crimean Tatars, Germans, Greeks, Meskhetian Turks, and Slavs, became apprehensive of Uzbek ethnocentrism and began emigrating.

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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:49
For editional reading of Central Asia, see these books/SIZE]
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:52
Geography
Recent accounts from travelers to Central Asian countries include Philip Glazebrook, Journey to Khiva (1992); Georgie Anne Geyer, Waiting for Winter to End: An Extraordinary Journey Through Soviet Central Asia (1994); Jonathan Maslow, Sacred Horses: The Memoirs of a Turkmen Cowboy (1994); Colin Thubron, The Lost Heart of Asia (1994); and Charles Undeland and Nicholas Platt, The Central Asian Republics: Fragments of Empire, Magnets of Wealth (1994). International Monetary Fund, Turkmenistan (1992), studies the economy.
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:53
History
Ren Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia (1970; originally published inFrench, 1939), although dated, is still the most comprehensive and basically sound survey of theregion in English. Denis Sinor, Inner Asia: HistoryCivilizationLanguages, 2nd rev. ed. (1971), serves as a broad overview. Additional works on the region's history include Gavin Hambly (ed.), Central Asia (1969; originally published in German, 1966); Geoffrey Wheeler, The Modern History of Soviet Central Asia (1964, reprinted 1975); and A.H. Dani et al. (eds.), History of Civilizations ofCentral Asia (1992 . Various topics on Central Asia are treated in The Encyclopaedia of Islam,new ed. (1954 . The best short sketch on the region's history is found in Eshan Yarshater (ed.), Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 5, fascicles 23 (199091). On Turkmenistan itself, studies include Duncan Cumming (compiler), The Country of the Turkomans: An Anthology of Exploration from theRoyal Geographical Society (1977); Nikolay Murav'yov, Journey to Khiva: Through the Turkoman Country (1977); and Mehmet Saray, Turkmens in the Age of Imperialism: A Study of the Turkmen People and Their Incorporation into the Russian Empire (1989).
Edward Allworth

David Roger Smith

Gavin R.G. Hambly

Denis Sinor
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:55
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:56
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 13:58
a
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  Quote gok_toruk Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Aug-2005 at 14:00
That's about it for the time being.
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  Quote perdon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Aug-2005 at 07:24

..

let me tell you one thing ,you put two pics of uzbek in this forum ,these are uzbeks but they are uyhgurstonlik ozbek ,not reall o'zbek ,we (o'zbeklar) discused two pics couple months ago in one forum of uzbekiston with tens of thousands of real  o'zbek !!!

..

Edited by Imperator Invictus
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  Quote perdon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Aug-2005 at 07:25

Originally posted by gok_toruk

a

tell me what is this ? you think this o'zbek thing ? 

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  Quote perdon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Aug-2005 at 07:33

Originally posted by gok_toruk

who are these ? TURKMEN ? they don't even dress like central asian !

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  Quote perdon Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Aug-2005 at 07:36

Originally posted by gok_toruk

who are these ? uyhgur ? don't make me laugh !! my ex-girl friend is uyhgur from astana (capital of Qozoqiston ),she is just sitting beside me !!

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  Quote Feramez Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Aug-2005 at 11:51
Originally posted by perdon

Originally posted by gok_toruk

a

tell me what is this ? you think this o'zbek thing ? 

This looks Chinese.

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