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The Crime of modern historians!

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    Posted: 01-Jun-2010 at 15:14
Part nineteen.

CAN WE CAST LIGHT, UPON THE “DARK AGES”?- (bad guys try to keep their actions covered up, they do a lot of their dirty work at night, darkness hides their crimes hidden from view. Their favorite saying is “Let’s keep them in the dark about this.”)

Now we come to the most perplexing part of the study of the ancient world, the mysterious world of “Dark Ages”. These periods of “blank” activity were originally assigned to the residents of the Greek mainland, the Isles, and to parts of Asia Minor, including Troy. I am sure, if you were to ask the average student of ancient history, “Which major culture of the ancient past endured a Dark Age?, you would, most often get the answer, “Why Greece, of course!”

The “dark age” for Greece, was created because of excavations, performed at Troy, Mycenae, and other sites that uncovered Egyptian remains (such as pottery, and jewelry, etc.) in the excavated layers. These Egyptian remains (Or remains almost exactly like them.) were, already firmly dated to the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom of Egypt. Because the pottery shards/sherds, (note, like so many other words found in this essay, I have seen the experts spell sherds/shards both ways.) were nearly exact doubles for those found in the layers of Mycenae and Troy, and were found mixed among the Egyptian remains of the Middle Kingdom, the layer(s) was/were dated to some part of the Middle Kingdom. Thus each side balanced out and “the proof was”, so to speak, “in the Pudding.”

As the archaeologists excavated, the layers (below the Middle Kingdom Egyptian era.) were firmly identified, again thru pottery dating, as well as other methods, to a different Egyptian era which was also firmly dated. As already mentioned, the dates of the 18th Dynasty were pretty well set, and the dates of the other older Egyptian dynasties were also set, so the layers of the Greek remains also were fixed in time.

Historians, archaeologists, and historian-chronographers, already had a date for the Greek conquest of Troy in their books. That date was -1280 B.C.E. plus or minus a few years. And, there were already reports of a lot of unusual activity in the period about -1200 B.C.E., which became known as the period of the “Sea People / Peoples of the Sea / People of the Isles”. Certain layers of debris were found both at Troy, at Mycenae, and the sites of Pylos and Tiryns among others, that matched the period of Egyptian history already dated to about -1300 to -1200 B.C.E. The layers of occupation found above the -1300 to -1200 layer were correspondingly dated to -800 to -700 B.C.E., or later, or they reportedly did not exist at all.

It appears that remains of the period of -1200 to -900, or -850, or -750, were always in scant supply or not found at all. Thus a period of about 400 to 500 years was found where no occupational remains (at least of any account) were recovered.

It was as if, in the aftermath of the destruction of Troy and Mycenae, Tiryns and Pylos, no one visited nor lived at the site for approximately 400-500 years. In almost every case, the cities were found to be vacated, about the same time, and found in the same condition relative to the dating of the pottery.

About the only thing that caused any worry in the excavations was the presence of “Intrusive Shards” (also spelled, more precisely, “sherds” in some records.), but more on this next.

The 300-500 year “dead period” was termed “The Dark Age”. Where any of the layers were found with pottery shards/sherds, that did not match the accepted date I.E. -750 B.C.E., or they were found in -1200 B.C.E. or vis-a-versa, the site was said to be violated, or the shards were said to be intrusive. Shards dating from c.-1200, which were found in c.-700 layers were said “...to have percolated from below...”, etc. Remains from c.-750 found in c.-1200 layers were said “...to have percolated from above...”, items from the c. -1200 layer that were found basically intact in the c. -750 layer were considered, “...heirloom items...”, tombs dating to -c. -1200 were found to be full of material from c. -750 or c. -650, these tombs were said to have been “...opened in the past and reused...”, etc. In at least one case, the percolation problem seems even capable of penetrating a burned layer full of darkened small rocks, and other debris. In every case, some excuse (like those above) was quickly found to dispel any problem with the accepted Egyptian dating system!

What is even more astounding is the fact that in almost every case, the site excavator had certain reservations about the results. To many of these experts, the period between the pottery changes, would have been just a matter of 30-100 years (A workable system of 50 years had been used to date other layers in the same dig and at other digs.)   It was not until they realized (because of the pottery dating scheme linked to Egypt) there was a 300 to 600 year difference, that some of them caved in or were forced to cave in to the inevitable results.

Linguists, and other experts on word usage, rhyme, and historical accuracy were also amazed that the works of Homer (“The blind poet.” Note that the word “poet” might well have different meanings than you might believe?), who may have lived about 400, or so, years after the fall of Troy could have been so accurate, when he gives a vivid description of the ancient Greeks, Trojans, and other kingdoms that were said to have participated in the Trojan War. It seems that Homer correctly described many items now confirmed to have existed during the Mycenaean Age. The pottery, armor, and jewelry, the cities and towns, that had not been seen by any living soul on the planet for at least 400 years.

No written document of any kind has been found during this period called the dark age. Some scholars have used the excuse that the people made use of nothing by papyrus or hides to write upon during this period and all evidence had quickly rotted away. It appears, to some, that the people lost the ability to read and write, to build and rebuild, to keep any remnant of the past alive. It was almost as if the entire area had been abandoned by any living person. (A period of ghosts!)

Modern archaeologists, like Dr. William H. Stiebling, Jr., who responded to my correspondence concerning the matter of the long period of an illiterate “Dark Age”; the belief by some scholars in this “Dark Age”, and the magnificence of the literary work of Homer, which burst forth into the world of -700 or earlier, reportedly after centuries of illiteracy, poverty and desolation, (I had said the works of Homer were “magical”) had this to say in the Jan. / Feb., 2002 issue of Archaeology Odyssey magazine.

Next is some testimony by a hostile witness, who may be a co-conspirator.

Dr. Stiebing, what answers do you have for the court concerning the above?

Dr. Stiebing wrote a reply stating;

“.., the vast majority of historians and archaeologists
specializing in ancient Aegean civilizations (not just
some scholars) agree that Greece entered a ‘centuries-
long illiterate Dark Age’ following the collapse of
Mycenaenan civilization....”

Thank you Doctor! So you and most of your colleagues say. And your answer is just what I expected. But is there any evidence of the existence of these societies that you can point at, to support your allegations?

Dr. Stiebing replies;

“...Oral epic poetry has flourished in illiterate or semi-
illiterate societies, including the Balkans and Crete in
relatively recent times. Scholars have noted in Homer’s
epics the same techniques of oral composition,
especially the use of memorized descriptions and
catchwords...... The production of exceptional poetry,
even long (-1200 to -700?) epic poems like the Iliad           
and the Odyssey, does not assume the existence of
literacy or advanced civilization. The appearance of        (Really! How many other instances
Homer’s epics at the end of the Greek Dark Age is            can exist where this is not true?)
‘magical’ only in that one or more brilliant poets
creatively used a variety of oral traditions and
keen insight into human nature to produce
classics of literature.”

Dr. Stiebing, I will present the following evidence that will tend to prove that the “vast majority of historians and archaeologists specializing in ancient Aegean civilizations..”, as you said, have not found any evidence to support your answer!

Also, Dr. Stiebing (if he would like to hear it?), just whom / who were / was there, living in the area, to have heard these long epic poems, (that were being recited by loquacious bards) over the three, four or five centuries? Epic oral poetry created and mixed with history and mysticism reportedly passed from bard to bard, with not one of the bards ever making any major changes to the material (as was allegedly done to the Bible of the Hebrews). These major changes to the Bible are said to have occurred to account for changing times and mores, word meanings, and even redactors, etc..

The epic poetry of Homer, however, is now “most famous” for keeping most of the facts about the ancient heroes correct, facts that would not be known until the late 19th and 20th centuries C.E.

Dr. Stiebing, here is some of our evidence!

In Rys Carpenter's book, Discontinuity in Greek Civilization, (1966), he reviews the evidence of archaeological discoveries in Greece and the Helladic islands. Carpenter says thus;   "Despite the fact that there is no indication that the
late Myceneans were driven out by any human
intervention, they abandoned the south Aegean
islands even as they deserted the central Peloponnese.            
For some reason and for some cause over which they
had no control they found life in Greece and in the
southern Aegean so unendurable that they could not
remain."                                                                                (What could make life so bad in                                                                                                                    this area?) In every case, it appears, the record found in the dirt, rocks, pottery and human remains (or the lack of them), in all these places, serves notice that the inhabitants appear to have disappeared from the face of the earth for 300-500 years or more.

End of part nineteen.
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Part twenty.

Some statements and testimony may come from witnesses and co-conspirators that want to confess and tell what they really know, but are too involved to admit they have perpetuated the crime. They may well be listed as, “un-indicted co-conspirators.”

Sir Maurice Bowra, in his book Homer and His Forerunners (Edinburgh, 1955) pp 1-2, says; "There is no evidence whatsoever that the
Mycenaean script continued anywhere in Greece after
c. 1,200. There is no trace of writing of any kind in                      (11th or 12th Century)
the sub-Mycenaean and Protogeometric periods, or
indeed before the middle of the eighth century, when              (Eighth Century?)
the new and totally different Greek alphabet makes its
first appearance. Now, this is surely not an accident.
A single scratched letter from this period would be enough to show that writing survived; but not one
has been found.                                                                              (For 300 to 400 years!)

This is undeniably a most remarkable phenomenon,
for which it is hard to find either a parallel or an
explanation. A society seems suddenly to have
become illiterate, and to have remained so for
centuries. How and why this happened we do not
know..."

Bowra, seems to contradict the belief of Stiebing, and thus, supports my theory as well as my case, as do my next two witnesses.
Rhys Carpenter (Folk Tale, Fiction and Saga in the Homeric Epics) has stated he “did not believe, that an oral tradition, stretching over several centuries, would be capable of preserving a detailed picture of Mycenaean Greece.” According to Professor Ekrem Akurgal, Die Kunst Anatoliens von Homer bis Alexander (Berlin, 1961) and with your permission, I have paraphrased his words. "The archaeological record of Asia Minor is just as bleak as that of Greece, and has been found for almost five centuries of its past to be historically and archaeologically void." See more on this subject later.   It must be noted that no poets in Greece or Italy, nor any where else, ever mention a Dark Age in Greece, following the Trojan War. Neither did Herodotus, Thucydides, nor Xenophon, nor Aristotle or any Greek historian, or any Roman, nor did Diodorus of Sicily ever mention this Dark Age. How is it that these great men ignored such a “dark” hole in the history of Greece?   Oh, yes I do know that some mention was made of “temporary displacements of persons and peoples”, but not any mention of the multiple centuries involved. In fact, the only mention we have any first hand knowledge of, is about a band of leaders preceding the time of Homer, are a few words that have been written about the "Argive Tyrants". Since they appear to have lived immediately following the “Dark Age.” This is a group that some believe, immediately followed the great leaders of the Trojan War, the Achaeans, whom could also, easily be described by any historian as “Tyrants of the Argive Plain.”   
The prosecutor then faces the jury and declares;

The fact is that the Dark Age is a very modern invention, only coined in the last few decades of the nineteenth century!

As E. V. Rieu, wrote in the preface to his book, The Iliad, (London, 1953);

"We know from the archaeological evidence that
Homer attempts to archaeologize, even to take us
into the Mycenaean Age...yet in Homer's day there
was no science of archaeology, no written history
to assist the historical novelist. Where then did
he get these details of the past?"                                                     (Indeed, where?) Even areas of the ancient world, reported to have been settled by heros or survivors of Troy, can only show archaeological evidence dating back to c. 800-750 or even -700!
Evidence in the fields of pottery and ivory carvings have long had a big problem with items taken from various digs, constantly having arguments over whether one is c. -1200 or, circa
-750.

In each case the "experts" seem to have decided that the c. 800-700 B.C.E. Greeks, rediscovered the styles of c. 1,200 B.C.E. and earlier.

Manufactured artifacts, separated by 300 to 500 years are constantly characterized as "closely akin in style...heirlooms of the past...having many similarities...having the same close resemblances....presenting a perplexing problem...very reminiscent of....having Orientalized patterns...percolated from below....penetrated from above...", etc, etc.!

Every site is remarked as having these perplexing problems, but the researchers, at least in the early days made No Remarks like those above. The early excavators assumed the dirt revealed a continuous record of the past, with no major interruptions. After the establishment of the Egyptian chronology scheme, later researches had to make the prior information come into compliance with the Egyptian modes. It appears any one who made any waves would be ridiculed and reduced to rubble by the ruling class of Egyptologists. Their dominance was not to be challenged!   Only small adjustments could be made, excuses had to be contrived to explain many or all of the so called "perplexing problems" that existed in the Greek world (as well as other places). Thus no waves were made, all things were made to fit the accepted scheme of dating. A dating scheme based upon Egyptian history, which it appears is written upon a stone much harder than a diamond! Each facet of Egyptian chronology stone appears to today’s experts, to be almost perfectly ground. Perfectly reflecting the prior dynasty as well as projecting the next, in an inexorable display of the perfection and brilliant radiance of the Egyptian dating system. This is a system that became so all powerful that all other so called experts in other areas of the ancient world, had to make their histories and their works fall into synchronism.   Because of the infallibility of the Egyptian chronology, entire civilizations came into creation, histories had to be stretched (rarely shrunken) to match the long history of Egypt. If, by God, you found a piece of jewelry that dated to the time of Thutmose III in your excavation (Outside of Egypt), then you have to date that level, to the time of Thutmose III, or at the most, shortly thereafter. This is because the “time” of Thutmose III was forever and forever fixed.

Thus came into being the “Dark Age”!! After all, you could only make up just so much history. It was always possible for these “experts” to stretch or shrink the rule of a particular ruler or dynasty, to make the chronology compliant to changes of 5 years or 50 years, even possibly by as much as 100 years, but a period of 400 or more years had to create large holes or “Dark Ages.”

If you are a student of Ancient Egypt, then you will also recognize that only one dynastic era has been noticeably altered in the last 100 years. It is the period of rule of the Hyksos! The archaeologists or explorers of the 19th Century did not have this Dark Age, to them the end of one era easily merged with the next. As many of us think, it should today.

According to the best available evidence there existed no large communities in all of Greece during the centuries long dark age, except (maybe) Athens! Maybe Athens would provide the solid archaeological evidence, proving that continuous occupation occurred there, even though the experts believed it would be found in a lesser state of excellence.

It would be in Athens that proof of the degeneration of the building arts, pottery styles and degenerate art itself, would be revealed in the excavated areas.

Was this the case?

Did you know that there exists today in this world a group of researchers who contend that “all of history before 1,500 A. D.”, is made-up, fictitious or false. The believe they have some proofs that the histories of England, Germany, Italy, the Church of Rome, etc., were all only written down after 1500 CE. Bacon and Shakespeare are given much of the credit for the history of England before 1500 CE.

Other researchers have for years also contended that the ancient history of Egypt, as reported to Solon and other Greek researchers by Egyptian Priests, was nothing more than a made up story to impress the Greeks of the real power of ancient Egypt and nothing more! Could Mesopotamia be any different? Or the Greek world? Was Constantinople really the same as Jerusalem? Was the reported leader of the Muslims, “Suliman the Great”, the same as “Solomon?” People do like to brag!

THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF ATHENS- (another expert witness)

Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, I will now present a little more evidence to support my argument. Mr. Stammer, just what did the experts expect to find in Athens and just what did they find when Athens was excavated? And, By what methods are Greek archaeological finds dates?

Jan Stammer, a former graduate student in Ancient History (and the former secretary to Imanuel Velikovsky), wrote in his article; The Dark Age Spanned;

“Of all the excavated sites in Greece and the Aegean
region, it was to Athens that the archaeologists pointed
as the one place which preserved a continuity from the
end of the Mycenaean age down to classical times, and
where a sequence of pottery spanning the Dark Age
could be followed. Athens thus became the site by
which the finds at all other excavated places were
identified and placed in time. We are therefore bound
to examine the actual stratigraphic situation at Athens.

The sequence of pottery styles at Athens--and thus in
all the Greek lands--is usually given thus?

Middle Helladic                     to ca. -1500
Mycenean (late Helladic)      to ca. -1230            (Note, this can also be spelled Mycenaean!)
Sub-mycenean                      to ca. -1050
Protogeometric                      to ca. - 900
Geometric                             to ca. - 680

It must immediately said that neither in Athens
nor at any other site in Greece has a stratified        (No, we do not know of his proof!)
sequence such as this been uncovered. Then on
what basis was the scheme built?

....The final stages of the Mycenaean period at Athens were                           (-1200?)
illuminated by Broneer’s excavations on the Acropolis in the
late 1930's. Broneer found that emergency measures had
been taken to fortify the city and prepare it for withstanding
a siege: one of the measures was the construction of a deep
well on the Acropolis with a wooden stairway leading down
the shaft. At some point the stairway collapsed and the well
was abandoned and filled with discarded sherds of late
Mycenaean pottery. (See O. Broneer, “A Mycenaean
Fountain on the Athenian Acropolis” in Hesperia 8 {1939})

Following the destruction of the fountain (Plato in his Kritis
attributes it to ‘earthquakes’) occupation on the Acropolis
ceased; only in the seventh and sixth centuries did building
activity resume on the site.

Where did the people go during the dark centuries? This
is a question which baffles the archaeologists. From the end
of the Mycenaean age till the seventh century, there will be no
‘dwelling’ places in Athens -- (see, E.A. Gardner and M. Gary,
section entitled-“Early Athens”, in The Cambridge Ancient
History, Vol. III (New York, 1925), p. 597) only a necropolis,        (Ghosts in residence?)
or ‘city of the dead.’ Where was the city of the living?”

Mr. Stammer, goes on the discuss the styles of pottery found during the excavation of the Acropolis and adjacent areas. He discussed the burials found in the Kerameikos cemetery, which was found next to the Diplon gate.

“The Kerameikos cemetery excavation revealed pottery
in the “protogeometric” style, which is characterized by                         (-1050 to -900)
a narrow band of decoration around the middle of the
vase, with the rest of the vessel having a black glaze.
The decoration inside the band consists of concentric
circles drawn by some sort of multiple i compass. The
relationship of this ware with the latest Mycenaean                          (-1200 to -1150)
pottery found inside the fountain on the Acropolis
cannot be judged for ‘it is a significant fact that the
pottery from the fountain extends to, but does not
overlap, the period represented by the early graves in
the Kerameikos cemetery.”

(see Broneer, “A Mycenaean Fountain on the Athenian Acropolis”, p. 597)

To quickly sum up the observations of Mr. Stammer, on the Athenian excavations; He feels that there exists evidence of proto-geometric pottery, at the sites covered above.   Evidenced which shows that this geometric ware was found to be contemporaneous with Mycenaean/Mycenaean ware...

“Evidence amounting to proof that Protogeometric and Geometric pottery preceded and was contemporary with the Mycenaean was unearthed by C. C. Edgar at Phylakopi on the Aegean island of Melos. Edgar found Geometric (c. -900 to c. -680) pottery under Mycenaean (c. -1500 to c. -1230), and mixed with it, until the very end of the Mycenaean deposit.” (See, C.C. Edgar, “The Pottery” in Excavations at Phylakopi in Melos [Supplementary paper no. 4 of the Journal of Hellenic Studies {London, 1904}, pp. 85-107, and 159-163.)

Excavations all over Greece, Crete, Cyprus, the Levant and Asia Minor were found to have some of these “discrepancies”! Possibly by now someone has made a spirited attempt to explain the dark age of Athens, but I’d bet there are plenty of problems with it.

Every society in the area has now inherited a “Dark Age” even the Babylonian-Assyrian period!

Oh!, I’m sorry members of the Jury, you may not have ever heard of this “Dark Age”, even though it has something to do with the Hittites. (or as I believe the more correct term is Hattites, or Khattites, but more on this group later.) I know that most of you have been taught that the king lists of the great societies along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers were “really” written in stone (baked mud at least), but you may have been told the wrong information. We will later attempt to explain this “Dark Age.”

All disputes over the dating sequence, even thoughts from well respected archaeologists questioning the dating scheme, were overcome by the Egyptian powers.

Even well respected archaeologists had to come over to the accepted version or face ridicule and the loss of any future funding. They faced a powerful lobby that could make or break anyone in the field. No one was willing to risk the ridicule of his peers, and the public accusation of being thought of as a maverick or nut! To fight the system was, to commit professional suicide! Much like it is today, I’d imagine.

It is by such methods that the “big bosses” get those members of their profession to give up free thinking and only pursue the “company line”, what ever that may be. They were literally forced to join the “conspiracy?” to preserve their positions. (Remember, the good members of the Communist Party, and their fellow travelers, loudly supported the Fascists, the Third Reich and Hitler, when it suited the needs of the Party Bosses.)

The ability to follow the “company line”, to support its decisions and policies, have always made one , “a good team player”! “Good Team Players”, have always had little trouble moving up in the hierarchy of any legal business or a criminal enterprise (See the Cable TV show “The Sopranos”). There is no reason this would not also be true in an enterprise that calls itself a “science”!

A few archaeologists / scholars have faced the ridicule or disdain of their peers, (but most often after their death) one such being Dame Kathleen Kenyon.

End of part twenty.
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Part twenty one.

As a result of this total victory for the Egyptian dating system, and the dynastic list, (that had a set pattern of dynasties, one following upon another, in a pattern that was unable to be changed to any great degree.) Egyptologists were very often willing to accept a ten to twenty year movement in the timing of various dynasties, but not much more. When it was necessary to remove time from any Egyptian era, the period of the Hyksos (or one of the other “intermediate period’s”) became the period that was routinely cut. Since this was considered a “dark era”, then who/whom would miss a few years, here and there, taken from such a misbegotten empire?

This the “Second Intermediate Period” (believed at one time to have ruled for 400 to 500 years or more!) has today been cut to 100-110 years. It may grow shorter in the future since the experts are unwilling to perform much cutting to many other dynasties. Since other societies have Dark Ages, is the “Second Intermediate Period” one “Dark Age”, or two for Egypt?


THE DARK AGE(s) OF MESOPOTAMIA, did you know about it / them?- (bringing in more circumstantial evidence.)

The following account has been taken, almost verbatim, from excerpts of chapters found in a book entitled, Ancient Mesopotamia-Portrait of a Dead Civilization, written by Dr. A. Leo Oppenheim, who was characterized in the preface of the book as, “one of the most distinguished Assyriologists of our time”. (This is the Revised Edition, completed by Erica Reiner.) Printed by the University of Chicago Press, (1964-1977), Pub. 1977. Note, Dr. Leo Oppenheim first published this book in 1964, it was revised and republished in 1977, Dr. Oppenheim died in 1974.

From the back cover of the book;

“Dr. Oppenheim studied the baked clay tablets of ancient Mesopotamia for more than thirty years and used his intimate knowledge of long-dead languages to put together a distinctively personal picture of the Mesopotamians of some three thousand years ago.” Note, I used this information, taken from the back cover of the book, to help provide the bonafide’s of the author.

From page 61. (Note, All words emphasized, were done so by me.)

“Among the foreign peoples passing through or penetrating
as conquerors into Mesopotamia, the Hurrian-speaking             (Are the Hittites Hurrian?)
groups are by far the most important because their own        (Some persons think the Jews
tradition was persistent enough to resist the influence of the               are Hurrian)
Akkadian language and, to an undetermined yet considerable
extent, that of Mesopotamian civilization. They are in                
evidence all over Mesopotamia---as is indicated by their
characteristic personal names--at least as early as the end of
the third millennium. For unknown reasons they rose to
political and cultural importance in the eastern section of
Mesopotamia, in a development of which the main and
crucial phase is hidden by the lack of documentation
available for the period we refer to as the : ‘Dark Age.’                    (-1600 to -1330)
But the vestiges of Hurrian political power, Hurrian
institutions, and their language and art, dating from before and
--largely--after the gap, are in evidence every-where, from        (The “gap”= Dark Age?)
Mari, the valleys of the Zagros and Armenia across Assyria,
into Anatolia and to the littoral of the Mediterranean. Hurrian
influence on the specific Assyrian formulation of Mesopotamian
civilization appears to have been especially important.

It is particularly difficult to gauge this and other,
non-Hurrian, influences on Assyria as it emerged
from the Dark Age because certain Assyrian circles                            
strove to emulate Babylonian standards in the                                    (Copy cats?)
realm of religious practice, in institutional behavior,
and even in language.”

Next is a discussion on the “Economic Facts” in Mesopotamia, taken from page 91-92. Oppenheim says;

“On principle, two types of foreign trade, as well as intercity
trade have to be distinguished. First the export of industrial
goods..... The second is a carrying trade between foreign
cities, trading outposts, and barbarian tribes.... Both types
of trade are attested around the Persian Gulf and in Asia
Minor before the Dark Age as well as along the Euphrates                      (Before -1600)
route into the Mediterranean littoral” (Sea) “before and after
that period. There were certainly other regions in which this                    (A Dark Age?)
and similar types of trade were carried on, but we lack
documentary evidence....

The inventories of the traders (tamkaru) of the period before
the Dark Age speak often of the importation of a large                             (Before -1600)
variety of luxury goods and essential raw materials...

We are best informed, for a short period before the Dark Age,               (Before -1600)
about the Old Assyrian merchants who settled in Kanis in
Anatolia. Merchants are known to have had settlements in other
localities of that region and along the communication lines to
Assur, although no textual evidence has been found there.
Their numerous letters, accounts, and legal documents (amounting
now to more that 16,000 texts, (all but 2,000 unpublished) have
been found in Kanis, in Boghazkeui, and, in very small numbers
outside of Anatolia. No text of that kind has yet been discovered
in Assur proper, the very center of the trade organization.... The
picture given by the tablets unearthed at Kanis is one which is
rare in the economic history of the ancient Near East and finds
its analogy only in the Phoenician cities of the Iron Age.....
We still do not know what historic circumstances fostered this
short-lived flowering in Kanis; it lasted little more than three
generations....

Additional international trade relations are reported in Mari texts;...
Mari seems, furthermore, to have been a station on the tin trade
route (between inner Asia and the Mediterranean) which
somewhat earlier was in the hands of Assyrian merchants. Tin
was, of course, essential for the manufacture of bronze....”

From page 93;

“After the Dark Age had passed, a situation similar to that attested              (c. -1330?)
in Mari is encountered all over the ancient Near East. Merchants of
the type found in Kanis, Assur, and probably also in Ur have
disappeared. The traders have become royal emissaries carrying
precious gifts from one ruler to the other and are sometimes called
sa mandatti, a designation which seems to refer to the source of
their capital. There exists treaties to guarantee their protection and
to limit their activities, which apparently could be combined with
private initiative. The risks seem to have become considerable; we
begin to read in the correspondence from Amarna and the documents              (-1400?)
from Ugarit and Bogazkeiu about attacks on caravans and the murder
of merchants. Trade relations between the Hittite capital Hattusa in
Anatolia, Ugarit, Alalakh, and Mesopotamia proper seem to have
been surprisingly intense in view of the instability of the political
situation and the dangers of overland communication. Strangely
enough, cuneiform texts, soon after the Amarna period, are silent (Another Dark Age?)
with respect to trade and traders, and this silence extends, for all
practical purposes, to the very end of the Babylonian empire.”

Note the mention of the Amarna period in the above account. By this mention the writer has been forced to make an identification of the Egyptian chronology and transfer it to the chronology of Mesopotamia. I believe that at one time, before the Egyptian chronology was cast into stone, that the Mesopotamian specialists had their on ideas about the above period. If there is a “Dark Age” in Mesopotamia, maybe we can trace it to this point in time.

Oppenheim goes on to tell us that “...Sargon II (721-705 B.C.) Was the first Assyrian ruler who succeeded in forcing Egypt to open trade relations with his country and that he considered the fact so important as to mention it in an inscription.” On page 94, he continues;

“...--after a successful Assyrian campaign that took place on Egypt’s
Palestinian border... Telmun reappears, after nearly a millennium             (I.E. Palmyra)
of eclipse, in cuneiform sources;... The lack of any written
evidence for first-millennium trade is not easily explained.
It may be suggested that the entire trade was in Aramaic hands and
that these merchants used papyrus and leather as writing materials...
We do not have answers to these questions.”

Dr. Oppenheim appears very lucid and honest in this book. When he is confronted with points in the chronology and history of Mesopotamia, where his “best knowledge” of the era has been forcibly obscured by the dates he and other colleagues in his field had been forced to use, by the power of Egyptian chronology, he (not so subtlety in my opinion) gives us the refreshing answer, “We do not have answers to these questions.”

He freely uses the word “strangely” or “difficult” or “seems” or “rare” or “for unknown reasons”, etc., to describe certain circumstances, that other writers would gloss over with a lot of suppositions. His entire structure (at least to me) seems to have a underlying current to it and it appears that, given the chance, Dr. Oppenheim would speak out to us and explain why he is forced to use such terms. It almost seems that he wants to imply that the current chronology (by which, he is expected to honor or at least agree with), should be changed and at that point, he would be able to make his answers “less obscure” to us.

In the chapter entitled, The City, on page 123, Oppenheim discusses;
“... a certain type of inscribed stone monument,
kudurru,...which lists privileges...by political
necessity. The stones are provided with reliefs
representing sacred objects, thus placing the
property...under divine sanction and protection.
... the kidinnu erected at the city gate was for
an entire city, the kudurru appears to have been
to agricultural holdings. Both these technical
terms are unknown up to and including the
Hammurapi period and appear only after the                                    (-1728 to -1686?)
Dark Age.”                                                                                              (After -1600)

End of part twenty one.
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Jun-2010 at 15:19
Part twenty two.

THE HISTORIOGRAPHY OF MESOPOTAMIA, AND THE DARK AGE

In the chapter of Ancient Mesopotamia, entitled “Historical Sources or Literature”, on p. 144, Dr. Oppenheim says;

Dr. Oppenheim, what period of Mesopotamian history do you consider the most accurate?

“Mesopotamian historiography--in the strictest sense--covers
a stretch of only about half a millennium, that is, from the time
of Tiglath-Pileser III (744-727 B.C.) in Assyria and Nabu-nasr
(747-734 B.C.) In Babylonia to the year 264 B.C., the thirty-
eights of the Selucid Era (Antiochus I Soter).
In annalistic form a number of chronicles present the events of
many of these years, although often in a very fragmentary way.

The data clearly exhibit the restrictions imposed by the nature
of the text type; they are concerned with war and peace, and
they record the death of kings and members of the royal family
in factual and terse form. Needless to say, they are often of
great importance to historians for the date they provided of
Mesopotamian and at times of Old Testament and Greek      (Note, no mention of Egypt!)
history. Some of the chronicles display their literary ambition
by offering a historia mundi.

They record in accepted style a selection of events before
the Dark Age and offer a series of striking episodes that were
apparently considered ‘historical,’ in the sense in which
Herodotus used the term. From these chronicles can be
gathered highly interesting episodes from the times of Sargon
of Akkad to Ilusuma of Assyria and Sumuabum of Babylon,
and from Irra-iitti of Isn to a very early Kassite king, Agum.”

From page 145;          

...As a more relevant expression of the consciousness of
history, the texts customarily called king lists present
themselves. They begin with that mystical moment ‘when
kingship descended from heaven’ and give us in great
number the names of kings and their capitals and the length
of time they reigned. In a rather complete sequence, the
entire known history of Babylon and Assyria is reflected
in several such lists of kings. They bridge the gaps of
documentation with a string of names and reach beyond the
period... One text co-ordinates the reigns of the kings of
Assyria and Babylonia; but what is preserved of it shed
light only on the last centuries of the co-existence of the
two countries. On another level, the same awareness of a
historical continuum speaks to us out of occasional references
in royal inscriptions that indicate in more or less exact
figures the number of years that had passed since a specific
historical event. It is generally assumed that the scribes
relied for information of this type on King lists and on two
related text types of utilitarian purpose; the date lists of the
Old Babylonian period (about one thousand different dates)
and the several types of eponym lists which cover with some
interruptions much of Assyrian history.

In Babylonia, from the Akkad period until the Dark Age,               (-2334 to -1600)
every year derived its name from an event that had occurred
in the preceding year, a system of dating that made it
necessary to keep lists of such names in order to establish
their correct sequence.”

From page 151;

Sargon remained a semi-mythical king throughout much of
the second millennium. The story of his birth and exposure,
his rescue from a basket floating down the Euphrates, his
rise to power, and last but not least, his campaigns,
adventures, victories, and reverses, and his conquest of the
West was read in Amarna in Egypt, in Hattusa in Anatolia,
and even translated into Hurrian and Hittite.”

Oppenheim, on page 155, begins a discussion of Hammurapi, which he says is spelled in most books, incorrectly as Hammurabi. There has been a lot of movement in the era attributed to Hammurapi. A number of years ago the “experts” on the subject considered Hammurapi to have begun his rule about -2200, and maybe even as late as -2100, but by 1975 the dates of his rule were listed by J. A. Brinkman, who wrote the Mesopotamian Chronology, Appendix for Dr. Oppenheim’s book, lists the period of Hammurapi as -1792 to -1750. In more current times I have seen the dates of his rule as, -1728 to -1686, even to -1600.   This is a change of 70 years and 64 years respectively! See they are able to change the dates in Mesopotamia by 50 or more years, but not Egypt! Recently Hammurapi has been dated to -1550!

This is certainly a big change for Hammurapi and the scholars that have (in the past) set their fortunes alongside his. As some of you may realize the more ancient and more famous your subject then the more famous is your status as an expert on the subject.

Thus while Hammurapi was for many years thought to be a third millennium ruler, ruling half of the civilized world in the west, along with the last rulers of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. He was subsequently removed from the great Old Kingdom (Note it did not move), into the beginning of the great Middle Kingdom of Egypt, along side of Pharaoh’s like Mentuhotep I, etc.. Later he was demoted? to the era of the weak Pharaoh’s of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. Kings like Ammenemes IV and even a female ruler named Sobkneferu. These were the two rulers of Egypt as it fell into the Second Intermediate Period.

With the last slide, Hammurapi finally fell into the greatest Egyptian trap possible, right smack dab in the middle of the Second Intermediate Period and those infamous and mostly unknown Hyksos kings. Quite a dreary place to be! But please note that we will work here with the figures given in the book and when later dates became important we will let you know. Also note that every time Hammurapi is moved closer to the present so are all of the kings that came after him. If we are quoting the correct sources, then all following dynasties in Mesopotamia had to be moved closer to the present by over 400 years! From -2,200 to -1728. Something to remember! Bet the “experts” of Mesopotamian history were pleased?

Dr. Oppenheim continues;

With Hammurapi a change occurs in the names of the                                  (-1750?)
kings of this dynasty; they all assume foreign (i.e.,
Amorite) names as if to stress their non-Akkadian
background.”

Oppenheim goes on the talk of Samsuiluna, and the time he took control of the crown because his father was sick. On pages 157-158 Oppenheim says;

The years between the death of Hammurapi and the end of the
dynasty saw the formation of the Old Babylonian literary tradition,
the consolidation of the Sumerian legacy within that formulation
of Akkadian Mesopotamian civilization which had evolved in Isn
and Larsh.
Couched in this formulation, the literary tradition was able to
survive the cataclysms of the Dark Age....With the conquest     (A dark age cataclysm?)
of Babylon by the Hittite king Mursili (ca. 1600 B.C.) the               (The Hittites)
Dark Age began, continuing through the reign of the
nineteenth king (Burnaburias II, 1359-1333 B.C.) of the                   (267 years?)
next dynasty, the Kassite, to rule in Babylonia.

Again, we shall not dwell on the numerous problems
concerning the chronology of that period, nor shall we       (Just what are the problems?)
investigate the gradual emergence of a politically important
Babylonia or the tensions that developed between this
country and an increasingly expanding Assyria.”

Note, it took him a long time but Oppenheim finally gave us some figures that actually relate to the beginning and ending of the Dark Age in Mesopotamia. If I read it correctly, the Dark Age begin about -1600 and ended about -1333, or a total of 267 years. This just happens to be very near the date used by the Egyptologists to mark the end of the Middle Kingdom and the beginning of the 2nd Intermediate Period! It is in fact the date that is most often used to date the beginning of the period in Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom and the famous 18th Dynasty, which began an era that has come to make Egypt famous, and era that suspiciously is reported to have ended about -1330 to -1320!

Do you think there may some connection? Actually, if you read enough about the chronology of Mesopotamia, you begin to get the feeling that the “experts” on this area, have to create these “Dark Ages”, out of spite. Out of spite of the “forced chronology” that was thrust upon them by the “experts” of Egyptology!

End of part twenty two.
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  Quote DreamWeaver Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Jun-2010 at 15:56
How many parts are there going to be? 22 thus far, its pretty hefty.


Gonna take me a while to get through it.
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Jun-2010 at 18:38
Actually there are about 362 pages all together!

I had forgotten just what a long essay I had written!

So, unless it is needed due to popular demand, I will not finish it!

As a matter of fact, the last post (22), just finished page 129 of 362!

It is thus a little too much for a site like this! Unless, it was placed in the E-Book section? Who knows?

So, please read it if you like? You know every so called author loves to have fans!    If indeed you would like to read the entire missive then I could send it to you alone? It is a WordPerfect doc., and if you could take it you would also get the extras, like emphasis marks, etc,!

Regards,
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  Quote DreamWeaver Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Jun-2010 at 18:41
I suggest you pause here, or continue to a suitable break point for now and give me a couple of days to go through it appopriately, since you are about 1/3 of the way through.
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01-Jun-2010 at 18:45
I feel I broke it at a suitible point! Will await your words!
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Jun-2010 at 13:59
I still await?
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-Jan-2014 at 17:33
I still await the response of Dream Weaver! Perhaps some our new members will spend the time and effort to read this partial missive of mine?

I doubt it but miracles do happen.

Ron
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15-Jan-2014 at 22:01
I know, it takes a long time to even read or then research and respond!

Ron
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 25-Jan-2014 at 00:38
I would just like to ask if anyone ever read my original post from beginning to the end?

I will pay 20 Groats to anyone who can prove it!

LOL Ron
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  Quote medenaywe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 25-Jan-2014 at 01:16
Do You can?Smile
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  Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 25-Jan-2014 at 02:59
Originally posted by opuslola

I would just like to ask if anyone ever read my original post from beginning to the end?

I will pay 20 Groats to anyone who can prove it!

LOL Ron


I will pay 20 Groats to anyone who can prove it!

Or the equivalent in Shekels?

Ron, I found it hard going at the start, and, quite frankly, gave up.

How about a half page précis of the main points.
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-Jan-2014 at 00:54
I am sorry you failed to follow the "Yellow Brick Road"!! LOL

Yes it is hard to follow and for that I apologize!

Just let me see what I can do? It might well be impossible since all things in my original posting are related!

Ron
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-Jan-2014 at 01:05
My dear Ian! It is almost impossible for me to take a critical look at my own posts! They were written over a decade before today! These views of mine still cognate with me today.

But maybe this small section of some quoted works can make my opinion worthy?

Thus;

"2.6 The Invention of the Dark Ages, and Resulting Disputes.
When Schliemann excavated the famous Shaft Graves at Mycenae in Greece in the 1870's, he found they contained some scarabs bearing the names of Amenhotep III and his wife Queen Tiy. So, when Petrie later found much similar Mycenaean pottery at Pharaoh Akhenaten's short lived capital city of Amarna, between Memphis and Thebes, such was the confidence in the correctness of Egyptian chronology that it was used to date the entire contents of the graves of the Late Helladic age at Mycenae to not later then about 1300. Egyptian dates were also applied at other sites to artefacts and everything else that was obviously contemporary with them, such as architectural and technological designs and developments. Art historians and other scholars noted their obvious and close affinities with those clearly datable in Greece, Syria and Mesopotamia to a period some 500-700 years later. Because of these similarities, many scholars, including Petrie, at first accepted the early Egyptian dates for the start of the Mycenaean era, but concluded that it must have lasted for some 7-800 years, making it flow continuously into the Greek Archaic period of the 7th century. But by the beginning of the 20th century it became clear, again from archaeology and Egyptian dates, that the Mycenaean era ended no later than around 1200BC. According to Greek tradition the Mycenaeans were believed to have been overrun by the Dorians from Northern Greece, but no evidence could be found in Greece for people, alive or dead, to fill the yawning gap between the 12th and 9th centuries. To fill these empty years, the concept of the Dark Ages of Greece was invented.
No rational explanation has ever been offered to explain why the Greeks disappeared, where they went to, why they returned, and how they managed to resume their artistic and cultural development some half a millennium later with no apparent break in continuity. And worse, no Dark Age was heard of among any of the early classical Greek and Roman writers, who lived some two millennia nearer that time. So this idea was not well received by modern art and Greek historians. It led to many heated and bitter academic disputes. Around the turn of the century A S Murray, Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities at the British Museum, excavated a previously unopened tomb of Mycenaean age at Enkomi on Cyprus, and published some of the ivory carvings it contained. These showed such a striking resemblance to later Greek and Assyrian work that he unhesitatingly assigned the tomb and all its contents to the 9th-7th century. His conclusions were based on a long study of a uniquely extensive range of Mediterranean and Mesopotamian sculpture, pottery and other artefacts that daily surrounded him at the British Museum. This gave him no reason whatsoever to believe in a Greek Dark Age. For his disbelief he was roundly blasted as a heretic by Sir Arthur Evans, who believed uncritically in the Egyptian dates. Evans had recently achieved wide public acclaim for his discovery of a mortuary temple at Knossos on Crete [11], which he theatrically presented to the world as a great king's palace. He was not about to have his dates for the Mycenaean and their Minoan predecessors downdated by anybody. His blast, and Egyptian dates, eventually carried the day, and Evans' romantic illusions of antiquity have contributed to the insolubility of many archaeological and art historical problems to this day. Further details of this incident are set out in a paper by Velikovsky entitled 'The Scandal of Enkomi' [12]
Another British Museum based scholar, H R Hall, was totally convinced that some of the items from Mycenae Grave Circle A belonged to c900 or later. He therefore suggested that priests opened up early D18 graves after an interval of some 600yrs, stole nothing, but piously inserted later items. This rather incredible idea not surprisingly received little support, but it illustrates the huge pressure being placed upon archaeologists and art historians, once they were forced to accept Egyptian dates for the Late Helladic period, to invent an explanation for these anachronisms.
Among other scholars disagreeing with these early dates was Cecil Torr. He also felt strongly that the monumental, traditional and genealogical evidence from Egypt and Greece could not justify a Dark Age. In the 1890's he issued a public challenge to Petrie to justify his chronology, and exposed some unsubstantiated assumptions in Petrie's archaeological reports. In 1896 he published Memphis and Mycenae [13] giving a lower Egyptian chronology based solely on monumental evidence. Since, however, Torr did not attempt to dispute that Shishak was Sheshonk I, a major reduction of the chronology was impossible, so the ensuing debate faded out with neither side altering their position."

Thus there exists a lot of stuff in the above! Can any of you find the "stuff" that makes you think?

Ron
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29-Jan-2014 at 23:43
I gave you all just a small portion of my missive for close examination and still have received no reply's!!!

WHY NOT?

Ron
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30-Jan-2014 at 00:03
Here (above) is just one part of my great missive that might well be looked upon by at least one of you, who are really scholars!

Just which one of you has the gonads to actually attempt to denigrate it?

Regards, Ron
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  Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30-Jan-2014 at 01:04
Originally posted by opuslola

I gave you all just a small portion of my missive for close examination and still have received no reply's!!!

WHY NOT?

Ron


Sorry mate, didn't realise you were holding your breath waiting for my reply. I don't have sufficient knowledge of the Greeks to disagree with you. One comment I will make is in relation to your statement of the Greek "disappearance" for 300 years or so. I don't reckon they disappeared. They were still there but some historians have focused on Rome or other areas during that period as perhaps the Greeks were going through a fairly static period in their culture.

My special area of interest is the Caucasus, Pontic Steppe areas and their cultures, along with the Celts. I'm also currently reading about the origins of the PIE languages.

Regards

Ian
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30-Jan-2014 at 21:34
Dear Ian, I tend to disregard any mention of any "Dark ages" anywhere! It is merely the mess up in chronology that makes them appear! That is misplacements of era's, or more correctly the "duplications of era's and regimes", etc.!

But mostly it was the forced acceptance of the Egyptian Chronology over that of the Mesopotamian chronology!    

Fomenko has this part correct!

Ron

Edited by opuslola - 30-Jan-2014 at 21:43
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