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Slaves in the US

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    Posted: 23-May-2007 at 08:07
This is perhaps a strange question but I will still ask it.

Was slavery legally confined to blacks? Considering the flourishing slavemarkets in North Africa and the Ottoman empire was there anything in the law that prevented the imports of non-black slaves from this area?
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  Quote Cywr Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-May-2007 at 08:49
IIRC, a sort of mild non-lifetime slavery called indentured servitude was practiced with people from just about any bacground.
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  Quote pekau Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-May-2007 at 20:20
There was a news recently about an American couple running perfume industry to possesses a Indonesian female. Poor lady... 
     
   
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  Quote Paul Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-May-2007 at 22:19
Originally posted by Vukovlad

This is perhaps a strange question but I will still ask it.

Was slavery legally confined to blacks? Considering the flourishing slavemarkets in North Africa and the Ottoman empire was there anything in the law that prevented the imports of non-black slaves from this area?
 
To answer this you would have to define what a black is. American slaves could be half white half black, a quarter black and 1/8th. Would you define a slave 1/8 black, 7/8 white as white or black? US law considered them black.
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  Quote Kamikaze 738 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-May-2007 at 22:44
Or maybe black as in people who have ancestors from Sub-Africa...
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  Quote Constantine XI Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 26-May-2007 at 23:20
I'm also interested in whether enslavement of Amerindian or Hispanic peoples occurred in the USA.
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  Quote Emperor Barbarossa Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Jun-2007 at 19:18
Originally posted by Cywr

IIRC, a sort of mild non-lifetime slavery called indentured servitude was practiced with people from just about any bacground.

Yes, I remember reading that it was used by the British government to get rid of Scottish Covenanter and Jacobite prisoners during the 17th and 18th centuries.

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  Quote Aelfgifu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11-Jun-2007 at 04:33
Originally posted by Emperor Barbarossa

Originally posted by Cywr

IIRC, a sort of mild non-lifetime slavery called indentured servitude was practiced with people from just about any bacground.

Yes, I remember reading that it was used by the British government to get rid of Scottish Covenanter and Jacobite prisoners during the 17th and 18th centuries.
 
All sorts of prisoners I think. The ones punished by banishement to Virginia or Australia by the government were not just dropped off to run free, they were sold into the service of plantage-owners and business people there, generally for a fixed time, like ten or twenty years. If their owners allowed them a small income of some sorts, they could try and buy themselves out before the end if the indenture. At the end of it they would be free, but still bound by the banishment not to return to Britain, on pain of death. Especially in Australia, there are still very precise records of these people. Quite a few Australians should be able to find their forefathers there, but I understand that, until recently, most Australians were still a bit too ashamed to research their criminal ancestors past. Only now it is becoming a bit more popular...

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  Quote Aelfgifu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11-Jun-2007 at 04:46

In respect to the original question above: As far as I know, actual slavery was resticted to non-white people. Natives of North and South America were also occasionally made into slaves, but apparently were not suitable for the hard work. According to records, they tended to die to quickly. So the decision to bring in black people from Africa was a horribly practical one.


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  Quote Cywr Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Jun-2007 at 10:25
One of the first ships to offload African slaves to a British colony also contained European women, who were sold as indentured servants.
Mail-order bride services are indeed very very old. The East India company even sold a few attractive European women to Indian princes willing to pay the price.
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  Quote Guests Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Jun-2007 at 23:59
Originally posted by Aelfgifu

In respect to the original question above: As far as I know, actual slavery was resticted to non-white people. Natives of North and South America were also occasionally made into slaves, but apparently were not suitable for the hard work. According to records, they tended to die to quickly. So the decision to bring in black people from Africa was a horribly practical one.

 
 
That's not precise.
 
 
Native Americans live as much as Africans in conditions of slavery. You should know that in the Dutch, British and French Caribbean a field slave survived circa of six month in average. In Brazil the survival was little longer but not by much.
 
The difference is that the supply of African slaves was a lot more massive and people was replaced while dying! When Native died whole regions become depopulated!
 
In fact, in the silver mines of Bolivia all the workers were Native Americans, because Amerindians of the Andes could stand hard work at high altitude better than most people of the planet, including Africans.
 
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  Quote elenos Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12-Jul-2007 at 23:39
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  Quote think Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Jul-2007 at 03:13
Australians were still a bit too ashamed to research their criminal ancestors past. Only now it is becoming a bit more popular


Well not all Australians are decendents of crims. Besides stealing a loaf a bread is hardly gangster, so looking back into your past isnt going to bring much pride.


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  Quote elenos Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Jul-2007 at 04:34

Im an Australian without a convict past! To keep the Aussie flag flying we do have Australian history. The convicts had their moments and are nothing to ashamed about. When the first Australian Fleet landed it was pouring with rain. In the confusion of setting up tents and landing supplies the convicts, male and female, raided the rum stores got drunk and disappeared for a romp in the bushes. The guards were unable to restrain them and so threw down their rifles to join the convicts in the booze and birds party. Sydney Cove had a right christening from the first white men that night! Some say it has remained much the same ever since.



Edited by elenos - 13-Jul-2007 at 04:39
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  Quote Aelfgifu Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Jul-2007 at 07:38
If anyone thought my words were an accusation or a moral judgement, I am sorry, that was not the intent. It was meant neutrally. Of course there are a lot of people in Australia who are not decended fron the first wave of exiles, and of course a lot of these exiles were hardly criminal within our defenition of the word.
 
Indeed, in England in the late 18 early 19th century, death by hanging or exile to Australia or Virginia in America was a normal punishment for any crime involving the theft of a value of 5 shilling and above. Indeed, for steling a spoon, you could get hanged. 95% of the countries wealth was in the hands of 5% of the population. With such a huge poor mass, there is little surprise theft was a way of life for many, they had no other option.
 
And for many, exile to Australia must have provided them with a new start. Here was the chance to start a business, or a farm, and become respectable. Some of their stories are amazing, like the one of a fifteen year old conviced of stealing a necklace who was exiled, married well, set up a number of her own businesses, including a brewery and a ferryservice, and had 15 kids in the process. She can be called one of the Eves of Australia. Respect to her.
 
That does not change the fact that until recently, there was surprisingly litte genealogical research done in Australia, even though the very good records make it quite worthwile. Hopefully this will change, I am sure there is a lot of intersting information to be found on the history Australias first ties with Europe.


Edited by Aelfgifu - 13-Jul-2007 at 07:40

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  Quote elenos Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Jul-2007 at 09:02
Aelgifu, I didn't notice anything you said was out of line. I just responded at  the chance to mention of Australia and show off a bit of our history. Like America we were a settlement country at the same period, but we never at any time had black slaves.

Australians cheerfully insult each other about their ancestry on a regular basis. We call each other bastards and that is only being affectionate. Did you see the movie of how Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid wanted to go to Australia before their last shoot out with the army in Boliva? They would have been right at home here.

I'm off topic but being me and talking of gender we had a lot of women who did well, let's think now, Edith Cavell is a legend in nursing for one. In WWI she nursed both sides on the front line in Belgium. She kept on nursing after being captured by the Germans, but organized brilliant and daring escapes for those she nursed. She refused to leave herself and when found out she was taken from the hospital put up against the wall and shot.



Edited by elenos - 13-Jul-2007 at 09:08
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  Quote Maharbbal Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13-Jul-2007 at 09:07
In Quebec they used black and native slaves alike the latter being brought by rival tribes.
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  Quote LeopoldPhilippe Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Jul-2015 at 20:25
In 1670 the Governor of Virginia said that he had 2,000 Negro and 6,000 white slaves.
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  Quote Centrix Vigilis Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 10-Jul-2015 at 02:03
Slavery as an 'international' form of trade and commerce was outlawed on 2 March 1807; effective 1 Jan 08.

Based on Virginia statutes many states continued the inclusion of children viz a matriarchal association; as slaves.


'National' trade and or exchange coupled with the institution as a whole, was not prohibited until the passage of the 13th Amendment-1865.

Miscegenation laws prohibiting relations between races were initiated approx. 1630. These laws and others adopted; even included provisions that criminalized thru fines and or corporal punishments, the unions and or sexual associations-relations between races.

Although not a concern as significant by the mid 1840s' Indentured servitude in the US did not officially end in many places until as late as 1898 (Hawaii).

Miscegenation laws and past case precedents criminalizing the participants remained in place; well into the mid 20th ce.


''The Civil Rights Act of 1866 made blacks full U.S. citizens (and this repealed the Dred Scott decision). In 1868, the 14th amendment granted full U.S. citizenship to African-Americans. The 15th amendment, ratified in 1870, extended the right to vote to black males.''


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African-American_history


Native Americans: The 14th Amendment was not inclusive for Natives; as a result of the Natives identification as sovereign nations. Consequently The 'Indian Citizenship Act' of 1924 corrected this...in part as there still remained disqualifiers. Coupled with the 'Nationality Act' of 1940 and revisons of varying state statutes. Natives were thus finally recognized as full citizens with the right to vote by 1948.



Edited by Centrix Vigilis - 10-Jul-2015 at 02:06
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  Quote EverythingBefore1812 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09-Apr-2017 at 18:07
Black: In addition to other answers above, In 17th Century New Netherland and New York in America there are records at the State Library that record; Name of slave, ethnicity, sex and occasionally personal items the slaved owned. The majority (over 50%) were "African" (Angola or Congo) and "Creole" (Born in the Caribbean). 

India: You'll have to google, but someone did record a good size number of people from India or Island near India brought over as slaves in the 17th century. 

Indigenous: Some Slaves were Native American. Usually female. Sometimes the female had children, but for some reason the children are listed as "her children" rather than just as a slave. So, it is unknown if the Indigenous children inherited the slave status. Sometimes, it is an indigenous child. (I would say, I find slaves in households in for instance NYC in the 17th century 1 out of every 10 - 12 households. 

White: In 1664 (?), The English invaded New Netherland, General Carr took European persons hostage, (<40 people or so - mostly or all men) down to Virginia and sold them into slavery. They were white slaves. The sale is documented. Whether or not they were eventually freed I could not find. 

But from all the records I have seen so far (200-300) my best guess is that 80% or more of those that are slaves from 1618 to 1700 in New Netherland and New York were from Angola, Congo, Creole, and neighboring regions. Under the Dutch I did not see any Half-African-Half-European slaves. When there is an interracial marriage under the Dutch the children appear to be freed, under English I do see them, and they do not appear of of been freed. The Slaves often took as a surname the nation of origin such as "De Angola" or "Anthoni Congo". When the slaves married in the local Churches, the wife retained her first and last name, and their children were named and baptized after family members or godparents plus the father's surname. 
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