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April 5- Rosenbergs sentenced to death

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  Quote Komnenos Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Topic: April 5- Rosenbergs sentenced to death
    Posted: 05-Apr-2006 at 03:48
April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). There are 270 days remaining.

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  Quote Dark Age Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Apr-2006 at 12:27
1242   

Russian troops repel an invasion by Teutonic knights.

The Battle of the Ice also known as the Battle on Lake Peipus or the Battle of Lake Peipus (Russian: Ледовое побоище, German: Schlacht auf dem Peipussee, Estonian: Jlahing), took place in 1242. It was one of the more significant defeats sustained by Roman Catholic crusaders until the Battle of Grunwald in 1410. It effectively marked the end of the Northern Crusade against Orthodox Novgorod and other Russian territories in the aftermath of the conquest of Estonia.

In the spring of 1242, the Teutonic knights defeated a reconnaissance detachment of Novgorodians about 20 km south of the fortress of Dorpat, now Tartu. The knights, lead by the Prince-Bishop of Dorpat Hermann I of Buxhoeveden and auxiliary troops of local Ugaunian Estonians then met with Alexander's forces by the narrow strait that connects the northern and southern parts of Lake Peipus (Lake Peipus proper with Lake Pskovskoe) on April 5, 1242. Alexander, intending to fight in a place of his own choosing, retreated in efforts to draw the often over-confident Crusaders to the frozen lake.

The Crusader forces likely numbered somewhere in the area of 2,000 to 2,500 soldiers. Most of the Knights were German, although there also were a large number of Danes, and the army also included large numbers of Swedish and Estonian mercenaries. The Russian force in contrast numbered around 6,000 soldiers.

According to contemporary Russian chronicles, after hours of hand-to-hand fighting, Alexander ordered the left and right wings of his archers to enter the battle. The knights by this time were exhausted from the constant fighting and struggling with the slippery surface of the frozen lake. The Crusaders started to retreat in disarray deeper onto the ice, and the appearance of the fresh Russian cavalry made them run for their lives. Under the weight of their heavy armour, the thin ice started to collapse, and many knights drowned. Only "the Grand Master, some bishops, and a handful of mounted knights" managed to return back to Dorpat (Tartu) after the battle.

The Battle of the Ice has been described as an event of major significance, especially by Russian historians. The knights' defeat at the hands of Alexander's forces prevented the crusaders from retaking Pskov, the linchpin of their eastern crusade. The Novgorodians had succeeded in defending Russian territory, and the Teutonic crusaders never mounted another serious challenge eastward.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_on_Lake_Peipus

1614    Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe.

1792   

George Washington casts the first presidential veto.

On April 5, 1792, George Washington vetoed an apportionment bill entitled: An Act for an apportionment of Representatives among the several States according to the first enumeration. An account of this event can be found at The Papers of George Washington web site (at the University of Virginia).

President Washington vetoed the amendment on constitutional grounds and given that he presided over the Constitutional Convention his opinions on this subject should be considered. Besides being historically noteworthy, President Washingtons rationale for his veto also raises questions about the constitutionality of the current apportionment scheme.

His primary objection to the proposed amendment was that there is no one proportion or divisor which, applied to the respective numbers of the States will yield the number and allotment of representatives proposed by the Bill.  The relevance of this today is that the number and allotment that results from the current fixed allocation of 435 seats does not pass the test established by President Washington. In other words, there is no one proportion or divisor which would yield the current allotment of representatives.

On March 6th, 1792, the Second Congress passed An Act for an apportionment of Representatives among the several States according to the first enumeration.  On March 26th this bill was presented to President Washington for his approval; he vetoed it on April 5th.

The primary objection raised by President Washington is that there be one proportion or divisor which, applied to the respective numbers of the States will yield the number and allotment of representatives proposed by the Bill.

This is a very important point as it explicitly states the intended methodology of the time with respect to how the House is to be apportioned; i.e., that there be one proportion or divisor.

Moreover, the requirement for one divisor is, quite simply, the mathematical description for achieving what is now known as the one-person-one-vote principle.  http://www.thirty-thousand.org/pages/first_veto.htm

1843    Queen Victoria proclaims Hong Kong a British crown colony.

1861   

Gideon Wells, the Secretary of the Navy issues official orders for the blockade of the entire southern coastline of the United States (which stretched to over 3,500 miles), in order to weaken the Confederacy economically.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaconda_Plan

1865    As the Confederate army approaches Appomattox, it skirmishes with Union forces at Amelia Springs and Paine's Cross Road.

1908    The Japanese Army reaches Yalu River as Russians retreat.

1919    Eamon de Valera becomes president of Ireland.

1930   

Mahatma Ghandi defies British law by making salt in India instead of buying it from the British.

In an effort to amend the salt tax without breaking the law, on March 2, 1930 Gandhi wrote to the Viceroy, Lord Irwin: "If my letter makes no appeal to your heart, on the eleventh day of this month I shall proceed with such co-workers of the Ashram as I can take, to disregard the provisions of the Salt Laws. I regard this tax to be the most iniquitous of all from the poor man's standpoint. As the Independence movement is essentially for the poorest in the land, the beginning will be made with this evil."

On March 12, 1930, Gandhi and approximately 78 male satyagrahis set out, on foot, for the coastal village of Dandi, Gujarat, some 240 miles from their starting point in Sabarmati, a journey which was to last 23 days. Virtually every resident of each city along this journey watched the great procession, which was at least two miles in length. On April 6th, Gandhi raised a lump of mud and salt (some say just a pinch, some say just a grain) and declared, "With this, I am shaking the foundations of the British Empire." He then boiled it in seawater to make the commodity which no Indian could legally producesalt.

He implored his thousands of followers to begin to make salt wherever, along the seashore, "was most convenient and comfortable" to them. A "war" on the salt tax was to be continued during the National Week, that is, up to the thirteenth of April. There was also a simultaneous boycott of British made cloth/goods. Salt was sold, "illegally", all over the seacoast of India. A pinch of salt from Gandhi himself sold for 1,600 rupees, perhaps $750 dollars at the time. In reaction to this, the British government had incarcerated over sixty thousand people at the end of the month.

In Peshawar the satyagraha was led by a Muslim Pashto disciple of Gandhi's, Ghaffar Khan. Ghaffar Khan had trained an army of non-violent activists, called Khudai Khitmatgar. On April 23, 1930, Ghaffar Khan was arrested. A crowd of Khudai Khitmatgar gathered in Peshawar's Kissa Khani [Storytellers] Bazaar. The British opened fire on the unarmed crowd and shot hundreds of Khudai Khitmatgar and other demonstrators. One British Indian Army regiment refused to fire at the crowds. According to some accounts, the crowd acted in accord with their training in non-violence. As people in the front fell, those behind came forward to expose themselves to the firing. The shooting continued from 11 AM until 5 PM.

On the night of May 4th, Gandhi was sleeping in a cot under a mango tree, at a village near Dandi. Several ashramites slept near him. Soon after midnight the District Magistrate of Surat drove up with two Indian officers and thirty heavily-armed constables. He woke Gandhi by shining a torch in his face, and arrested him under a regulation of 1827.

The effects of the salt march were felt across India. Thousands of people made salt, or bought illegal salt. As the march mobilized many new followers from all of Indian society, it came to the world's attention. Thus, tens of thousands of Indians were arrested for buying and selling salt illegally; however, the Viceroy ordered his troops to arrest Gandhi last. After Gandhi's release from prison, he continued to work towards Indian independence, which was achieved in August, 1947. Dandi was a key turning point in that struggle.

1941    German commandos secure docks along the Danube River in preparation for Germany's invasion of the Balkans.

1943    The British 8th Army attacks the next blocking position of the retreating Axis forces at Wadi Akarit.

1951   

Americans Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are sentenced to death for espionage.

The Rosenbergs were convicted on March 29, 1951, and sentenced to death under section 2 of the Espionage Act, 50 U.S. Code 32 (now 18 U.S. Code 794), which prohibits transmitting or attempting to transmit to a foreign government information "relating to the national defense", by judge Irving Kaufman on April 5. The conviction helped to fuel Senator Joseph McCarthy's investigations into "anti-American activities" by US citizens. While their devotion to the Communist cause was well documented, they denied the spying charges even as they faced the electric chair.

The couple were the only two American civilians to be executed for espionage-related activity during the Cold War. In imposing the death penalty, Judge Kaufman noted that he held them responsible not only for espionage but also for the deaths of the Korean War:

    I believe your conduct in putting into the hands of the Russians the A-bomb [...] has already caused, in my opinion, the Communist aggression in Korea, with the resultant casualties exceeding 50,000 and who knows but that millions more of innocent people may pay the price of your treason.

Their case has been at the center of the controversy over communism in the United States ever since, with supporters steadfastly maintaining that their conviction was an egregious example of persecution typical of the "hysteria" of those times (see Red Scare, McCarthyism) and likening it to the witch hunts that marred Salem and medieval Europe (a comparison that provided the inspiration for Arthur Miller's critically acclaimed play, The Crucible).

At the time, some Americans believed both Rosenbergs were innocent or received too harsh a punishment, and a grass-roots campaign was started to try to stop the couple's execution. Other Americans felt that the couple got what they deserved. Pope Pius XII appealed to President Dwight D. Eisenhower to spare the couple, but he refused on February 11, 1953, and all other appeals were also unsuccessful.

The couple were executed in the electric chair on June 19, 1953. Reports of the execution state that Julius died after the first application of electricity, but Ethel did not succumb immediately, and was subjected to two more electrical charges before being pronounced dead. The chair was designed for a man, and Ethel Rosenberg was a petite woman; this discrepancy resulted, it is claimed, in the electrodes fitting poorly. Eyewitness testimony describes smoke rising from her head.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethel_and_Julius_Rosenburg

1955    Winston Churchill resigns as British prime minister.

1986    A bomb explodes in a West Berlin disco packed with American soldiers.

Born on April 5

1588    Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (Leviathan).
1827    Joseph Lister, English physician, founded the idea of using antiseptics during surgery.
1839    Robert Smalls, black congressman from South Carolina, 1875-87.
1856    Booker T. Washington, former slave, educator, founded the Tuskegee Institute.
1858    Washington Atlee Burpee, founded the world's largest mail-order seed company.
1900    Spencer Tracy, actor (Adam's Rib, Guess Who's Coming to Dinner).
1908    Bette Davis, film actress (Jezebel, All About Eve).
1916    Gregory Peck, film actor (To Kill a Mockingbird).
1917    Robert Bloch, novelist (Psycho).
1920    Arthur Hailey, (Hotel, Airport).
1923    Nguyen Van Thieu, president of South Vietnam.

http://www.historynet.com/tih/tih0405/
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  Quote morticia Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Apr-2006 at 13:24
Also occurring today in Women's History:

1614 - Pocahontas married John Rolfe

1758 - Mary Jemison ("White Woman of the Genesee") - Mary Jemison was captured by Shawnee Indians and French soldiers in Pennsylvania on April 5, 1758. She was later sold to Senecas who took her to Ohio. She was adopted by the Senecas and renamed Dehgewanus. She married, and went with her husband and their young son to Seneca territory in western New York. Her husband died on the journey. Dehgewanus remarried there, and had six more children. The American Army destroyed the Seneca village during the American Revolutionary War as part of a retaliation for the Cherry Valley massacre, led by Senecas including Dehgewanus' husband who were allied with the British. Dehgewanus and her children fled, joined later by her husband. They lived in relative peace in the Gardeau Flats, and she was known as the "Old White Woman of the Genesee." By 1797 she was a large landowner. She was naturalized as an American citizen in 1817. In 1823 a writer, James Seaver, interviewed her and published the next year "The Life and Times of Mrs. Mary Jemison". When the Senecas sold the land to which they'd moved, they reserved land for her use. She sold the land in 1831 and moved to a reservation near Buffalo, where she died on September 19, 1833. In 1847 her descendants had her re-buried near her Genesee River home, and a marker stands there in Letchworth Park.

http://www.letchworthparkhistory.com/jem.html


Mary Jemison
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  Quote Behi Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 05-Apr-2006 at 19:22
16 Farvardin,   Mehr = Friendship day

52:
Belash (
Vologases I of Parthia) coronation day, Mahestan parliament appointed him as Shahansha of Iran.
He gave Armenia kingdom to his brother Tirdad (Tiridates).

Statue of Tiridates I of Armenia in the park of the Palace of Versailles.

Vologases I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 51 to 78. Son of Vonones II by a Greek concubine, he succeeded his father in 51. He gave the kingdom of Media Atropatene to his brother Pacorus II, and occupied Armenia for another brother, Tiridates. This led to a long war with the Roman Empire (5463), which was ably conducted by the Roman general Corbulo.

The power of Vologases was weakened by an attack of the Dahae and Sacae nomads, a rebellion of the Hyrcanians, and the usurpation of his son Vardanes II. According to Josephus, he was prevented from attacking the vassal king of Adiabene by an invasion of the eastern nomads. At last a peace was concluded, by which Tiridates was acknowledged as king of Armenia, but had to become a vassal of the Romans; he went to Rome, where Roman emperor Nero gave him back the diadem; from that time an Arsacid dynasty ruled in Armenia under Roman supremacy.

Vologases was satisfied with this result, and honored the memory of Nero (Suetonius Nero, 57), though he stood in good relations with Vespasian also, to whom he offered an army of 40,000 archers in the war against Vitellius. Soon afterwards the Alans, a great nomadic tribe beyond the Caucasus, invaded Media and Armenia; Vologases applied in vain for help to Vespasian. It appears that the Persian losses in the east also could not be repaired; Hyrcania remained an independent kingdom. Vologases died in about 78 and was succeeded by his son Vologases II.

His reign is marked by a decided reaction against Hellenism; he built Vologesocerta (Balashkert) in the neighborhood of Ctesiphon with the intention of drawing to this new town the inhabitants of Seleucia on the Tigris. Another town founded by him is Vologesias on a canal of the Euphrates, south of Babylon (near Hirah). On some of his coins the initials of his name appear in Aramaic letters.

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vologases_I_of_Parthia

1912: Deadly earthquake in BoeinZahra near Qazvin province

1941: Parvin Etesami, The famous female Iranian poet death

Parvin Etesami (in Persian: پروین اعتصامی; ‎ 19061941), is a famous Iranian poetess.

Parvin was the daughter of Yusuf Etesami Ashtiani (a.k.a Etesam ol-Molk). Born in 1906 in Tabriz, she studied at an American Girls College in Iran. She is considered the greatest Iranian poetess ever. Although she had a short life, she became famous after her works were published. She died in 1941 by typhus at the age of 35, and was buried in Qom, Iran. She changes her last name to reflect her fater's position, as E'tesami, or political governor.

In her short life, she managed to achieve great fame amongst Iranians. She was well respected in all circles of life, not just because of her brilliant and revolutionary works, but for her refined manners and the free spirit that she possessed.

Parvin started her poetry career at the young age of 9. She developed a style for expressing peoples pain by making comparisons to natural events. The political events in Iran had a great influence on her way of writing. One of her remarkable series, called Drunk but Aware (Mast vali Hoshyar), won admiration from everyone involved in romantic poetry in Iran.

Parvin is considered the greatest Persian poetess of the Persian classical style. Loneliness and seclusion from social activities - the lot of almost all Iranian women in her day - added to the sad experiences of a sensitive and tender soul and made her the most sincere voice of cruelty of the rulers and wealthy landlords. She knew of the corruption of the leading authorities in the judiciary and in the clergy. Her work, about 210 poems, reflects the reality of life in her day and offers moral solutions.

Although her technique in poetry is unquestionable, E'tesaami's language is at times archaic and she very much seems to be out of touch with the realities of modern life. She mostly repeated the cliches of the Persian traditional poetry as the subjects of her poems. This can be traced to her private education at home with her father, which meant that although she received a first-class eduation, she was almost completely sheltered from the world outside. This shelter broke when she married and had to live for a while in another city. The shock of the ouside world was too much for her fragile self to handle and she divorced and died soon afterwards.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parvin_Etesami

http://www.iranianshistoryonthisday.com/FARSI.ASP?u=&I1. x=32&I1.y=15&GD=5&GM=4


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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Apr-2012 at 20:23
1794: French revolution Georges Danton executed
Me Grimlock not nice Dino! Me bash brains!
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  Quote Nick1986 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 04-Apr-2013 at 19:35
Jacob Rogeeven discovers Easter Island


Edited by Nick1986 - 04-Apr-2013 at 19:36
Me Grimlock not nice Dino! Me bash brains!
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  Quote opuslola Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Jan-2014 at 01:38
Also occurring today in my woman's history, I am commanded to get some more Pee_pads! That is most of my life!~ LOL

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  Quote toyomotor Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 23-Jan-2014 at 01:41
Originally posted by opuslola

Also occurring today in my woman's history, I am commanded to get some more Pee_pads! That is most of my life!~ LOL

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  Quote arrowzer Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02-Apr-2015 at 04:39
The information is very interesting. You make me understand. It has a lot of things happened on April 5.
Thanks for sharing this.
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